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THE EARTH 
IN THE UNIVERSE 



Edited by V. V. Fedynskii 



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TRANSLATED FROM RUSSIAN 

Published for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S.A. 

and the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. 

by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations 




TECH LIBRARY KAFB, NM 



Geographical Series ' '"" "'" '!!" Tac. m 

_ r. , , UUbODiJn 

Geograficheskaya senya 



THE EARTH IN THE UNIVERSE 

(Zemlya vo vselennoi) 



Edited by V. V. Fedynskii 

Editorial Board: I. Ya. Ballakh, A. L. Chizhevskii, 
V. V. Piotrovskii, and N. I. Taranov 



Izdatel'stvo Sotsial'no-ekonomicheskoi Literatury 
"MYSL"' 



Moskva 1964 



Translated from Russian 



Israel Program for Scientific Translations 
Jerusalem 1968 



NASA TT F-345 
TT 66-51025 

Published Pursuant to an Agreement with 
THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 

and 
THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Copyright © 1968 

Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Ltd. 

IPSTCat. No. 1419 



Translated and Edited by IPST Staff 



Printed in Jerusalem by S. Monson 
Binding: Wiener Bindery Ltd. , Jerusalem 



Available from the 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information 

Springfield, Va. 22151 



/II/13/8 



Table of Contents 

INTRODUCTION 1 

E. T. Faddeev. Some characteristic aspects of modern science 6 



Part One 
MATTER AND PHYSICAL FIELDS 

D. D. Ivanenko. The structure of matter and attempts to create a unified 

theory of matter 21 

Yu. S. Vladimirov. New developments in the study of gravitation .... 56 



Part Two 
STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE 

V. A. Am b art sum y an. Galaxies and galactic evolution 62 

B. A. Vorontsov-Vel'yaminov. Facts and puzzles concerning the 

structure of galaxies 80 

V. S. Brezhnev. New ideas in cosmology and astrophysics 84 

L Ya. Ballakh. The role of explosive phenomena in cosmogonic processes . 88 

S. S. Gamburg. Some regularities showing similarity of the solar and 

planetary systems 94 

S. B. Pikel'ner. The evolution and dynamics of the Sun 104 

V. V. Fedynskii. Some problems involving both the Earth sciences and 

space sciences 113 



Part Three 
STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH 

B. L. Lichkov. Symmetry features of the Earth associated with the 

gravitational field, structural geology, and hydrogeology . . . 122 

T. D. Reznic henko and S. D. Re zn ic he nko. Some regularities 

in the evolution of the Earth 138 

P. S. Veitsman. Deep seismic soundings and studies of the structure 

of the Earth's crust in the USSR 189 

V. A. Tsaregradskii. Regular long-period variations in the velocity 
of the Earth's rotation and related deformations of the Earth's 
crust 194 

G. F. Lungersgauzen. Periodic climatic variations in the Earth's 

geological past 212 

V. V. Piotrovskii. Application of morphometry to studies of the 

Earth's relief and structure 228 

G. G. Khizanashvili. Formation of submarine valleys in the light 

of the dynamics of the Earth's axis 244 

S. Yu. Brodskaya. Paleomagnetic research in the USSR 258 

V. B. Neiman. A comparative description of hypsographic data of 

some planets 264 



Part Four 
SOLAR ACTIVITY AND THE EARTH 

V, V. Arsent'ev. Giant solar flares in 1961 271 

S. L Isaev. On the existence of a region of enhanced auroral activity to 

the south of the zone of maximum auroral frequency 275 

A. L, Chizhevskii. One aspect of the specific bioactive or 

Z-radiation of the Sun 280 

A. L, Chizhevskii. Physicochemical reactions as indicators of cosmic 

phenomena 308 

N. A. Shul'ts. Effect of variations in solar activity on the number of 

white blood cells 316 

N. S. Shcherbinovskii. The rhythms of prolific breeding of organisms 

determined by cyclic solar activity 331 



''II IIIBBIIIII 



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Part Five 
BIOSPHERE OF THE EARTH AND PHYSICAL FIELDS 

M.S. Eigenson, Abundance of organic matter in the universe .... 345 

A. L. Chizhevskii. Atmospheric electricity and life 348 

B. D, Vasil'ev. Atmospheric air, life, and the blood 364 

A. A. Per edel ' ski i . Penetrating radiations and radioecology .... 369 

A. V. Krylov. Magnetotropism in plants 387 

Part Six 
HISTORY OF SCIENCE 

A. L. Chizhevskii. K. E. Tsiolkovskii's world priority 394 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 402 



INTRODUCTION 

The space age was initiated on 4 October 1957, when the first Soviet 
artificial satellite was launched. Then, between 1961 and 1963, Gagarin, 
Titov, Nikolaev, Popovich, Bykovskii, and Tereshkova made their heroic 
entering into space. As a consequence, the science of the Earth is now 
going into a new phase of reappraisal and vigorous development. The 
Earth viewed from interplanetary space, the application of the advances in 
physics and modern technology to the study of the Earth's deep interior and 
the remote fringes of the terrestrial atmosphere, the incorporation of new 
disciplines into the science of our planet — all these call for a fresh approach 
to many seemingly familiar phenomena. 

This book presents a series of articles, covering a broad range of 
subjects, by a group of Soviet scientists writing on some of the problems 
of modern science, such as the structure of matter, the nature of physical 
fields, the formation and evolution of the Earth and the universe, solar 
activity and the Earth, and the interaction between the Earth's biosphere 
and physical fields. Some facts from the history of science which are 
related to the "cosmization" of natural science (the emergence of science 
into the reaches of outer space) are also presented. Many of the ideas 
expressed in the articles of this collection draw upon the works of 
great Russian scientists of the past, such as K. E. Tsiolkovskii and 
V.I. Vernadskii, whose topical interest has been revived with the onset of 
the space age. 

E.T. Faddeev's article is a philosophical essay aiming to summarize 
the contemporary stage of development of science, which is at present going 
through a period of transition, and which has come to play a vital role in 
human affairs. This period of transition is characterized by the "cosmi- 
zation" of science, which has provided man with the means of lauriching 
himself into space and mastering cosmic forces. 

In Part One, "Matter and Physical Fields", the noted Soviet physicist 
D.D. Ivanenko presents in his article "The Structure of Matter and Attempts 
to Create a Unified Field Theory" a brief review of modern conceptions on 
the structure of matter and on the nature of physical fields. This article 
is presented with the article of Vladimirov, in which the author discusses 
the proceedings of the First Soviet Conference on Gravitation (1961) and 
dwells on the modern views on gravitation. Science is now striving to 
determine the link between the forces of universal attraction and the 
innermost properties of matter residing inside nucleons, and the article 
traces out the course of research in this field. 

The structure and evolution of the universe are discussed in the articles 
of Part Two. This part of the book opens with an article by the eminent 
Soviet astrophysicist. Academician V. A. Ambartsumyan, who describes 
in a simple and lively style the fundamental facts which have 



crystallized into what is known as extragalactic astronomy. This field 
comprises the study of the remotest regions of the universe, as far as the 
human eye, aided by modern powerful telescopes, can see. The investiga- 
tion of these "limits" of the universe brings up enormously complex 
cosmological problems hinting at a general theory on the structure of 
cosmic space. A point of great interest is the description of the nonstation- 
ary processes that take place in the remote regions of the universe and 
indicate that the latter is in a continual state of development and trans- 
formation. 

B.A. Vorontsov-Vel'yaminov points out in his article that some processes 
of this kind suggest the possible existence of unknown forces which relegate 
to the background the gravitational forces that are all-powerful in our 
region of the universe. 

The problems of extragalactic astronomy were discussed at the meeting 
of the Commission on Cosmogony of the Astronomical Council of the USSR 
Academy of Sciences (1961). This aspect is treated by V. S. Brezhnev. 

In I. Ya. Ballakh's article the idea is put forward that explosive (non- 
stationary) processes have played an important part in the formation and 
development of the solar system, 

S. S. Gamburg describes an interesting similarity in the structure of the 
solar and planetary systems which, in the author's opinion, bespeaks the 
fact that these systems have been formed in stages. S. B. Pikel'ner gives 
an up-to-date account of the nuclear reactions considered to be the source 
of the Sun's radiation. He also discusses in his article the evolution of the 
Sun. Proceeding from some examples involving basic problems in geology, 
geophysics, geochemistry, and astronomy, V.V. Fedynskii points to the 
unexpected ways in which these sciences come into contact when projects 
of comprehensive study are contemplated. 

Part Three, the longest in the collection, deals with the structure and 
development of the Earth. In his comprehensive article "The Symmetry 
of the Earth as Related to its Gravitational Field, Tectonics, and Hydro- 
geology", B. L. Lichkov examines the interaction between the variations 
in the rate of rotation of the Earth and the motions occurring in the 
terrestrial crust. The article underscores the unity of the three envelopes 
of the Earth (lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere), and it attributes 
the zonality of their structure to the action of centrifugal forces. Of 
special interest are the author's discussions on the formation of river- 
beds and on subsurface drainage, conditioned by the processes under 
consideration. T.D. and S.D. Reznichenko have written a substantial article 
Einalyzing the connection between the diurnal rotation of the Earth and 
tectonic and climatic processes. The authors have some original ideas 
concerning the transport of sedimentary rocks by rivers, which they inter- 
pret as a process counteracting the concurrent variations in the rate of 
rotation of the Earth. The article presents a novel view on the course of 
events in the Quaternary period, which will no doubt prove most interesting. 

Deep seismic sounding constitutes at present the most effective method 
for studying the structure of the terrestrial crust and the upper mantle of the 
Earth. Soviet scientific achievements in this field are described by P. S. 
Veitsman, in an article giving a r^sumS of the findings of the Conference 
on Deep Seismic Sounding convened by the Academy of Sciences of the 
USSR in 1960. 



1 



V. A. Tsaregradskii writes an interesting article in which he sustains 
the viewpoint of investigators who claim that the variations in the rate of 
rotation of the Earth constitute one of the main causative factors of tectonic 
processes. The author considers that the rate of rotation of the Earth is 
regulated by the position of the solar system in the Galaxy. Since the 
Sun has a period of revolution about the galactic center of about 170 million 
years, it follows that the orogenic cycles and other geological events in the 
life of our planet should recur with the same periodicity. The same view- 
point is adopted by G.F. Lungersgauzen, in his consideration of the periodic 
variation of the Earth's climate in the geological past. In Lungersgauzen's 
opinion, the long-term variations in the climate which depend on the position 
of the Sun in the Galaxy can be attributed to the absorption of sunlight in the 
dust matter concentrated in a thin layer near the galactic plane. 

V. V. Piotrovskii points out the recurrent pattern that may be observed 
in the morphological features of the Earth's surface, in the structure of the 
Earth's crust, and even in all three envelopes of the planet. According 
to the author, the simple mathematical relationships which describe this 
repeating pattern reflect an objective fact and deserve further study. 

G. G. Khizanashvili discusses in his article the formation of submarine 
troughs, resulting from the fluctuations in the level of the World Ocean and 
climatic conditions. The zone most favorable for the formation of submarine 
troughs is thus found to be confined between the latitudes of 32 and 50° which 
is indeed borne out by observation. 

Many advances have recently been made in paleomagnetic research. The 
findings of these investigations were presented at the Fourth AU-Union 
Conference on Paleomagnetism, of which an account is given in the article 
by S. Yu. Brodskaya. V.B. Neiman draws up some hypothetical hypsographic 
curves to describe the distribution of heights and depths on Mars and Venus, 
proceeding from available data on these curves for the Earth and, in part, 
for the Moon. 

Part Four, entitled "Solar Activity and the Earth", deals with some new 
and important questions. The article of V.V. Arsent'ev and S.I. Isaev 
introduces the subject. It is explained that our Sun is a weakly variable 
star with a principal period of 11.1 years. In years of peak solar activity, 
tremendous chromospheric flares in the ultra-violet and X-ray portions 
of the solar spectrum produce streams of solar corpuscles of a density 
of 10^" - lO'' per cm^ and a velocity of about 1000 km/sec, which have 
a powerful effect not only on the electrical and magnetic life of the Earth 
but also on its biosphere. Prof. A. L. Chizhevskii and those who followed 
up his work in the USSR (G. A. Ivashentsev, A. A. Sadov, S. T. Vel'khover, 
G.D. Belonovskii, and some others) and abroad (M. Tanon, R.J. Dubos, 
M. Faure, J. Sardou, M. Takata, T. Murazugi, S. Takata, M. Laignel- 
Lavastine, T. Diill and B. Diill, H. Berg, and some others) devoted much 
effort to the study of this interesting realm of phenomena. In 1939 the First 
International Congress of Biophysics and Biocosmics was held in New York, 
at which the honorary presidents were Prof. A. L. Chizhevskii from the 
USSR, and Profs. Paul Langevin and Arsene d'Arsonval from France. The 
two articles by Prof. Chizhevskii, devoted to the subjects of space biology, 
space epidemiology, and space medicine, give an account of these new 
disciplines, which were founded in the USSR more than forty years ago. 
These articles show how valuable these disciplines can be in modern 
medicine, as was proved by the recent notable investigations of the Italian 



scientist Prof. G. Piccardi and by a large group of scientists in various 
countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

Chizhevskii's studies of the relation between space phenomena and 
physiological effects (infections, strokes, infarctions, sudden death, etc.) are 
paving the way for electronic medicine (as it was named by K. E.Tsiol- 
kovskii) and reveal new fields of application for medical practice (such 
as the prophylactic drug treatment and "screening" of patients under- 
ground, on the basis of heliophysical data). 

Credit should be given to People's Commissar of Public Health Prof. 
N.A. Semashko, under whose editorship the above works appeared in print, 
and to the foresight of K.E. Tsiolkovskii, who wrote a paper on that subject 
published in 1924. 

Dr. N.A. Shul'ts discusses the effect of chromospheric flares on hemo- 
genesis, i.e. , on the mass increase or decrease of white blood cells in man 
all over the globe. N. S. Shcherbinovskii, Corresponding Member of 
VASKhNIL, gives an account of his investigations on the periodicity in the 
mass reproduction of a redoubtable pest, the locust, in the Asiatic countries 
and the southeast of the Soviet Union. This work is also of considerable 
practical value. 

Part Five presents a study of the biosphere of the Earth and the way 
it is affected by physical fields. This section opens with a very interesting 
article by the eminent Soviet astronomer, the late M. S. Eigenson. The 
main point of the article is that interplanetary space is pervaded with the 
raw material necessary for the genesis of organic life. This apparently para- 
doxical idea is supported by convincing evidence, whose significance is 
stressed by the author. 

In the next article. Prof. Chizhevskii gives an account of his well-known 
investigations, taking place over forty years, on the effect of the carriers 
of atmospheric electricity— the airborne negative oxygen ions — on the 
organism of animals and man. He clearly shows the great importance of 
artificially produced negative air ions in everyday life and in the prophylaxis 
and therapy of many serious diseases. Particularly significant are Prof. 
Chizhevskii's studies on the effect of deionized air (i. e. , air completely 
deprived of its ions) on animals. Normal, natural air, from which all the 
ions have been removed does not sustain life and the animals die. When 
studying in the thirties the ways in which air ions affect human beings, 
Chizhevskii felt it was necessary to investigate some of the geometrical, 
electrical and magnetic properties of the blood. This topic is treated by 
B.D. Vasil'ev, Candidate of Medical Sciences, in the article "Atmospheric 
Air, Life and the Blood". This article demonstrates the strong bond that 
links together the system "air-blood". 

The article by A . A . Peredel'skii, Doctor of Biological Sciences, deals 
with some aspects of penetrating radiation and radioecology. The author 
is an eminent authority on radioecology. The article deals with a broad 
range of problems — from the impact of cosmic sources of background 
radiation on organisms to the practical importance of radioecology for the 
decontamination of land and water bodies. The author describes the 
pattern of distribution and translocation of radioactive wastes produced by 
natural biological and abiological processes and activities. The article 
demonstrates the importance of radioecology in the study of the effects of 
radioactive wastes and in developing- effective ways of eliminating health 
hazards. Methods are given for the disposal of the wastes and the possibility 
is appraised of "steering" the phenomena in question. 



Lastly, the article by the late botanist A. V. Krylov, Candidate of 
Biological Sciences, deals with magnetotropism in plants. Actually, the 
effect of a magnetic field on bioprocesses has been a moot point for a long 
time, and many scientists denied its possibility altogether. However, in 
1951, a paper was published to the effect that the erythrocytes moving in 
the bloodstream exhibit a magnetic field (Chizhevskii). Independently, 
A. V. Krylov conducted experiments showing that the roots of plants grow 
along the lines of force of the Earth's magnetic field. In recent times, 
many authors have detected a reaction to a magnetic field in several 
specimens of animal life. Consequently, biology and geophysics find 
themselves linked together in a novel way. 

The last portion of the book. Part Six, highlights some points in the 
history of science which fittingly display the trend toward the cosmization 
of natural science. In a brief personal account, Chizhevskii recalls the 
struggle for world recognition of the contribution of K.E. Tsiolkovskii, 
in which he came to be involved in his youth. 

It is hoped that the body of ideas presented in this collection will impel 
the reader to seek further knowledge on the topical issues of natural 
science bearing on the relationship between the Earth and the boundless 
universe around it. 



E. T.Faddeev 

SOME CHARACTERISTIC ASPECTS OF MODERN SCIENCE 
(An essay in philosophical analysis) 

We are witnessing in our time an unprecedented interest in the investi- 
gation of the position of science in social life and its rapidly growing 
importance in human progress. Philosophers, naturalists, sociologists 
and writers of many countries have contributed to this subject a considerable 
number of articles, pamphlets, and substantial monographs. Nevertheless, 
the study of science and of the multifarious ways in which it is connected 
with other social processes is actually just beginning. 

We cannot rest content with this situation. Under the communist system, 
where science is becoming a direct productive force, the investigation of 
the processes of scientific inquiry is of particular importance — not only 
from the theoretical but especially from the practical standpoint. It becomes 
imperative to understand fully the process of scientific development in 
order to derive the full benefit of rational long-range planning in the national 
economy, in education, and in the ideological realm, and in order to promote 
scientific and technological progress. 

How can a radical solution of these problems be achieved? We will not 
attempt a full answer to this question, but only comment on a fact of 
particular import in the contemporary state of affairs. Inasmuch as science 
itself is becoming the object of scientific investigation, it is natural that 
definite attitudes and methods of approach should have developed. These 
attitudes and methods have proved to be inadequate, however. In order to 
achieve results in determining the new traits and tendencies of scientific 
progress, the need arises for new ideas and outlooks which go beyond the 
traditional conceptions. It is here that, in our view, it can prove most 
fruitful to apply to the theory of science (natural science included) the 
propositions of Marx and Engels on the prehistory and history of mankind. 

The founders of Marxism introduced into sociology the concept of the 
socioeconomic structure and considered the historical process as a 
succession of such structures, placing social evolution in a broader context. 
The period from the inception of the first human community in the distant 
primitive ages to the construction of world communism constitutes, according 
to Marx and Engels, simply a prelude to true history, a prehistorical hiatus. 
This period constitutes, fundamentally, a trsinsition from the biological to 
the social, a maturing of society into a new form of motion of matter, and 
a passing of the world into a new stage of evolution. The victory of the 
communist system announces the end of the prehistory and the beginning of 
the true history of mankind, which will rid itself forever of the remnants 
of animal behavior and will find stable forms of social organization. Thus, 
the revolutionary movement from capitalism to communism does not merely 



mean that one structure is replaced by another of a higher order, but also 
implies a much more profound and sublime change. 

In working out their thesis on prehistory and history, Marx and Engels 
proposed a number of criteria by means of which these periods can be 
distinguished. Before communism, society evolves in a spontaneous 
manner. In communist times, people consciously, and thus with increasing 
success, control this process. Prehistory is the domain where stark 
necessity rules, where man's productivity is governed by need. The 
emergence into history constitutes the step into freedom, where people will 
have maximum leisure and opportunity to cultivate their natural gifts, and 
where the development of man's potentialities will be an end in itself. These 
criteria certainly require further elaboration. But something else is of 
interest to us: the universality of the distinctive traits characterizing pre- 
communist and communist times. Each of these traits manifests itself 
throughout the period to which it belongs, i.e. , throughout prehistory, or 
history. 

We can assume that there are actually many more criteria for distin- 
guishing between prehistory and history than we can cite at present. In 
this respect, new discoveries are yet to be made. However, the distinctive 
features of each of these periods that are known to us, as well as those still 
unknown, must indubitably leave their mark, exerting an influence in all 
walks of social life. That is to say, if any social phenomenon is common 
to both pre-communist and communist times, its prehistorical aspect will 
be intrinsically different from its historical one. 

Clearly, this rule also holds good for science. Granting this, it can be 
expected that science in historical times will present characteristics 
distinct from those of science in pre-communist society. These charac- 
teristics are already beginning to take shape and to have a growing effect 
on the specific features of scientific progress, as the movement from pre- 
history to history is in full swing. It thus follows that if we are to study the 
specific features and regularities of contemporary natural science, we 
cannot abstract ourselves from these processes. On the contrary, we must 
place them at the forefront of our investigations. In parallel to the history 
and prehistory in the evolution of society as a whole, it is necessary to 
distinguish between the prehistory and true history of science, a social 
phenomenon. This will provide new clues for the proper interpretation of 
the present-day trends in the development of scientific thought, experimen- 
tation, and organization. 

It is possible to mention quite a number of features of science which are 
perceptibly changing as the time of true history draws closer. Thus, for 
instance, until recently, the various branches of natural science (as well 
as the individual scientific disciplines within them) were tenuously or not 
at all connected. Nowadays, we can see a rapprochement between different 
sciences, sometimes quite removed from each other. These interpenetrate 
and new "hybrid" sciences are created at the boundaries where two or several 
old ones meet. This is quite a marked tendency, which permits us to conclude that 
scientific enquiry is ripening into a synthesizing, comprehensive, and highly 
dynamic approach to the study of nature. The same marked tendencies are 
noted in the transformation of science into a direct productive force, the 
industrialization of natural science, the multiplying uses of mathematics 
and cybernetics, etc. Each one of these particular features deserves 
investigation by large scientific teams, and obviously exceeds by far the 
scope of a single article. 



mill inii Hill iiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii I im i ■ mi 



We will dwell on one particular process, which may be referred to as 
the c o sm iz at i on of science, i.e., the transition from a purely 
terrestrial view of nature to a cosmic outlook. Analysis shows that this 
may be one of the major developments of scientific knowledge as society 
proceeds from prehistory into history. The emergence of natural science 
into the cosmic age of its existence is a dominant tendency, which has an 
effect (direct or mediated) on all the characteristics of contemporary 
scientific progress. The cosmization of scientific knowledge is a relatively 
recent development. 

At its inception, in antiquity, in the Middle Ages and to a certain extent 
in modern times, science was geocentric. Its approach to the study of the 
phenomena and laws of nature, its methods of investigation, indeed its very 
interpretation of the initial propositions and end results were primarily 
terrestrial. Matters pertaining to the heavens, to the "universe at large", 
were mainly the occupation of philosophers. Ideas about cosmic processes 
and their possible influence on terrestrial occurrences were purely speculative. 
Science was primarily concerned with terrestrial things and was earth- 
bound. This geocentricity of science was vividly embodied in the Aristo- 
telian teachings, concerning the two pairs of opposing "primary qualities" 
and the four elements (earth, water, air, fire) on which all of observable 
resility was based. 

It is true that the old science did not present an unrelieved geocentric 
landscape. The most notable exception was, of course, astronomy, whose 
eyes were turned toward the heavens. However, the cosnaic content of 
astronomical science was quite limited in scope. Astronomy was fettered 
by terrestrial concepts, which obscured from view the true nature of its 
observations, as its theoretical basis was geocentrism interwoven with 
anthropocentrism. This science finally crystallized into the Ptolemaic 
system; the cosmos was not viewed as such, but was seen through terre- 
strial eyes. These ideas were accepted as the truth and no alternative was 
recognized. The heliocentric system of Aristarchus of Samos was considered 
heresy, for it contradicted everyday (i.e., "purelyterrestrial" ) experience. 

Another exception was, in a certain measure, mathematics. Being the 
most abstract of the sciences, itquite early derived generally valid propositions. 
The multiplication table is just as true in the Andromeda Nebula and in the 
innumerable other parts of the universe as it is on Earth. Although 
mathematical deductions and rules were based on terrestrial data, their 
essence went beyond the confines of the Earth, unlike the other, earthbound 
branches of science. However, the cosmic character (in the above sense) 
of mathematical thought was not realized even by its very representatives and 
creators (barring some philosophical speculations). Most important: the 
cosmic aspect was never explicitly stated in mathematics. This science 
never studied the quantitative properties of an actually given cosmic infinity, 
that is, it did not give any representation of the universe defined as an 
infinite entity. 

Of course, the concept of infinity gradually made its way into mathematics. 
The problem of the infinitesimal was posed as far back as the time of the ancient 
Greeks. However, the first real progress in this direction occurred when 
the differential and integral calculus were created. Significantly enough, it 
was not until the concept of an infinitely great quantity was formulated (in 
the 17th century) that the first step toward the mathematical study of the 
universe was made. 



The science of prehistorical time was thus above all a terrestrial 
science, even taking into consideration some individual exceptions (which 
did not go very far at any rate). Engels had good grounds for writing in his 
"Dialectics of Nature" that: "All of our official physics, chemistry, and 
biology are exclusively geocentric, designed solely for the Earth." 

In the natural science of modern times, however, new, cosmic trends 
sprouted forth from the terrestrial groundwork, notably, as was to be 
expected, in astronomy and mathematics. The achievement of Copernicus, 
continued by Giordano Bruno and Galilei, announced the definite cleavage 
of astronomical science from its terrestrial bondage. And though the 
change in outlook involved only the solar system, while everything that lay 
beyond was still regarded as a sphere of motionless stars, the Copernican 
system truly constituted a revolution, imparting the first serious blow to 
the geocentrism which had pervaded natural science up till then. 

The discovery of spectral analysis led to other advances toward the 
proper knowledge of the universe. Until then astronomy had been chiefly 
based on classical mechanics*; from that point onward, the whole complex 
of astronomical science underwent a thoroughgoing refashioning on the basis 
of astrophysics. This complex was thus substantially supplemented by newly 
developed astrophysical or related disciplines. 

It may be said that the introduction of astrophysical methods and concepts 
(of a distinctly non-terrestrial character) brought about a rebirth of astro- 
nomy. This new, essentially astrophysical astronomy differs from the old, 
classical one mainly in its having renounced the intrinsically terrestrial 
standpoint in the study of the cosmos. 

Progress in the astronomical sciences has since proceeded at an 
accelerated pace, especially in astrophysics, which has come to be 
increasingly relied upon in the investigation of the regions around the Sun 
and in the study of galactic and extragalactic space. A new stage was 
reached with the advent and rapid development of radioastronomy (together 
with its offshoot, radar astronomy). This technique has been a powerful 
tool for probing into cosmic processes and making new discoveries, and 
has considerably expanded the portion of the universe accessible to 
observation. 

Thus, since the time of Copernicus, astronomy has firmly set out on the 
way to becoming a truly cosmic science, with its sights free from terrestrial 
fog. The end of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century have 
witnessed spectacular advances, both qualitative and quantitative, in the 
astronomical sciences. The line of development traced above constitutes 
the first fundamental trend toward the cosmization of natural science. 

Following astronomy came mathematics. Aside from a few preceding 
efforts of little significance, the turn toward the cosmos was signaled 
by the creation of Lobachevskian geometry. Its cosmic character was 
perceived (at least in part) by the author himself. The strange content 
and results of the new geometry resulted from a definite cause. The 
mathematics involved dealt with properties of space that become manifest 
only over extensive portions of the universe and are "not visible" on a 
terrestrial scale. 

Of course, the non-Euclidean geometry of Lobachevskii just laid out a 
new domain of mathematical interest. This initial venture was soonfoUowed 

* J. D. Bernal: " The greatest triumph of science of the 17th century was doubtlessly the completion of 

a general system of mechanics, capable of explaining the motion of the stars in terms of the 
behavior of matter observed on the Earth" (emphasis mine — E. F, ). 



by other signs indicating — under a most original guise — a gradual transition 
of the mathematical sciences to a cosmic orientation. In the seventies 
of the last century, G. Cantor formulated the basic propositions of the 
theory of sets, whose main concern is the investigation of infinite sets. 
The contradictions of mathematical infinity, and certain of its paradoxical 
properties (for instance, in the arithmetic of transfinite numbers), are a 
reflection of the actual contradictions and properties involved in the 
real infinity of the universe. Perhaps the most noteworthy thing about 
the theory of sets is the fact that it has not only evolved quite rapidly 
but also impinged upon literally all the main branches of mathematics. 
Set -theoretical axiomatics gained increased importance in arithmetic, 
geometry, the theory of probability, and mathematical logic. Many 
important new mathematical disciplines, such as the theory of 
functions of a real variable, general topology, to mention but a few, 
could not be made possible without the theory of sets. Whereas at first 
mathematics proceeded from the particular and finite to the infinite, now 
the finite itself is interpreted from the standpoint of the infinite, and thus 
the general validity of mathematics becomes richer in implications than was 
the case with the older mathematics. 

However, mathematical science was not the only one to exhibit a cosmic 
slant. At the turn of the 20th century, many branches of natural 
science started, one after the other, to contemplate their subject of study 
in its cosmic aspect. The cosmic outlook broke in full force upon physics, when 
Einstein formulated the special, and later the general, theory of relativity, 
which nowadays constitutes the theoretical foundation of the principal domains 
of the new, nonclassical physics. This theory, as is known, is concerned 
with super-high, truly cosmic velocities, and in general, with many pro- 
cesses which occur mainly (or which are most detectable) not under 
specifically terrestrial conditions but in the wide expanses of the universe 
(which include our planet as well). But naatters do not end with Einstein's 
discoveries. Across the span of half a century, there has been the forma- 
tion of atomic and nuclear physics, cosmic-ray physics, plasma physics, 
vacuum physics, cryophysics, etc. Each of these disciplines investigates 
either specifically cosmic processes, or phenomena produced by cosmic 
factors, or else some terrestrial occurrences considered as a special 
instance of cosmic phenomena. In view of the multiplication of such 
specialized departments in physics and of the preponderance they are 
gaining, it becomes clear that physics as a whole is being transformed into 
a cosmic science. 

The same may be observed, though to a lesser extent, in the other 
branches of natural science of the first half of the century. The cosmic 
element in one form or another is making its way into chemistry, biology, 
geology, and geography. Chemistry, for example, now includes radiation 
chemistry and cryochemistry, and research has been initiated in the 
chemistry of super-high temperatures (in particular, where this is directly 
related to the development of rocket fuels and engines) and on the effect of 
cosmic factors on chemical reactions and the chemical properties of sub- 
stances. Geology and geography (and even meteorology) — these most 
terrestrial of all branches of natural science — tend to consider their 
problems more and more from an extraterrestrial standpoint, or as related 
with cosmic aspects, and to treat the Earth as one of the planets, i.e. , as 



10 



a cosmic body. These changes are even more pronounced in geophysics, 
which was born, to begin with, under the sign of the cosmos. 

On the basis of the foregoing we can deduce a second trend toward the 
cosmization of natural science. This trend involves the expansion in the 
last century (to say nothing of the present one) of the object of study of 
many of the old classical sciences, and the emergence from the framework 
of purely terrestrial phenomena and processes, with an interest in the 
cosmic aspects of research. 

But this is not all. A notable advance occurred in the development of 
natural science of the last decades, brought about by the creation of new, 
primarily cosniic, scientific disciplines, chiefly concerned with the study 
of cosmic objects. After the inception of astrophysics at the end of the 
19th century, the beginning of our century was marked by the appearance 
of theoretical astronautics. This event dates from 1903, when K.E. 
Tsiolkovskii's celebrated work "Issledovanie mirovykh prostranstv reak- 
tivnymi priborami" (The Exploration of Outer Space by Means of Reaction 
Devices) was published. Later to develop were the elements of astrobiology 
and in particular of astrobotany, and the fundamentals of space chemistry. 
Toward the 50' s of this century, the science of aeronomy was founded, as 
well as astrogeography and astrogeology. Aviation medicine was also 
developed, the direct forerunner of space medicine. 

Admittedly, it is rather arbitrary to call most of these sciences in their 
initial form cosmic, or "purely" space sciences. Astrogeography and 
astrogeology, for instance, are as yet ordinary geography and geology darried 
over into space and constitute to a large extent a generalization from the 
appropriate terrestrial data to cosmic data (the particular case of astro- 
geology basically takes into account cosmic factors in the geology of the 
Earth). But such will not always be the case. Sooner or later, quantity 
will change into quality. The direct geographical and geological study 
of other planets and planetlike bodies will not only uncover new facts and 
lead to a deeper understanding of familiar laws but will also call for a 
reappraisal of our knowledge of ordinary terrestrial geography and geology. 
We shall have occasion to come back to this point. Obviously, at present 
astrogeography and astrogeology may be classified as cosmic sciences in 
potential only. On the other hand, astrophysics, astronautics, or astro- 
chemistry started out as primarily space sciences (the extension of any 
particular data to space is in the present case of secondary importance); 
they have a "direct" approach to their cosmic objectives. 

Actually, the changes occurring in science in the process of its cosmiza- 
tion defy classification due to their complexity. All the same, we must by no 
means dismiss the possibility of gaining some insight from them. To sum 
up, we note an additional new significant trend toward the cosmization of 
natural science, which has appeared in the last 100 years and taken shape 
in the gradual formation of various space sciences (pertaining to space 
either directly or by implication). 

The three trends mentioned above (i.e. , the transforination of astronomy 
into a truly cosmic science, the penetration of cosmic subjects into classical 
and modern science, and the appearance of "purely" cosmic scientific 
disciplines) could be expected to contribute toward a fourth trend, as indeed 
they have. This trend has been an increasingly closer association and even 
an interweaving of the astronomical discipline with the other branches of 
natural science, a convergence of the whole complex of astronomical 



II 



science with the other scientific fields. Back in 1932, Academician 
V.I. Vernadskii made the prophetic statement that "atomic physics and 
chemistry have unexpectedly proved of fundamental importance in cosmic 
and cosmogonic processes". On the other hand, as J.D. Bernal has written: 
"astrophysics and cosmology . . . are beginning to impinge on the very core 
of high-energy physics, and if the potentialities of the Earth are to be fully 
exploited . . . these sciences will undoubtedly have to be applied in geophysics 
and geochemistry". Likewise, it is a familiar fact that astrophysics, 
cosmogony, and the physics of the "elementary" particles are intimately 
linked; there are cases when it is hard to tell where particle physics ends 
and astronomy begins. 

Since natural science has turned toward space over an ever-increasing 
range of subjects— from mathematics and mechanics to biology and medicine 
— a demand has been created for new tools of investigation, which would 
provide the means of studying directly cosmic objects, phenomena, and 
processes. The indirect techniques, while basically retaining their value, 
were no longer accurate or comprehensive enough to keep up with the 
advances in space science (and thus in terrestrial science as well, which 
is, in the last analysis, only a specialized branch of cosmic science). In 
other words, after science had launched itself into space, its creator, man 
himself, was bound to follow. Since scientists have begun to ask new 
questions, the need for new answers has arisen accordingly. These 
answers can be supplied by applied astronautics, which offers scientists 
the possibility of carrying out research directly in space. 

Thus, the way to the launching of the first satellites and space rockets 
was paved by the whole development of natural science, and primarily by 
its space orientation (the social aspect is not considered here). At the same 
time the appearance of applied astronautics denotes a highly significant 
qualitative jump in scientific progress and marks a definite frontier in the 
history of science. The advances of science toward space noted up to this 
frontier may be considered only as some preliminary or preparatory stage. 
With the emergence of scientific instruments, as well as the researcher 
himself, into space came an intensive process of cosmization of the whole 
body of science, which is now proceeding at an accelerated pace. A direct 
transition is under way, from the predominantly geocentric natural science 
of prehistory toward the cosmic natural science of the future, i.e. , toward 
the science of the period of true history of majikind. We are, of course, 
just standing at the beginning of all this and we still have a long way to go. 
But the fact that we are moving in this direction is obvious from the way 
things are going at present. During the short time since 4 October 1957, 
the basic trend toward the cosmization of natural science has not only rapidly 
evolved and led to considerable achievements, but has even become one of the 
significant features of modern science. In the course of a few years more 
ground has been covered than during all of the last century. 

The complex of astronomical sciences is also in the process of rapid 
evolution and qualitative transformation. Applied astronautics has already 
led to the creation and quick development of far- ultraviolet and gamma-ray 
astronomy, which would not be possible without launching scientific instru- 
ments into space. Neutrino astronomy has also become a subject of topical 
interest. Further extensive developments are expected in phototelevision 
investigations, whose first spectacular achievement was the photographing 



12 



of the reverse side of the Moon. The launching of basic equipment of optical 
and radio astronomy into space will give a fresh impetus to all the main 
astronomical sciences. The first artificial satellites of the celestial bodies, 
and particularly automatic stations on their surfaces, will (many scientists 
hope) result in a whole series of new astronomical fields, or new depart- 
ments within already existing sciences, such as selenophysics, selenology, 
selenochemistry, areophysics, areology, areochemistry, etc. 

The cosmic aspect, that is to say the body of problems bearing on space, 
is now making inroads into every single science, both old and new, theore- 
tical and applied. This is especially brought about by the fact that natural 
science is being faced with the multiplying problems raised by astronautics 
and has to "put itself to work" on them. Thus it is not mere chance that 
such "cosmized" sciences as radiation chemistry, radiation physics of the 
solid state, radiation metallurgy, radiation genetics, radiobiology, etc. , 
are advancing by leaps and bounds. These sciences help to study the effect 
of radiation in space on various chemical substances, on structural and 
other materials, on heredity, and on the organism in general. 

The number of new "purely" cosmic sciences is steadily growing. In 
addition to the ones preceding the creation of applied astronautics, recent 
years have seen the appearance of space biochemistry, space microbiology, 
space genetics, space medicine, space physiology, space physiology of 
higher nervous activity, space psychology, etc. One could also say that 
planetary physics has made its appearance (with the reservations we 
mentioned before with respect to astrogeography and astrogeology), in view 
of the fact that experiments have been conducted in which the Moon was 
found to have no detectable magnetic field, and similar experiments are 
under way for other heavenly bodies. It may be expected that with further 
advances in the conquest of outer space research will be started in space 
crystallochemistry, astrometeorology, etc. It is possible that intrinsically 
new phenomena and processes will be discovered in space, leading to 
unsuspected developments and unfamiliar specialized branches of science. 
It is furthermore obvious that both the youngest and the older space sciences 
are bound to benefit tremendously from the accumulation of factual material 
drawn directly from extraterrestrial sources. There is no doubt that the 
new space sciences will soon gain momentum and reach the same degree of 
sophistication as the older, well-established classical sciences. 

There is also a rapid interpenetration of astronomy and the other natural 
sciences. New specializations are making their appearance, such as nuclear 
astrophysics, i. e. , a particular blend of nuclear physics and stellar astro- 
nomy. On the other hand, it is hard to imagine nowadays a physics which 
does not comprise astrophysics, geology, planetary cosmogony, meteorology, 
etc. The astronomical sciences are becoming increasingly interwoven with 
the remaining body of natural science, especially in the aforementioned 
subjects: selenophysics, selenochemistry, areophysics, etc. The division 
into astronomy and other natural sciences would not properly apply to these 
disciplines (or subjects), because these branches combine both astronomical 
and nonastronomical aspects. Thus, for instance, selenophysical or areo- 
logical investigations, however they might be called or classified at present 
or eventually, will come to be conducted less and less by purely astronomical 
means and more and more by means of astronautics, primarily via human 
observers directly on the surfaces of heavenly bodies or near them. 



13 



To sum up, we conclude that modern natural science is leaving behind 
its geocentric past and emerging into cosmic space. 

The conversion of the different sciences and of the whole body of natural 
science to space sciences takes a variety of forms. A case in point is that 
of biology. For the time being the latter basically remains a terrestrial 
science. However, the premises and factors orienting biology toward space 
are increasing in number and growing more and more effective. 

One of the first indications of this was the appearance of astrobiology as 
a theoretical discipline at the beginning of this century. Its subject matter 
consists of the theoretical analysis of the possibility of life on any given 
heavenly body (or class of bodies), proceeding from what is currently known 
on the type of environment necessary to sustain life and on the physical 
conditions existing on specific astronomical objects. Almost no direct 
astrobiological observations, and certainly no controlled experiments, have 
been carried out in this field (barring some astrobotanical works by G. A. 
Tikhov and some others, and the work recently done on "astrobiological 
simulation"). At this point, astrobiology obviously draws upon terrestrial 
biology to a much larger extent than it contributes to it. It would be fair 
to say that theoretical astrobiology has sprung up from a terrestrial back- 
ground and is still much too dependent on it to exert any appreciable 
reciprocal effect on the complex of ordinary biological sciences. 

However, the situation is now beginning to change. Space biology, which 
has been made possible by the advances in applied astronautics, is probably 
going to exert a tremendous modifying influence on terrestrial biology. 
Space biology can solve experimentally the problems involved in maintaining 
terrestrial life forms in an environment of space flight and under extra- 
terrestrial conditions in general. Moreover, it can ascertain the existence 
and the characteristics of life in outer space and on the celestial bodies of 
the solar system. It is eventually bound to deal with the problem of biolo- 
gical adaptation of extraterrestrial organisms to terrestrial conditions. 
The information gained in this scientific field will no doubt come to have 
an increasingly strong influence on many general and particular, theoretical 
and practical, concepts of ordinary biology. 

Of course, the new space biology does not supersede or supplant the 
theoretical astrobiology that was produced much earlier. These are two 
distinct disciplines which remain mutually related in many' complex ways 
(ways as yet unexplained and undifferentiated one from another). * 

In the not too distant future, these two disciplines will probably be embodied 
into some unified astrobiological science, of which they will form organic 
parts. This astrobiology of the future will exert an increasing influence on 
the terrestrial life sciences, so that terrestrial biology will find itself being 
converted into a space science, from the inside, so to speak. At this point 
we have to mention a third significant factor setting a spaceward trend in 
biology, which also made its appearance at the beginning of this century. 

At that time some ideas were held in scientific circles to the effect that 
biological phenomena occurring on the Earth were affected to a considerable 

• By way of illustration we may mention the terminological debates and the differences of opinion as to 
whether it is astrobiology or space biology which is the more comprehensive of the two. The various views 
are expressed in an interesting paper byZhukov-Verezhnikov, N. N. , V.l. Yakovlev, and l.N. Maiskii. 
O teoreticheskikh problemakh kosmicheskoi biologii (Theoretical Problems of Space Biology). — Voprosy 
filosofii. No. 9. 1960. 



14 



extent by cosmic processes, chiefly by those associated with solar activity. 
One of the first to have set forth this concept was Prof. A. L. Chizhevskii, 
who undertook in 1915 a study of the effects of cosmic and some solar 
radiations on microorganisms and the growth of living tissues. In 1926-1 927 
he demonstrated the influence of solar eruptions on the functional state of 
the nervous system. Prof. Chizhevskii (whose work was largely ignored 
for a long time) was essentially the founder of some individual disciplines 
which have now become parts of the science which is generally known as 
agricultural and medical bioclimatology (or biometeorology). This science 
is devoted, specifically, to the study of the effect of cosnnic factors on plant, 
animal, and human organisms, and is at present rapidly evolving. Its 
relative importance is steadily growing, especially since it is intrinsically 
connected with modern space biology. 

All the events outlined above (even omitting some other basic factors) 
lead to one specific fact: the entire body of the biological sciences — both 
the purely astrobiological as well as the terrestrial — is manifestly becoming 
space-orientated. Instead of a narrow, terrestrial, geocentric viewpoint, 
it is now adopting a cosmic interpretation of the process of life and the 
laws governing it. "The study of the life forms which may have 
possibly originated on other planets", writes B.V. Kukarkin, "will 
probably prove a turning point in all our conceptions of the problem of 
life itself, its origin and development" (emphasis mine — E. F. ). A 
revolution of this kind is bound to take place in biology, brought about by the 
joint action of all the above-mentioned "space-orientating causes". 

Our brief survey of the basic trends and features in the space-orientation 
process of natural science would be incomplete if we were to confine the 
discussion to theoretical science only. Experimental techniques are also 
becoming space-orientated, and this aspect should be at least briefly 
considered. 

Experiments performed in widely divergent scientific fields increasingly 
tend to display a cosmic slant, even though they are carried out on Earth 
under terrestrial conditions. Thus, for instance, Michelson's experiment 
(1881), as well as the numerous modified versions of it (up to the present), 
had the object of measuring the effect of the motion of our planet (considered 
as a cosmic body) on the velocity of light. This is clearly an unusual kind 
of experiment, both in its aim and in its method of approach. The same 
applies to the experiments with cosmic rays, which were started decades 
ago and are being carried out even now in surface and underground labs, 
as well as in the atmosphere. The number of such experiments, where 
cosmic factors or the phenomena produced by them are dealt with on Earth, 
is growing at a high rate. This tendency shows no signs of declining, despite 
the fact that the possibility now exists of conducting experimental work 
directly in space. 

The second important trend in the space-orientation of scientific experi- 
ment, which also began manifesting itself some decades ago, involves the 
artificial re-creation, or at least simulation, of cosmic phenomena, 
processes, conditions, and factors (or some of their components). Thus, 
for instance, the bulk of experiments done in nuclear physics and the physics 
of elementary particles consists essentially of artificially reproducing those 
interactions of nucleons and other objects of the microcosm that usually take 
place under extraterrestrial conditions or occur on our planet (or near it) 
under the effect of cosmic factors and are intimately linked with them. Such 



15 



is also the case with experiments dealing with nuclear reactions, the 
"synthesis" of transuranic elements, the problem of a controlled thermo- 
nuclear reaction, etc. Unquestionably "space-orientated" are the experi- 
ments involving ultrahigh and extremely low temperatures which are 
characteristic of outer space, vacuum experiments, sind experiments with 
various types of high-energy radiation. This is also true of the modeling 
of lunar rock formations, the simulation of a given set of space conditions in 
order to study the way in which plants and animals adapt to them, and the testing 
of artificial satellites and space instrumentation. Only three-quarters of 
a century ago such experiments were inconceivable. At the present time, 
however, they are assuming an ever-increasing importance in the general 
body of experimental work being done, and this despite the potential feasi- 
bility of carrying out many of these investigations directly in outer space. 

Another space-orientated trend has made its appearcince recently in 
experimental science, almost together with applied astronautics, involving 
the global character of certain experiments, covering in one way or another 
all the terrestrial globe or at least a major portion of it. For example, 
when developing the equipment for the production of artificial comets, 
Soviet scientists obtained in 1958 a cloud of sodium vapor at an altitude 
of 400 km. Its apparent size extended to the outmost stars of Ursa Major 
and it was visible from an area of several million square kilometers. Of 
course, tremendous possibilities for conducting experiments on a global 
scale have been uncovered by applied astronautics. Suffice it to mention 
in this respect the work being carried out, or being planned, on drawing 
up charts of the E arth' s cloud cover, on continuous sounding of the ionosphere 
using radio waves, on the determination of the density and other properties 
of the upper atmosphere, on the study of the Earth's gravitational field, 
etc. 

Finally, the fourth trend in the space-orientation of scientific experiment 
is toward the expansion of the experimental stage into space, far beyond 
the Earth. The radar echo bounced off the Moon in 1946 constituted in this 
sense a cosmic experiment, which marked the appearance of radar astro- 
nomy, a necessarily experimental science. A period of on-the-spot space 
experimentation has begun, ajid many experiments are beginning to assume 
truly cosmic proportions. The launching of each artificial satellite or 
space rocket is an example of a cosmic experiment. The production of 
artificial comets, the photographing of the far side of the Moon, and any 
forthcoming achievements of the same kind may be also classified as such. 
Accordingly, astronomy itself, which has traditionally been up till now an 
observational science, is turning into an experimental science. A branch 
of it, namely celestial mechanics, is also becoming an experimental 
discipline, for the launching of any spacecraft involves the practical 
application of the laws of celestial mechanics. Far-ultraviolet and gamma- 
ray astronomy are based almost entirely on cosmic experimental data. 
Experimental cosmology has got under way, with experiments involving the 
direct analysis of cosmic radiation away from the Earth and of interplane- 
tary gas, etc. To all these must be added the constantly expanding assort- 
ment of a wide variety of cosmic experiments: geophysical, astrophysical, 
medico-biological, genetic, psychological, technological, etc. 

There is no doubt that cosmic experiments in their various forms will 
come to play a leading role in science. Completely new experimental 



16 



domains are bound to appear and within a fairly short time. For instance, 
stress will be probably be laid on experiments involving the study and use 
of new rocks, minerals, and other raw materials on the Moon and the 
planets of the solar system. There are prospects for experiments involving 
the investigation of as yet unknown states of matter and substances which 
may be discovered in outer space. A true revolution will be wrought in 
biology by experiments on the adaptation of terrestrial microorganisms, 
plants, and animals to the conditions prevailing in outer space and on 
celestial bodies, on the adaptation of extraterrestrial life forms to terrestrial 
conditions, and involving the controlled changes made by man on the flora 
and fauna of other worlds. 

Now, after all the foregoing, we have grounds for asserting that modern 
natural science is in fact on its way into space. Thus, the following question 
arises: where does this way lead? In other words, if science is now taking 
leave of the geocentric bias of the prehistoric al period, what course is it 
going to take with the onset of the true history of mankind? Obviously, 
toward an intrinsically cosmic outlook. 

As the situation in natural science now emerges, every scientific field 
has a corresponding space analog, or even several. Thus physics is 
paralleled by the whole complex of the astrophysical sciences, chemistry 
by space chemistry, biology by astrobiology and space biology, etc. Con- 
currently, each of the terrestrial sciences, irrespective of whether it has 
or has not its space counterpart, is being pervaded by cosmic material and 
is also becoming "space-orientated from within", as we said before. This 
process is still largely controlled by the terrestrial part of natural science, 
but this state of affairs is not due to last very long. 

The rapid expansion of the space sciences and the penetration of cosmic 
topics into the "earthbound" sciences must ultimately cause qualitative 
changes in the relationship between the cosmic and the terrestrial branches 
of science. The space sciences constitute at present extensions of the 
terrestrial ones, but this situation will eventually be reversed. Thus, for 
instance, as soon as the structures of some of the planets have been inves- 
tigated, at least within the solar system, and as our knowledge on the nature 
of the planets expands, geological science as we know it will probably 
become a subsidiary discipline. Now, obviously, some "ologies" (e.g., 
selenology, .areology, Venusian geology) form the backbone of astrogeology 
or planetology, which studies the laws governing the geological development 
of the planets. When such laws have been established, considerable refine- 
ment will be brought into the terrestrial science of geology, as generaliza- 
tions will be founded not only on the investigation of a single object, i, e. , 
our planet, but on a much broader factual basis. Astrogeology will then 
no longer be just some exotic application in the existing complex of geologic 
disciplines, but on the contrary, will include the geology of the Earth as 
a part, or specialized department (together with other specialities, such as 
selenology, areology, etc.). The same applies to many other natural 
sciences. 

We are thus witnessing a scientific-technological revolution of great 
magnitude, in which the pure and applied sciences are divesting themselves 
of their terrestrial bias and adopting a cosmic outlook. In contrast to the 
natural science of the prehistorical period, the science of the historical 
period will be essentially space-orientated — a cosmic science. A major 



17 



landmark in the expansion of scientific research into space was the inception 
of applied astronautics. 

We cannot, however, content ourselves merely with reflecting on the fact 
that science is emerging into space. History never does anything without 
good reasons. Now such a major event as the orientation of natural science 
toward space must be due to powerful causes. It is important to contem- 
plate these not only in their basic, theoretical aspect, but also from a 
practical angle, as this makes it possible to predict to a certain extent the 
course of development of science and technology and to control the process 
better. In the present paper this question can be dealt with only briefly 
and in broad outline. 

It is a known fact that science is not something self-contained and an end 
in itself, but is intimately connected with practice and exists, in the last 
analysis, for practical purposes. Practice is founded on man's productivity 
and his relationship with nature, the two being actually inseparably linked. 
Science meets the demands of practice, and reflects its development and 
tendencies. Now as analysis shows, human practical affairs, primarily in 
the domain of industry and in the control of nature, have lately begun to 
show a distinctly cosmic slant. 

The interaction of society with nature (and accordingly, the development 
of production) always proceeds along four basic lines. There is first of all 
the process of harnessing natural forces, reflected in the advance of power 
engineering. In the second place we have the conversion of matter of a given 
nature, as embodied by the development of mining, metallurgy, chemical 
engineering, the structural materials industry, and some other techniques. 
Then we have the processing of living nature (including the eventual artificial 
synthesis of foodstuffs), exemplified by agriculture and some other branches 
of production. Lastly, man is also progressing in the control of his own 
nature, specifically in the form of the extensive practical application of 
medicine and physiological research to various aspects of human activity. 
The cosmic trend of the changes now taking place in practice is for the time 
being most clearly visible in the first two directions, but it is beginning to 
show first signs in the others as well. 

Thus, man is increasingly putting to use forces of a cosmic character. 
Nuclear and especially thermonuclear power engineering is a good example 
of the harnessing and utilization by industry of phenomena that are not 
proper to an ordinary, strictly terrestrial environment, but are quite com- 
mon in outer space. This is also true for the projects of magnetohydrody- 
namic electric-power stations, the efforts to produce plasma jet engines, etc. 

The industry of transuranic and other artificial chemical elements and 
isotopes is also in a sense space-orientated, as these substances are not 
found on Earth and it is only recently that some of them have been detected 
in the envelopes of stars. Let us stress that what we have in mind is the 
industrial, and not laboratory, derivation of technetium, plutonium, and 
scores of radioactive isotopes from raw material available on Earth. 

Also of a cosmic nature are many processes of radiation chemistry and 
physics, of which increasing use is being made in many technologies. 
Vacuum techniques are being introduced in metallurgy. A great variety of 
branches are developing in industry and engineering which would be impos- 
sible without extremely low temperatures, etc. Accordingly, many production 
and technological processes as well as new technical equipment and instru- 
ments are beginning to rely increasingly upon the artificial reproduction 



18 



and practical application of conditions, factors, and phenomena (or their 
components) which are common in space. Engineering and industry are 
becoming space-orientated, but it is happening on Earth and not in free 
space. 

All these processes will become intensified when man carries out his 
activities in space. When manned space stations are put into orbit around 
the Earth, the Sun, and other celestial bodies, and when large scientific 
bases are established on other planets, it will be necessary to solve the 
problems involved in the creation of an artificial environment suitable for 
human beings. This means altering the natural environment in space. As 
Marx has said, man is always compelled to struggle with nature in order 
to maintain his life and propagate, and in the course of this struggle he 
creates another, artificial, "humanized" nature, which satisfies his needs 
and demands. Now since man has already had to cope with the problem of 
creating a more favorable environment for himself on Earth, where he was 
born and where he evolved, and has even had to employ cosmic forces in 
the process, he will already be armed when he emerges into space. Further- 
more, the conversion of nature in space and the development of a space 
industry will be spurred by a number of factors that are not commonly found 
on Earth. First and foremost there are the extreme conditions prevailing 
in space that are normally fatal to man and which will make it necessary 
to produce and maintain an artificial environment in space within which 
man will be able to live and work. There are, in addition, the stringent 
weight limitations imposed on any material, equipment, stocks of various 
kinds, etc. that are to be transferred from Earth to another celestial body 
(whether natural or artificial). These restrictions will make it necessary 
to make as extensive use as possible of the local (extraterrestrial) 
resources in raw materials etc., and to develop production on this basis, or 
as K.E. Tsiolkovskii picturesquely put it, to set up an "ether-borne 
industry". It is obvious that advances in space engineering and production 
beyond our planet will exert a reciprocal effect on productive efforts on 
Earth and speed up their development. 

Thus we see that the previously considered space-orientation of natural 
science represents another, more extensive and profound process — the 
space-orientation of human practice. These two processes run parallel 
and are connected in two basic ways (as is the case with the interrelation 
between scientific knowledge and practical activity). Science meets the 
requirements of the present moment and helps solve the current problems 
of production, the control of nature, etc. But it also always anticipates 
practice, works ahead, and sets about solving such problems as might 
arise within the distant future. The fact that natural science places its 
subject matter within a cosmic context enables it to provide an answer to 
present problems and also to pave the way for forthcoming developments 
in the space age. 

This formulation of the space-orientating factors in science does not, 
of course, come anywhere near to a full treatment of the subject. Such a 
treatment is possible only after elucidating the space-orientating factors 
at work in practice itself. An analysis of this much more difficult question 
shows that definite regularities operate in the universe, which make it necessary 
and inevitable that man should emerge into space en masse and later also 
settle on other planets. Placed in such a light, the space-orientating factors 



19 



of science may be studied much more thoroughly. This, however, goes 
beyond the purview of this article. 



REFERENCES 

VARVAROV, N. A. and E. T. FADDEEV. Filosofskie problemy astronavtiki 
(The Philosophical Implications of Space Travel).— In: Voprosy 
filosofii. No. 8. 1961. 

ZABELIN, I. M. Teoriya fizicheskoi geografii (Theory of Physical Geo- 
graphy). — Geografgiz. Moskva. 1959. 



20 



PART ONE 

MATTER AND PHYSICAL FIELDS 



D.D. Ivanenko 

THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER AND ATTEMPTS TO 
CREATE A UNIFIED THEORY OF MATTER 

I. EARLY ATTEMPTS TO CREATE A UNIFIED 
WORLD PICTURE 

The possibility of giving a uniform description of matter is a question 
that was posed in ancient times and has been stirring the minds of scientists 
and all of mankind ever since. The history of science shows that at times 
there are unifying, synthesizing tendencies that predominate in physics, 
when it appears that the world picture has been fundamentally constructed 
on some particular basis, and that it only remains to fill in the "fine details". 
During some other phases in the evolution of science analytical tendencies 
prevail; physicists then investigate new fields and discover new facts, and 
most scientists are not concerned with any general picture of the world. 

For instance, at the end of the 18th century, at which time the fluidic 
conceptions prevailed, it would have been idle to try to formulate a unified 
world picture. Similarly, when in the late 19th and early 20th century 
physicists started probing into the atom and the atomic nucleus, when the 
old concepts of classical mechanics and electrodynamics were beginning 
to fail and the new relativistic, quantum, and atomic ideas had not yet been 
developed, the question of producing a unified picture was relegated to the 
background. Now, on the other hand, with the quite recent discovery of a 
large number of elementary particles that are found to be related to each 
other in a variety of ways, a marked trend may be noted toward developing 
a unified theory of matter. 

If we dwell on the significance of the Leninist assertion on the "inexhaus- 
tibility of the electron", and thus of all other particles, we derive the fact 
that any unified world picture, no matter how successful, will inevitably 
prove to be tenjporary and transient. Further developments in the theore- 
tical and experimental investigation of matter, and in space research, are 
certain to yield facts that do not fit within any given unified picture, thus 
breaking it up, until new trends toward unification on some higher level 
arise. 

In order to clarify the point under discussion, we will give a brief 
historical survey of the way in which matter has been interpreted and of the 
various attempts made to construct a unified picture of the world. 

As is known, the science that aimed at reducing every substance to a few, 
specifically four, elements (water, air, earth, and fire) first appeared in 
ancient Greece and in the East, in India and China. Plato even assumed 
that there exists some"protomatter"(the fifth element or quintessence), 
of which the four elements are the manifestations. Similar ideas have 



21 



been expressed in the Indian Vedas, where the fifth element was alternatively 
represented either as protomatter or as space. 

According to Democritus's hypothesis, supported by Epicurus and some 
other thinkers, all forms of matter are ultimately reducible to very 
minute particles, or atoms. However, being an opponent of Democritan 
science, which showed a pronounced materialistic bias, Plato worked out his 
own particular brand of atomism, in which the atoms of the four elementary 
substances were identified with the regular solids (a cube, a tetrahedron, 
etc. )*, and also assumed that it was possible for one element to be trans- 
formed into another. 

The following important phase in the attempts to construct a unified 
world picture occurred with the inception of the new physics, at the time of 
Galilei. The successes achieved in classical mechanics (i. e. , nonrela- 
tivistic and nonquantum mechanics), whose principal propositions were 
formulated by Newton, naturally engendered the idea that it must be possible 
to reduce the laws of motion and of interaction, and all the laws in general, 
to classical-mechanical laws. This idea was universally held for a long 
time. Even in the middle and the second half of the 19th century, virtually 
all the great physicists, among whom were Maxwell, Kirchhoff, Helmholtz, 
and Kelvin, considered themselves mechanists, at least at the beginning 
of their scientific career, and elevated the mechanical treatment of real 
phenomena to the level of an ideal. In point of fact, however, the discovery, 
back in the middle of the 19th century, of the electromagnetic field as a 
new form of matter that did not possess a rest mass and did not lend itself 
in any way to description by the laws of mechanics, requiring, as became 
subsequently clear, a relativistic treatment, dealt a decisive blow to 
mechanism. In other words, it was proved that a universal classical- 
mechanical world picture was not feasible. 

This significant fact was not realized until much later, in the period when 
a radical change occurred in physics, which brought about a crisis, at the 
end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The crisis in physics 
was mainly the result of the attempts of some scientists to interpret the 
newly discovered quantum, electromagnetic, relativistic, and atomic 
phenomena in the light of classical mechanics. This crisis has been 
subjected by V. I. Lenin to a thoroughgoing philosophical analysis, in his 
well-known book "Materialism and Empiriocriticism". 

One of the mechanistic constructions of a world picture, in the 17th and 
18th centuries, originated with Descartes, who took as his point of departure 
the laws of collision and the contact interaction of bodies in conformance 
with the law he discovered of the conservation of momentum of colliding 
spheres. In cases when there was no visible contact between the bodies, 
Cartesian adherents tried providing a speculative explanation, as may be 
illustrated by the vortex hypothesis they applied to gravitation. Newton 
and his followers were opposed to such unfounded hypotheses. They took 
the law of gravitation as a description of facts and did not seek a model 
in terms of which it could be interpreted (this in fact could not be done even 
in the 19th century, before the advent of Einstein's theory). Even though 
many intellects of the 18th century, including Euler and Lomonosov, found 
the phenomenological approach of the Newtonians hard to accept, still it was 
no doubt progressive for its time. 

• Cf. Plato's "Timaeus". 



22 



Thus, in the 17th and 18th centuries, natural processes were interpreted 
in ternas of the laws of classical mechanics. It was assumed that space 
and time exist independently of matter and of each other, space being taken 
to be Euclidean and time absolute and unique. Yet, space and time undoub- 
tedly acted somehow on matter, since a free body, for instance, would 
move along a straight line rather than along any other. As is known, it 
subsequently became clear that the analysis of the concept of a perfectly 
"free" body, isolated from any other kind of matter, is a very complex 
question. 

Now the problem of the structure of matter itself was the point of 
frequent discussions. The atomic hypothesis, set forth in the work of 
Gassendi and some other scientists, found many adherents. It was, as 
is known, fairly successfully developed by Bernoulli and Lomonosov, as 
applied to the treatment of thermal phenomena and the gas laws. However, 
owing to the impossibility of observing atoms and to the lack of understand- 
ing of the chemical laws, these results seemed unwarranted and were 
eventually completely forgotten. Although Soviet historians of science have 
shown that the trends set by Lomonosov have been retained in the statements 
of some Moscow physicists, and in the works of Georgian and other scientists 
(cf. , for instance, V.D. Parkadze' s investigations), these were not men of 
distinction and thus their ideas did not carry sufficient authority to affect 
the course of development of physics to any appreciable extent. 

In the second half of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, the 
investigation of magnetic, electrical, light, and thermal phenomena led to 
the phenomenological postulation of various "fluids", as special forms of 
matter. It was assumed that electricity is produced by an electrical fluid, 
heat by the flow of a caloric, light was interpreted as being vibrations of 
the ether, etc. Unity was achieved only by the classical-mechanical treat- 
ment of any given motion or interaction. 

The modern period in the evolution of physics and the creation of a 
unified world picture fits fairly closely within the span of a century, the 
19th, culminating with the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity in 1895- 
1896, the discovery of the quantum laws in 1900, and the formulation of the 
theory of relativity in 1905. The 19th century is noted, first of all, for 
the discovery of a new form of matter, the electromagnetic field, which 
does not have any rest mass. Secondly, the 19th century saw the unification 
of different forms of matter; electrical and magnetic phenomena proved to 
be the manifestation of a single electromagnetic field, and thermal pheno- 
mena were basically reduced to mechanical processes, i.e. , to the energy 
of the random motion of atomic particles. The electromagnetic wave also 
proved to be endowed with thermal properties (like any other kind of matter), 
viz. , energy, temperature, entropy. 

An important part in this unification was played by the universal law of 
conservation of energy, established in the middle of the 19th century (Meyer, 
Joule, and Helmholtz). When the great significance of energy was realized, 
attempts were even made to construct a unified world picture on the basis 
of the concept of energy alone. This picture, propounded by Ostwald, proves 
to be too restrictive; it blurred the distinctions between the individual 
properties of the elements, stressed nonatomistic conceptions, and ulti- 
mately had an adverse effect on scientific thought. A fundamental discovery 
was that of one of the elementary carriers of electrical charge, i.e. , the 
negatively charged electron, which was predicted by Helmholtz. This 



23 



discovery came relatively late (J.J. Thomson, 1897) and was already 
associated with the first probings into the atomic world. 

Once it had become clear that electrons are a constituent part of every 
atom and determine its basic optical, magnetic and other properties, and that 
they carry the current in conductors and produce the chemical bonding of 
atoms and molecules, the idea naturally occurred of constructing a unified 
electromagnetic world picture. The components of this picture, it was 
assumed, would be charged particles and the electromagnetic field. 

It must be recognized that the attempt to construct an electromagnetic 
world picture constituted a logical development and a definite step forward. 
This picture relied, of course, on the relativistic mechanics of particle 
motion (rather than Newton's classical laws), since it was with electrons 
that the laws of motion of fast particles were first verified, while the 
electromagnetic field itself intrinsically required a relativistic treatment. 
This is especially true of electromagnetic waves, which move with the 
limiting velocity of light. It was even suggested to represent charges as 
singularities within the field itself, or perhaps as some kind of condensa- 
tions of the field. Let us recall that Lenin clearly perceived the following: 
that the development of the mechanics of fast particles (essentially, the 
theory of relativity and the field hypotheses on the structure of the electron) 
constituted a marked improvement over the former classical-mechanical 
picture of the world. 

The fundamental idea that all the proper energy of the electron resides 
in the energy of its electromagnetic field was first expressed by Thomson 
and Abragam, However, the subsequent discovery of the neutron, the 
neutrino, and of other charged and neutral particles, as well as the inter- 
pretation of gravitation in geometrical terms, conclusively showed that it 
is quite impossible to reduce- matter to the electromagnetic field alone. 
The hypothesis of an electromagnetic world picture therefore quietly gave 
way, in contrast to the reluctant and tumultuous retreat of mechanism. 

Let us dwell in brief on a third serious attempt to construct a unified 
world picture, which was associated with the founding of Einstein's general 
theory of relativity (1915). 

In a quite unexpected way, Einstein associated gravitation with the curvature 
of space-time, produced by any kind of matter. According to his theory, 
the components of the metrical tensor g.^., , which describes the curvature 
of space in Riemannian geometry, are identical with the ten components 
of the gravitational potential, which is a generalization of the Newtonian 
potential with its single component. 

Einstein's theory of gravitation, which he conceived as a "general theory 
of relativity" extending to any kind of motion the results of the ordinary 
"special" theory of relativity, which applies only to rectilinear uniform 
motion, was a magnificient conception of great profundity, but it introduced 
in practice only small corrections into the ordinary Newtonian theory. 

At the present time, these corrections have been revealed in only three 
effects: 

1) in the small shift of the perihelion of Mercury's orbit, amounting to 
43" per century; 

2) in the deflection of a light ray in a gravitational field, for instance 
of the ray coming from a star past the Sun in the space curved by the Sun, 
amounting to 1.75" (near the edge of the Sun's disk); 



24 



3) in the red shift of spectral lines in a gravitational field, which has 
been detected both for the Sun and for dense stars. 

At the beginning of 1960 Pound and Rebka of Harvard University and 
Cranshaw and his colleagues at Harwell first detected an analog of Einstein- 
ian effects in the laboratory rather than under astronomical conditions. They 
succeeded in measuring a small line shift in the gamma-ray spectrum 
emitted by atoms of the isotope Fe** at various heights differing by only a 
few meters. This was done by making use of aremarkable property of gamma 
rays, discovered in 1958 by the German physicist Mossbauer. He found 
that the gamma spectrum emitted by radioactive nuclei of iron atoms 
located at the lattice points of a crystal exhibits very sharp lines, due to 
the fact that the recoil momentum is taken up by the lattice. 

All these effects prove ultimately that space-time is curved, i. e. , that 
it deviates from a flat, four-dimentional, pseudo-Euclidean continuum. 
This also vindicates the insights of Lobachevskii, Bolyai, and Riemann, 
who first established the possibility of a non-Euclidean geometry correspond- 
ing not to a flat but to a curved three-dimensional space. 

It must be noted that we are referring here to the curvature of the whole 
four-dimensional world constituted by space and time. The close link 
between space and time was established, as is known, in the special theory 
of relativity by its founders, Lorentz, Poincare, Einstein, and Minkowski 
(1905-1908). 

Besides the three effects derived from the general theory of relativity, 
Einstein's theory also predicts some other phenomena, the most important 
of which may be considered the possible existence of gravitational waves, 
propagated with the speed of light and apparently carrying energy. 

Gravitational waves may be in principle revealed either by means of a 
suitable detector, directed at the Sun or other astronomical objects capable 
of emitting relatively large pulses of such waves, or else by building some 
type of powerful gravitational-radiation generator in the laboratory. 

In the opinion of J. Weber (U. S. A. ), who constructed the first operating 
setup (1962), the best way of detecting gravitational waves is to use piezo- 
electric quartz crystals, inwhich the waves would produce a strain re suiting in 
electrical polarization. V. B. Braginskii and G.I. Rukman (Moscow) recently 
suggested that the nonstatic character of gravitation maybe disclosed by look- 
ing for gravitational effects in suitably rotating masses, and came up with 
a new design for a piezoelectric generator of gravitational waves, based on 
the use of quadrupole oscillators. It may be noted that some points in the 
matter are still not very clear, due to the complexity of the nonlinear 
equations involved. At any rate, the problem of discovering gravitational 
waves is now placed for the first time on firm experimental ground and is mobi- 
lizing the powerful resources of modern radioelectronics and other techniques. 

If gravitational waves carrying energy are detected, a new form of 
matter will have been discovered; this is bound to have many physical 
implications and might eventually give rise to technological applications. 
Some experiments have also now been set up for the first time (Fairbank, 
Nordsieck), designed to display the rotational effects predicted by Einstein's 
theory (Thirring and Lense, Schiff). 

Recently, two interesting experiments were performed which did not 
yield any basically new findings but provided a more precise means of 
investigating gravitational phenomena. V.B. Braginskii and G. I. Rukman 
showed the absence of any screening of gravitation, and thus disproved the 



25 



older, less precise, observations of Majorana. Further refinements are 
none the less expected to exhibit some screening effect. At Princeton 
(U.S.A.), Dicke demonstrated the equality of inertial and gravitational 
mass, with a precision fifty times higher than that of the classical EOtvOs 
experiments. Some interesting proposals have been made of trying to 
detect antigravitation in anti-/C-mesons (Podgoretskii, Okonov, and 
Khrustalev in Dubna). 

The success of Einstein's theory, the first to have refined the concept 
to gravitation since Newton, naturally roused hopes for the possibility of 
reducing the electromagnetic field, as well as all other fields and properties 
of matter, to the geometrical properties of space-time. 

In 1918 an article by Weyl was published which considered the 
construction of a geometrized world picture, and it was followed by a 
large number of works on this same subject. 

However, in spite of the enormous number of papers produced on the 
subject, including many by Einstein himself, and by other eminent theore- 
ticians and mathematicians, which no doubt substantially contributed to the 
development of higher geometry, the attempts to construct a geometrized 
unified theory of matter did not achieve any material success. 

No new physical results have been obtained (except for one minor 
achievement, the derivation of the Klein-Gordon equation in five dimensions) 
which go to establish a relativistic quantum field theory and which are 
directly applicable (as it later turned out) to it and /<-mesons. It should 
be noted, furthermore, that the aims of such authors were too broad, 
as they were trying not only to work out a unifield field theory 
(comprising the gravitational, the electromagnetic, and later also 
the mesic fields), but also to derive the existence of particles and even of 
quantum phenomena from geometrical schemes. It has now become clear 
that this should be attempted on the basis of quantum theory, but in a 
considerably generalized form. It is therefore not surprising that the 
flow of papers devoted to a geometrized field theory subsided in the 1920's, 
when physicists were beginning to develop quantum mechanics, turning in 
the thirties to the intensive investigation of the atomic nucleus and later of 
the elementary particles. 

Does this mean that the geometrized picture of the world is to be 
committed to history, like its predecessors, the classical-mechanical 
and the electromagnetic world pictures? 

It appears that this question must be answered in the negative. At the 
present time, it would no longer occur to anyone to raise the possibility of 
constructing a purely electromagnetic unified picture of matter, it being 
manifestly too restrictive and altogether impracticable, whereas a number 
of leading scientists are still trying to evolve a geometrized unified field 
theory. 

A particularly noteworthy attempt to arrive at a geometrized field theory, 
proceeding from the wealth of information available on the elementary 
particles and based on quantum field theory, was made in recent years by 
the American physicist J. A. Wheeler. His theory, which he regards as a 
continuation of the works of Riemann, Clifford and Einstein, Wheeler called 
"geometrodynamics". The field of geometrodynamics constitutes a serious 
attempt to construct a unified world picture. Work on it has still not gone 
beyond Princeton University, but it has already drawn the attention of 
scientific circles, for instance, at recent international conferences 



1419 26 



on gravitation (at Royaumont in 1959 and, to a lesser extent, at Jablonna- 
Warsaw in 1962), and in the scientific literature of the last few years. 

Geometrodynamics, like any other theory of matter, can be realistic 
only if it takes into account quantum phenomena. Quantum geometro- 
dynamics, following behind the classical theory, is just making its first 
steps. It stresses the topological aspects of geometry and emphasizes the 
fundamental role which is bound to be played by quantum fluctuations 
(random deviations) of the metric. 

Fluctuations of the vacuum necessarily take place in any kind of field. 
It is, for instance, well known that when the vacuum fluctuations of the 
photon field and electron-positron field "knock off" an electron, they 
shift slightly the energy levels of the electron, as Lamb has shown for 
the electron in the hydrogen atom (1947). The theory of the Lamb shift has 
been developed to a high degree of precision and has been found in excellent 
agreement with experiments. In the course of developing the theory some 
methods typical of modern quantum field theory were worked out; for 
instance, various singular functions were used, entirely relativistic calcu- 
lations were made, and the infinite electromagnetic mass, and in general 
any field mass, of particles (and also the field portions of the charge and 
other coupling constants) were isolated by means of the "renormalization" 
procedure. 

The necessity of taking into account the fluctuations of a weak gravita- 
tional field was pointed out in some of our papers, and also recently by 
D.I. Blokhintsev. Wheeler goes even farther than that and makes the daring 
assumption that there may be fluctuations of all the gravitational potentials 
and of the metrical tensor, and points out that at very small distances of the 

order of the critical universal gravitational length r~ "1/ 

where G is the gravitational constant, such fluctuations must attain con- 
siderable values. This may cause the topology of space to change, with 
the formation of multiply connected regions, gaps, holes connected by 
"shafts", etc. The suggestion as to the necessity of fluctuations in the metric 
or in the gravitational field and the need for taking into account topological 
factors, which have been disregarded before, seem to be the most significant 
aspects of geometrodynamics. The theory also puts forward the hypothesis 
that the "bare" electron, without its surrounding field, which is associated, 
according to quantum theory, with nonrenormalized mass and charge, may 
be identified with a hole; its antiparticle, the positron, is then identified 
with the hole at the other end of the "shaft". However, quite independently 
of the incompleteness of classical geometrodynamics, there is in quantum 
geometrodynamics a fundamental difficulty, stemming from the fact that, 
proceeding from a metric described by a second-rank tensor (in other words, 
from a Bose gravitational field, whose waves have a spin S=2, in fractions 

of ~^), it is very difficult to go over to fermions, in particular to electrons 

and neutrinos, represented by spinors (which maybe described as semivectors 
or tensors of rankV2). and possessing half-integral spin, S—'/i. Let us 
remark at this point that, on the other hand, modern unified nonlinear spinor 
theory considers fermions as basic, although it is not yet capable of describ- 
ing the total gravitational field. In any case, Wheeler's interesting and 
stimulating work on geometrodynamics has its positive side, in that it 



27 



^ ;=10-'' 



endeavors to link the theory of elementary particles with the processes 
occurring in stars, galaxies, and all the known universe. Wheeler also 
considered "geons" — hypothetical giant concentrations of the electromag- 
netic field, or of neutrinos, or of the gravitational field, held together by 
their own gravity. We may note in this connection that Wheeler entertains 
the hypothesis, as we do, that it may be possible for electron-positron and 
other particle pairs to be transformed not only into photons but also into 
gravitons (and also for proton- antiproton pairs to change into n mesons); 
moreover, he believes, conversely, that it may be possible for the gravi- 
tational field to be transformed into ordinary matter. Somewhat earlier 
we calculated, together with A, A. Sokolov and A. M. Brodskii, the probability 
of an electron-positron pair (or more precisely, of two scalar particles) 
transforming into two gravitons, as defined by the effective cross section: 



^ 241C/-2 






where r^= — ^ is the gravitational radius of the particle, £ is the energy, 

V is the velocity of the electron, and c is the velocity of light. Afterward, 
I. Piir (at Tartu) computed the probability of transformation of photons 
into gravitons, and Wheeler and Brill estimated the probability of trans- 
formation of a neutrino-antineutrino pair into gravitons. More precise 
calculations were recently carried out by Vladimirov and Feynman. Con- 
siderable attention is devoted in these papers to various cases of emission 
of gravitational waves (in the naotion of stars, or of whole galaxies) and their 
subsequent behavior is analyzed, specifically with respect to the expansion 
of the universe. 

When determining the stability conditions of the motions of astronomical 
objects, account has to be taken of the gravitational waves emitted over 
billions of years. If the gravitational waves reach some state of equilibrium, 
a definite temperature must be assigned to them, in the same way as for 
a neutrino gas. 

We may mention at this point that quite recently efforts have been directed 
toward developing another generalization of Einsteinian theory, involving 
"twisted" rather than curved space-time. The geometry of a space twisted 
on itself was proposed as early as the twenties by Cartan, Einstein, and 
Weizenbeck, but it failed to yield any concrete physical results. Not long 
ago, however, V. Rodichev and R. Finkel'shtein showed that in twisted 
space a nonlinear correction automatically crops up in the Dirac equation 
used to describe electrons, protons, and all other fermions, the correction 
being exactly of the pseudovector type required by a unified nonlinear spinor 
theory of matter. The point has also been made by M0ller that it may be 
worthwhile adopting a special instance of twisted space (one in which there 
is absolute parallelism) in order to derive an effective expression for the 
energy of the gravitational field; in terms of Riemannian-Einsteinian 
curved space this has not yet been satisfactorily realized. 

It seems likely that the new treatment of the gravitational field, similarly 
to the electromagnetic and other Bose fields, as some kind of "compensating" 
field (in accordance with the ideas of Yang and Mills and of Sakurai, which 
have been supported by Gell-Mann, Schwinger, and Feynman and applied to 



28 



the case of gravitation in the studies of Utiyama, Kibble, and Brodskii- 
Ivanenko-Sokolik) should normally lead to the existence of a twist in space. 
It is still too early to say that space-time has been definitely proved to be 
twisted, but a significant attempt has certainly been made to generalize 
Einstein's theory in this direction. 

Mention should also be made of the various cosmological investigations 
which seek to generalize A. A. Fridman's theory, proceeding from the 
Einsteiniaxi equations for a nonstationary expanding universe. The investi- 
gations cover the case of a rotating anisotropic universe (Zel'manov, Godel, 
and Schiiking) and the theory of a universe in expansion but having constant 
density (Bondi, Hoyle); this already goes beyond the Einstein- Fridman 
naodels proper. 

There is a particular generalization of Einsteinian theory that stands 
apart, involved with the Dirac hypothesis on the slow secular decrease in 
the gravitational constant. Jordan, Dicke, and some other scientists have 
shown that this hypothesis has many astronomical and geological consequences, 
such as the fact the Earth is slowly expanding. Significantly enough, there 
are some geologists who also claim that the Earth is expanding at the rate 
of about half a millimeter per year (Egyed, Wilson, cf. also V. B. Neiman). 
It would be interesting to correlate this expansion with the secular increase 
in the length of the day (Ivanenko-Sagitov), and perhaps also with the forma- 
tion of the network of gigantic cracks on the Earth (Peive, Heezen, and 
others). At any rate, studies in gravitation, space-time and cosmology 
are proceeding at a lively pace, and they are bound to yield findings of 
fundamental significance for an integral world picture. 



II. MODERN IDEAS ON THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER. 
ATOMS, NUCLEI, AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 

Let us now pause to examine the structure of "ordinary" matter, atoms, 
nuclei, and elementary particles, leaving out gravitation for the moment. 
In the interaction of particles of any accessible energy, up to energies of 
about 10^ or 10^^ ev detected in cosmic rays, at all the small distances 
attained, down to distances of about / = 10"^^cm, the gravitational forces are 
vanishingly small with respect to the electromagnetic forces, and even more 
so as compared with nuclear forces. The question as to the effect gravita- 
tional forces have on the inner structure, i.e. , the core of particles, is 
still a moot point; there, it seems, they have to be taken into account. 

Before tackling the classification of particles and the construction of 
what may be termed a unified "atomic" picture of matter, let us recall 
briefly the current concepts of the structure of atoms and nuclei, and the 
main events in the discovery of elementary particles. 

The contemporary attempts at producing a quantum atomic picture of 
matter constitute a fourth stage, following the attempts at a universal 
mechanical, electromagnetic, and geometrical world picture. 

As is known, all substances occurring in nature are basically made up 
of atoms of various chemical elements. The system atization of the elements 
was achieved by D. I. Mendeleev, who arranged them in a table by increasing 
order of atomic weight. The serial number of an element in Mendeleev's 



29 



periodic table is equal to the charge of the atomic nucleus or to the number 
of electrons in the neutral aton^. The structure of the atoms of all the 
elements is in a sense similar to the solar system: at the center is located 
the positively charged nucleus, around which revolve the negatively charged 
electrons. The parallel with the solar system, which was demonstrated by 
Rutherford in 1911, is not accidental: it derives from the fact that Newton's 
law of attraction in the solar system on the one hand, and the Coulomb law 
of electrical attraction between the electrons and the nucleus in atoms on 
the other, are expressed by the same dependence on the distance. In both 
cases the force of attraction varies in inverse ratio to the square of the 
distance: 

p GmM p _ e, g; 



The magnitude of the force of electrical attraction between the electrons 
and the nucleus is, however, immensely larger than that of the force of 
gravitation between them, by a factor of about 10^" 1 

And this is where the similarity ends. The most important difference 
between an atom and the solar system resides in the fact that the electrons 
and atomic nuclei do not obey the laws of classical mechanics but those of 
quantum mechanics. It is possible to speak of the orbits of electrons 
only as a rough approximation, in the sense of their being the most probable 
trajectories, as the motion of the electron cannot really be visualized in 
classical terms; the electron may be seen to move everywhere within the 
atom. 

What is involved in essence is that the state of an atom is defined by a 
probability wave, viz. , the iji wave. The atom settles into one of a set of 
stationary states, in each of which the electrons may be described as 
revolving about the nucleus along definite orbits (i.e. , the most probable 
ones) containing an integral number of waves. 

The energies of the atomic electrons can assume only a discrete 
(discontinuous) series of values. When an electron "jumps" from one state 
to another in the atom, it either emits or absorbs a definite amount of 
electromagnetic energy (a quantum of light or a photon): 

£ = /iv. 

The fact that the electron exhibits wave properties, and all the other 
remarkable predictions of the quantum (wave) mechanics founded by Bohr, 
Sommerfeld, de Broglie, Heisenberg, Schrodinger, Dirac, and Born, have 
been brilliantly verified by many experiments. We will not delve into 
the interpretation of quantum mechanics, however, since we are interested 
at this point only in the structure of matter. 

In the simple and light hydrogen atom, there is one electron revolving 
around a proton. In the helium atom, there are two electrons revolving 
around a nucleus having a charge of +2. The atomic nuclei are, in turn, 
complex systems, consisting of protons and neutrons, as it was eventually 
found after the discovery of the neutron and after theoretical analysis. In the 
atom of uranium, which is element No. 92 in the periodic table, 92 electrons 
revolve around a nucleus of charge +92, consisting of 92 protons and 146 



30 



neutrons (the principal uranium isotope Vg^). For a long time after 
Mendeleev the list of known elements did not go beyond uraniun:. In the 
1930's and 1940's, the elements missing from the periodic table, Nos. 61, 
73, and 75, were obtained by nuclear bombardment. In the same way, the 
use of nuclear reactions finally provided the means of going beyond the 
limits of the old system of elements and of obtaining one after another an 
ever-increasing group of transuranic elements, beginning with neptunium— Np 
(No. 93), and plutonium — ^Pu (No. 94), which is of importance in nuclear 
engineering, through the subsequently discovered elements americium^^m 
(No. 95), curium— Cm (No. 96), berkelium— Bk (No. 97), californium— Cf 
(No. 98), einsteinium— Es (No. 99), fermiuna — Fm (No. 100), and up to 
mendelevium — Md (No. 101). At the present time Swedish, Soviet, and 
American physicists are trying to determine the property of element No. 102, 
No (nobelium), whose name has not yet been definitely decided upon. Quite 
recently element No. 103, Lw (lawrencium), was discovered. As we see, 
the new transuranic elements are named not only after geographical places 
but also after great scientists whose work has been associated with the 
discovery of new elements, with studies on the atomic nucleus, and with 
the construction of particle accelerators, such as Curie, Einstein, Fermi, 
Mendeleev, and Lawrence. 

Without going now into the details of atomic structure, the arrangement 
of electrons into shells, or the interesting properties of the transuranic 
elements, let us just point out that the question naturally arising as to the 
top limit of the periodic system of elements, i.e. , the largest possible 
number of nuclei which are stable to any appreciable extent, has not yet 
been finally settled. It is well known that, without exception, all the nuclei 
of isotopes from No. 84 on are radioactive, i.e. , they disintegrate spon- 
taneously with the emission of either helium nuclei (designated as a particles) 
or p particles (electrons) and of v rays. Many nuclei of the heavier ele- 
ments spontaneously decay into two or more fragments of approximately 
equal size. This effect was discovered by G. N. Flerov and K. A. Petrzhak 
shortly after Hahn had demonstrated the fission of uranium by neutron 
bombardment. 

Recently a detailed study was made of the spontaneous fission of element 
No. 102 into 3 fragments. The rough theoretical estimates worked out by 
Wheeler yielded at first the rather exaggerated value of Z^ «:< 200, and later 
Zc =« 140 for the possible number of the significantly stable elements. The 
calculations we performed together with N. N. Kolesnikov gave the more 
"pessimistic" estimate of about Z^ =5110-120 for the number of possible 
elements. 

The latest data seem to support the more conservative estimates. This 
means that the nuclei of the elements with Z^.— 110 — 120 ought to 
disintegrate within a very short time, mainly by spontaneous fission, and 
thus the existence of atoms with such nuclei (or with any heavier ones) must 
be impossible. Alpha decay by spontaneous fission is caused by the fact 
that when there is a large number of protons in the nucleus, i.e. , in 

elements with a high Z^ number, where —j- » 40, the electrical forces of 

repulsion become so considerable that they are no longer balanced by the 
nuclear forces of attraction between the protons and neutrons. A recent 
discovery was that of proton radioactivity (G. N. Flerov, V.I. Gol'danskii). 



31 



Let us now turn to the atomic nucleus. After the discovery of the 
neutron by Chadwick, and our preliminary investigations started in 
collaboration with V.A. Ambartsumyan, we established the fact that the 
atomic nucleus can consist only of heavy particles, viz., protons and 
neutrons (nucleons), and does not contain either electrons or any other 
leptons (light particles), i. e., positrons or m mesons. 

It was later found that some newly discovered super-heavy particles, 
such as the lambda hjrperon (A), may also be included in nuclei, though not 
of the ordinary kind, but in hypernuclei that are occasionally formed in 
certain types of reactions. 

The hyperons, as we shall subsequently see, may be considered in many 
respects as excited states of nucleons, and thus the currently accepted model 
of the nucleus, a somewhat generalized form of the older version, has it that 
all nuclei consist of heavy particles, or baryons (nucleons and hyperons), 
held together by short-range forces, essentially of the ir-meson type. 

The type of forces involved must be specified, since there is evidence 
that a very short-lived, metastable system can be formed by nucleons, 
such as the proton and antiproton, which is held together by electrical rather 
than nuclear forces. An example is the positronium atom, formed by an 
electron and a positron. 

Our proton-neutron model, supported primarily by W. Heisenberg and 
E. N. Gapon, quickly came to be ranked with the other existing njodels of 
Auger, Perrin, and Dirac, which postulated nuclei containing protons, 
neutrons, and electrons. It left, however, one basic question to be answered: 
what is the explanation for the emission of electrons, and of what was later 
recognized as antineutrinos, in the natural beta-decay of nuclei, or in 
artificially induced beta-decay later discovered by Fermi? Also, what is the 
explanation for the corresponding emission of positrons and neutrinos in 
positron decay, discovered by the Joliot-Curie team in 1934? 

The answer, as it turned out, gave rise to animated controversy. It 
states that the protons and neutrons composing the nucleus are elementary 
particles, not consisting of any other actual particles. Beta-decay is a 
generative action, involving the emission of new particles (electrons, 
neutrinos), in the same way as in the emission of protons by atomic 
electrons or of gamma protons by nuclear particles, new particles 
are produced which were not initially present in the radiating system. This 
interpretation of beta-decay was also adopted by Blackett and Occhialini, 
who discovered together with Anderson the positron and the production and 
annihilation of electron-positron pairs. In this respect their work may be 
considered as definite proof of the proton-neutron model of the nucleus 
which may be said to have been universally accepted at the First Soviet 
Nuclear Conference and at the International Conference on Nuclear Science 
held at Solvay in 1933. 

All the isotopes of the 103 known elements of the periodic system are 
made up of only three kinds of elementary particles — protons, neutrons, 
and electrons. 

Let us illustrate the point by means of two familiar examples, which may 
be helpful in our subsequent discussion. The neutral hydrogen atom consists 
of a single electron revolving around a proton (light hydrogen), and that of 
deuterium consists of an electron revolving around a deuteron (D=h5 ), i. e. , 
the hydrogen isotope known as heavy hydrogen, which consists of a proton 



32 



and a neutron. Lastly, in the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium 
(T=H?), the electron revolves around a triton nucleus, made up of a proton 
and two neutrons. 

If hypernuclei are taken into consideration, further types of hydrogen 
are possible: the hypertriton A— H?, in which one of the neutrons is 
replaced by a lambda hyperon, or even a hypernucleus of hydrogen of 
atomic weight 4, A — Hi, in which the electron revolves around a nucleus 
made up of one proton, two neutrons, and one Ao hyperon. 

In regard to the various possible types of hydrogen it is also relevant 
to point out that not only electrons but also negative muons, pions, or 
K mesons may also revolve around ordinary nuclei (or around hypernuclei), 
thus forming mesic hydrogen, or, correspondingly, other «-, (t-, and 
iC-mesic atoms. The i»-and ic-mesic atoms were discovered at the beginning 
of the fifties by Rainwater and Fitch; these atoms are characterized by 
distinctive spectra and they have been fairly well investigated by now 
throughout the range of elements from mesic hydrogen to mesic lead. 

A significant aspect of mesic atoms is the fact that the motion of the 
meson is appreciably affected by the distribution of protonic charge over the 
nucleus. This is because the mesons have larger mass, and their orbits 
are much closer to the nucleus than electron orbits. The mesons in heavy 
mesic atoms move very close to the surface and sometimes even jump 
through the nucleus. Clearly, the study of mesic atoms can yield valuable 
information on the structure, size and shape of nuclei, and some important 
data have already been obtained in this way. In particular, the use of mesic 
atoms has provided the most accurate measurement of the size of nuclei. 

Now since the atoms of all the chemical elements occurring in nature 
turn out to be built of three kinds of elementary particles, the electrons, 
protons, and neutrons, it might be assumed that other forms of matter, 
that is to say, other particles, play no part in the atoms or nuclei and are 
produced only by various nuclear reactions in cosmic rays or in the 
laboratory. In point of fact, such is not the case. Aside from the three 
types of particles actually present in atoms, the latter also contain (in a 
latent or virtual state, so to speak) fields responsible for the coupling 
forces between the particles. The electron, for instance, is attracted to 
the nucleus mainly because of electrostatic forces (other electromagnetic 
forces play an insignificant part). The atoms emit this field in bundles 
taking the form of photons, when the electrons pass from a higher to a lower 
energy level or when atoms collide with each other. The photon, which is 
the field quantum of energy E=hv, is quite similar to any other particle: 

it possesses a definite angular momentum (spin), S = I •— ; an aggregate of 

photons, like other particles with integral spin, obeys the Bose statistics. 
Such "bosons" are also the it and K mesons, which have no spin, and the 
as yet hypothetical gravitons of spin 2. The basic difference between the 
photon and other particles such as the electron is that the photon has no 
rest mass. Furthermore, the electrons, protons, n mesons, neutrons, 
neutrinos, and all the hyperons, possess half- integral spin (in units of h/2n) 
and obey the Fermi-Dirac statistics. All such "fermions" are subject to 
Fault's exclusion principle, which states that any energy state of given 
momentum can contain only two fermions with antiparallel spin momenta. 
The electromagnetic field is also present in a virtual, unradiated state 
in nuclei, and causes the electrostatic repulsion between protons and the 



33 



magnetic interaction between protons and neutrons (since both these nucleons 
possess magnetic moments). These facts have actually been known for 
quite a while, and until recently only some very fine quantum corrections, 
often difficult to calculate or to measure, have been found. In particular, 
one of the major events in postwar physics was Lamb's discovery in 1947 
of the small additional shift in the energy levels of the electron in the 
hydrogen atom. The Lamb shift, which is a correction of the one obtained 
by Dirac's relativistic theory generalizing the results of Bohr, Sommerfeld, 
and Schrodinger, proved to be the result of the interaction of the electron 
with the fluctuations (deviations) in the "zero-point" oscillations of the 
photonic field and the electron-positron field, which had not been taken into 
account before (the calculation of Bethe, Schwinger, Feynman, and Dyson). 
During the same period, in 1947, Kusch, working with radio electronics at 
the Rabi Laboratory of Colombia University, discovered a small correction 
to the magnetic moment of the electron, i. e. , to the usual Bohr magneton. 
He found that the magnetic moment of the electron is: 

|i, = |i„-1.0O1165; 
e/t 



l»o = 



4junc 



This "anomalous" correction turned out to be due to the so-called 
"vacuum" effects, which may be visualized as the electron being shaken 
from its position under the impact of the photons continually produced by 
random fluctuation, even though the average electromagnetic field may be 
zero, and also partly by the fluctuation of the electron-positron pairs whose 
field surrounds the electron. 

We now turn to another very important fact. In addition to the electro- 
magnetic field, there are in atomic nuclei also other fields, responsible for 
nuclear forces. The fundamental forces that hold the proton and neutron 
together in the nucleus are neither gravitational nor electromagnetic. The 
field of nuclear forces, which are tremendously strong, thus displays 
distinctive characteristics, such as the fact that its particles possess rest 
mass. This was established in the early theoretical studies made of nuclear 
forces, which were supposed to be due to electron-antineutrino (or positron- 
neutrino) pairs (Tamm, Ivanenko, and later Heisenberg, Sokolo^-). A 
subsequent signal achievement was that of the Japanese physicist Yukawa, 
who predicted the existence of a new, mesic field that is responsible for 
the nuclear forces and whose quanta in the free state are the particles 
called mesons, having an intermediate mass between that of the electron 
and the nucleon (1935). It proved very difficult to cause the emission of 
mesons, i.e. , to separate the nuclear field from the nucleons, for the reason 
that the mesons represent a "strong" coupling, in fact the strongest known 
as yet between any kind of particles. Quanta of the nuclear field, emitted by 
atomic nuclei in the collisions between protons or neutrons, were discovered 
in 1947 by Powell and indeed turned out to be particles with a mass of 274 m 
(electron masses). As theoretically predicted, they possess integral spin, 
or, more precisely, zero spin. These particles were named ic mesons, or 
"pions" (the Greek letter n was used to stand for the words "primary" 
and "Powell"). 



34 



It is thus fundamentally the pionic field that gives rise to the nuclear 
forces, in the same way as the electric field between protons and electrons 
is caused by their charges. The nuclear forces between nucleons are 
produced by one nucleon emitting a pion and another absorbing it. There 
are also neutral pions which are slightly lighter, with a mass of 264 m. 
Great advances have been made in the theory of interaction of nucleons and 
pions and in the experimental work associated with it, and it is now possible 
to explain many things about the scattering of pions, their production, and 
absorption. The theory of nuclear forces, which must be essentially due 
to 7t mesons, also elucidated many important points on the interaction 
between nucleons, in particular the fact that the forces are short-range, 
charge-independent, and central, and also on the form of spin dependence. 

The calculation of the nuclear forces at extremely small ranges is 
actually quite difficult, owing to the fact that many factors have to be taken 
into account: the recoil of the nucleon in meson exchange, the exchange of 
two or more pions, vacuum corrections, relativistic corrections for time 
differences between individual nucleons, K meson exchange, and, lastly, 
it is also very important to take into consideration the inner structure of 
the nucleons themselves. 

According to modern views the nucleon (a proton or a neutron) consists 
of some kind of "kernel", surrounded by a cloud or "fuzz" of pions and 
K mesons. At very short ranges, therefore, the forces between the pions 
themselves should come into play, which has only very recently began to 
be taken into account. Finally, it is possible, as was recently proposed by 
Sakurai, that the primary field directly associated with the nucleons is 
some still hypothetical vector field of " intermediate mesons", and that the 
V mesons are only the decay prodtict of the latter. All this shows that the 
theory of nuclear forces has not yet reached any final form. 

As we now understand it then, the atom with its nucleus is constituted 
of electrons, protons, and neutrons (in actual form), together with the 
electromagnetic and mesic fields (in latent form). Thus it might seem that 
the investigation of the structure of matter has now been completed. As it 
turns outs, however, the structure of matter cannot be explained by these 
particles alone, because a whole new set of elementary particles, closely 
associated with the former, has been lately discovered. 

First of all, it was found that the neutrons and pions are unstable 
particles, i. e. , they spontaneously decay, giving birth to new particles 
that are not directly involved in the structure of matter. The charged 
■K mesons invariably decay after an average lifetime of about 2 • 10"^ sec, 
producing two new particles: a neutrino or an antineutrino, together with 
a new meson-type particle, known as the n meson or "muon" (discovered 
in cosmic rays in 1937): 

K -► l» + v' ; ic~ -»- |i~ -)- V . 

Neutral muons have never been found. The neutral pion decays within an 
extremely short time, after about 10~'^ sec, giving rise to two gamma 
photons : «» -► 2 7 . 

Approximately one ten-thousandth of the pions decay according to the 
scheme: 



35 



The free neutron invariably decays after a lifetime of about 12 minutes 
into a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino: 

ra -> p + e~ + V . 

The decay of a neutron within the nucleus depends on the stability of the 
whole nucleus; the electrons produced in this case are termed beta particles. 
The reverse process, the absorption of an electron by a nuclear proton, 
is known as K capture: e_ +p->- n+i. The free protons are stable, while 
an excited nuclear proton decays according to the scheme: 

p ^ n + e^ + V , 

giving birth to a new particle, the positron, which is essentially similar to 
the electron; the positron has the same mass and spin, only its charge and 
magnetic moment are positive. Further, the positron has the lepton number 
/= — 1 (in the electron /=+!) and a preferred positive "helicity", in opposition 
to the electron. The positron is thus said to be the antiparticle of the 
electron. Electron-positron pairs may be produced when gamma photons 
hit atomic nuclei. The |i+ and p.- mesons are also "mirror" antiparticles 
and have lepton charges of opposite sign. 

The helicity is measured by the relative direction of the spin and the 
momentum. The beta-decay electrons, which have a preferred negative 
helicity, thus have a spin with a sense opposite to the motion. The 
remarkable new property of "helicity", which is most clearly exhibited in 
neutrinos (which have no rest mass), was discovered in 1956-1957 by the 
Chinese physicists Lee, Yang, and Wu. The characteristic polarization 
phenomena resulting fron: helicity have been studied in detail by Soviet, 
American, and other physicists (Alikhanov, Sokolov, Kerimov, Touschek, 
Tolhoek, and others). 

Of course, the process of the production of an electron-positron pair 
may be reversed; the electron and positron are then annihilated and e_ — c_^ 
are transformed into photons: 

e_ + e,-*2y (for particles with antiparallel spin), 

e_ + e^-»-3'y (for particles with parallel spin). 

These remarkable processes of the production and annihilation of particles 
possessing rest mass from and into field quanta that have no rest mass 
were predicted by Dirac and then observed in practice, in full agreement 
with the theoretical result, first in cosn^ic rays (Blackett and Occhialini, 
1933) and later by inducing them in the laboratory. It was subsequently 
found that all the particles may be produced under suitably given conditions, 
and on the other hand, that all the particles may transform into others, 
either spontaneously (like the neutron and w meson) or by colliding with 
another particle of the appropriate kind. Consequently, there is no such 
thing as a perfectly stable particle. 

In addition, it is possible for an electron and a positron to form a 
metastable system, positronium, in which the electron and the positron 
move around their common center of gravity. The positronium atom must 
eventually transform, either into two photons after about 10"*° sec (in the 
case of parapositronium), or into three photons after about 10" sec (in the 
case of orthopositronium). 

During the time it exists, the positronium may combine into njolecules 
with other atoms or diffuse through matter to a considerable distance. 



36 



Let us now return to the products of Tr-meson decay, the /u mesons; 
the latter decay spontaneously, and their decay reactions are: 

|i.~ ->■«_ + V + v', 
l»+-»e+ + v + v'. 

Thus, it would have also been possible to come to the discovery of 
positrons by studying the decay of positive muons. Until recently it was 
quite clear that the decay of muons gives rise to neutrinos and antineutrinos. 
However, assumptions have been entertained for some time now that there 
actually exist two types of neutrinos and antineutrinos; the neutrino v and 
the antineutrino ^ are associated with positron or electron beta-decay 
or K capture, i.e. , with processes of the type e_ + p--n+ •», while the other 
type of neutrino, v', and antineutrino, 7 (sometimes called neutrettos for 
the sake of distinction) are associated with muon decay. In the summer of 
1962 the American physicists Lederman and Steinberger conclusively proved 
the existence of neutrinos of the other, ^-meson type. Their experiment 
was based on the fact that the absorption of the ordinary, beta-decay anti- 
neutrinos by protons leads to the production of positrons (as was shown by 
Reines and Cowan): 

V + p ->■ n + e_^_, 

whereas the neutrinos produced together with (i mesons, on being absorbed 
give rise to n mesons again, and not to electrons or positronsl 
The reactions are thus as follows: 



,+ _ ..+ 



-t-v', 



it+ -► e""" H- V . 

An important advance was made in the fall of 1955 at Berkeley by 
Segr6 and Chamberlain, who, after searching for a long time in cosmic 
rays and in the laboratory, proved the existence of the antiproton and later 
of the antineutron. The antiproton is the antiparticle of the proton; it has the 
same mass and the same charge, except that its charge is opposite (negative). 
It has a negative magnetic naoment and is designated by the baryon (heavy) 
number B = — 1, while for the proton B= +\. Like the electrons and 
positrons, when protons and antiprotons collide they may transform into 
gamma photons, though their transformation into it mesons has a much 
higher probability. In that case, at moderate energies, about 5 pions are 
produced on the average: 

p + p-^~5n. 

These most interesting particles — the beta-decay and the |i-meson 
neutrinos ( V] + V2) and their corresponding antiparticles, the antineutrinos 
( »i+Vj) —have no rest mass, like the photons, but, unlike the photons which 

have integral spin (S= 1 — «) they possess half- integral spin (S = ;— n), like 

the electrons. It has been shown with great precision that beta-decay 



37 



neutrinos lack any rest mass; the mass of the |i-meson neutrinos is either 
exactly zero, or at the most extremely small. Being devoid of charge or 
magnetic moment, the neutrinos interact very weakly with other particles 
and have a high penetrating power. The neutrino differs from the anti- 
neutrino, its antiparticle, by its helicity, which may be represented 
as the direction of the spin with reference to the direction of motion, as 
well as by the sign of its lepton charge. Like the photons, the massless 
neutrinos move at the speed of light. The existence of the neutrino was 
predicted at the beginning of the thirties by Pauli on the basis of an analysis 
of the energy balance in beta-decay, and was later indirectly confirmed by 
the success achieved by the theory of beta-decay formulatedbyF. Perrin and 
particularly developed by E. Fermi in 1934. Direct experimental evidence 
was secured much later, in the middle of the fifties, when Cowan and 
Reines with their colleagues detected a stream of antineutrinos shooting 
out of a nuclear reactor. The neutrinos were produced in the beta-decay 
of excited nuclear fragments resulting from the fission of uranium. It 
proved possible to observe the reaction of antineutrino capture by protons 
in a bubble chamber, with the transformation of these particles into a 
neutron and positron: 

p +^ ->■ n + e_^. 

It is interesting to note that an appreciable part, about 10%, of the 
energy of the Sun and other stars is carried off into space in the form of 
neutrinos, which are emitted in the thermonuclear reactions occurring in 
stellar interiors. 

When the particles with which we are already familiar (pions, protons, 
neutrons, etc. ) go into high-energy collisions a whole flock of particles 
are produced, and together with the it mesons and nucleons there appear 
new particles, specifically "superheavy" particles, the hyperons, whose 
mass exceeds that of the nucleons (the protons and neutrons) and new types 
of K mesons ("kaons"), which are heavier than the pions. It is significant 
that such processes once again produce a variety of "antiparticles", or 
charge-conjugate particles, which are "mirror images" of the ordinary 
particles. 

Let us write down a couple of typical reactions of the production of new 
particles: 

„- + P-vA„ + A:» 

where Ao is a lambda hyperon and L~ is a sigma hyperon. 

The K mesons (the kaons) also turned out to be quite interesting particles, 
though strictly speaking there is no such thing as a dull particle, which does 
not display any distinctive characteristics. Furthermore, it appears that 
the only way to understand the properties of each particle is to consider them 
in their ensemble, similarly to a symphony orchestra, in which it is im- 
possible to eliminate any individual instrument without impairing the total 
effect. The K mesons decay in diverse ways — into two or three ic mesons, 
and alternatively into two or three particles together with leptons. Given 



38 



below are some typical instances of K-meson decay: 



K+ 


-«+ + 


u» 




-+ + 


r:+ + 7c» 




-+ + 


ItO+lt" 




e+ + 


» + 7C» 




e^ + 


tf 




1^+ + 


. + u" 




1^+ + 


pi. 



A single kaon track was discovered in 1941 by Leprince-Ringuet. After 
that investigators began to find many new particles in the range of 900- 
1200 m, and it was thought for a long time that there was a t particle which 
decays into three pions, and a 6 particle which transforms into two pions. 
It finally turned out that these are charged and neutral K mesons of virtually 
identical mass (966 m). To be precise, the neutral kaon is slightly heavier, 
with a mass of 974 m. 

As we climb up the scale of particle masses, we encounter for the first 
time the "strange" particles, in the guise of the K mesons. To the class 
of the strange particles belong all the hyperons. The first unusual property 
of the strange particles is the fact that they are produced in pairs. For 
instance, when high-energy « mesons collide with protons, among the 
particles produced there are always either two K mesons, or two hyperons, 
or a hyperon and a K meson. This is suggestive of the fact that the strange 
particles might possess some new property which is conserved, in a way 
similar to the electric or lepton charge. Thus, for instance, electrons are 
produced in pairs with positrons or neutrinos. The new conserved property 
of the K mesons and the hyperons was half-jokingly called strangeness. If 
the ^ + meson is assigned the strangeness S= +1, then its antiparticle, the 
K~ meson, will have the strangeness S = — 1, K" will have S= +1, and K" 
will have S = — 1 . 

We will not dwell in detail on all the phases of development in the 
discovery of the hyperons, but only mention that the first superheavy 
particle, the neutral A hyperon, was discovered in the analysis of cosmic- 
ray tracks by Butler and Rochester in 1947, which was a very eventful year 
for physics. The mass of the A hyperon is equal to 2183 m, and its 
strangeness S = — 1. Shortly afterward the heavier S hyperons, both charged 
and neutral, were discovered, and, finally, the heaviest of all the known 
particles —the cascade S hyperons. All the baryons, i.e., the nucleons 
and the hyperons, have a spin S='/2. which means that they are fermions. 
The concept of strangeness was first introduced by Gell-Mann and Nishijima 
and stands as a landmark in the physics of elementary particles, as it may 
be possible to analyze and interpret the complicated reactions in the pro- 
duction and decay of the strange particles, i.e. , the hyperons and kaons, 
and of some nonstrange particles as well — the pions and nucleons. 

The It particles, K particles, and the baryons form together a group 
known as the strongly interacting particles. They are distinguished from 
the leptons, or the light particles, i.e. , the electron, the two types of 



39 



neutrino, the muon, and the corresponding antiparticles, which are 
characterized by interactions of much lower intensity, the so-called weak 
interactions. In addition, of course, all the charged particles, whether 
light (the leptons), medium (the mesons), or heavy (the baryons), interact 
with each other by mieans of the electromagnetic field. 

When strange particles are produced by strong interaction the strangeness 
is conserved (two particles of opposite strangeness are produced), but in 
the decay of strange particles, which is due to weak interactions, the 
strangeness is not conserved. For instance. 



■p + ic~; E+ — n + it+; E" — Ao+y; B""— 
A„-*n + ir»; E+ — p + ^0 



A +ic~ 



The hyperons thus live relatively long , compared to nuclear lifetimes of 
R 10-" _jj 

T — ss~10 • their lifetime is about 10"^° sec, and not 10"^^ or 

C lo'" 

10~^^ sec, like the "resonons", for instance. 

Consequently, the law of conservation of strangeness holds only approxi- 
mately and not rigorously like the law of conservation of electric charge. 

Speaking of the electromagnetic interactions, which occupy an interme- 
diate position between the strong and weak interactions, it must be also 
remembered that many of the particles possess, in addition to an electric 
charge, also a magnetic moment. Thus the electron and the positron are 
"magnetized", smd their magnetism is mainly caused by their intrinsic 
spin, i.e. , they behave as rotating charges. Part of their magnetism is 
caused by additional complex "vacuum" interactions with the electromagnetic 
field and the electron-positron field. The extra effects are called vacuum 
interactions because they refer to virtual fields and particles and not to 
concretely observable entities. These concepts are highly sophisticated, 
but there is really nothing extraordinary about them. For instance, an old 
and familiar concept is that of the electromagnetic field associated with 
charges. Now if a charged particle is thoroughly "shaken up" — say, it is 
njade to collide with another particle or given a twist in a magnetic field — 
then part of the field surrounding the particle will detach itself and be 
emitted as a photon. In a similar way, it has been found that the particles 
are surrounded not only by an electromagnetic field but also by a field of 
electron-positron pairs. 

As a result, when charged particles collide it is possible that instead 
of an electromagnetic field quantum being emitted, an electron-positron 
pair is produced. In a sinailar manner the baryons are surrounded by a 
mesic field which is radiated in the form of pions or kaons. It is noteworthy 
that when highly energetic nucleons and hyperons collide, several short-lived 
mesons are produced at once. Speaking of magnetism, we may note that the 
muons, protons, neutrons, and hyperons are also magnetized. The magne- 
tism of the muons is in all respects similar to the magnetism of the electrons. 
The magnetic moments of the proton and the neutron are conditioned to a 
large extent by the magnetism of the jr-meson cloud which goes into the 
structure of these particles. 



40 



Apart from the "ordinary" elementary particles, researches in the last 
few years have uncovered a number of unusual quasi-particles, which 
might, for brevity, be designated as "resonons" since they appear for the 
most part as resonances in the scattering of particles (resonance maxima 
in the effective cross sections). Thus, for instance, nucleons were found 
to have an excited state N* with the charge +2e, which decays after a very 
short time, like the other resonons, with an average lifetime of about 
10"^'' sec only. 

If we adopt the common procedure of expressing the mass or the self- 
energy of a particle in electron-volts, we have for the energy of an ordinary 
nucleon 938 Mev, while the energy of N* is 1238 Mev. Further nucleon 
resonons have been found, denoted by N**, N*** and N****, with masses of 
1510, 1680, 1900 Mev, respectively (in round, not yet accurate figures). 

Hyperon resonons Y\ (1385 Mev) have been discovered, which very 
rapidly decay according to the scheme: 

and also resonons KJ, Kg, and Y" , with masses of 1405, 1520, and 1815 Mev, 
respectively. Resonons have also been discovered in the range of K and 
ic mesons, with the decay schemes: 

p-*2i<: (767 Mev) 
m-^Sit (780 Mev) 
Tl-»3ic (550 Mev). 

It turned out that the resonons p could be split into two states. 

The (i> resonon was the first of this category of quasi-particles to be 
discovered, by Alvarez (Berkeley). These formations are so short-lived 
that there is still no way to record their tracks. By analyzing the 
annihilation of protons and antiprotons, however, it has been shown that 
the mesons produced as a result (in batches of 5 as an average) are not all 
the same. Three of them are produced by the decay of some single intermediate 
particle, called the w particle. In a similar manner, when protons are 
irradiated with y photons, i. e. , in a photonuclear reaction, t) resonons are 
produced (the 1962 experiments in Frascati): 

■n-^y + y. 

The 1) particles may decay either into three pions, or else emit some 
V photons. It thus appears that the strong coupling may cause the x and 
K mesons to "stick" to each other, or to nucleons or hyperons, which leads 
to the formation of resonons. 

In many respects the resonons are similar to "excited" elementary 
particles — they possess a definite spin, isospin, and parity; on the other 
hand, they are in a way similar to systems of coupled particles. A task 
of prime importance is the thorough investigation of the resonons together 



41 



with the old, well-behaved particles. The discovery of the resonons has 
complicated matters, and shows once again the inexhaustible content of 
matter; at the same time, this will surely provide the means of solving 
r"me central problems in our understanding of the inner structure of 
particles and the ways in which they are related, and bring us a little closer 
to the formulation of a unified interpretation of all the kinds of matter as 
we know it. 

In order to throw things into their proper historical perspective, let us 
recall that the new elementary particles were first discovered in the 
laboratory (the electron, the proton, and the neutron), successively in 1897 
(J.J. Thomson), in 1911 (E. Rutherford), and in 1932 (J. Chadwick). 
Following this, particles were discovered in cosmic rays, specifically 
primary particles (mainly protons, but also deuterons and nuclei of helium 
and other elements) with tremendous energies, ranging in the vicinity of 
3 billion electron-volts (as observed in the middle latitudes); at that time 
terrestrial accelerators did not yield such energies.. Detected in cosmic 
rays were the positron (1932, Anderson- Blackett-Occhialini), the fx mesons 
(1935, Anderson), the pions (1947-1950, Powell), some of the K mesons 
or"kaons" (1941-1947, Leprince-Ringuet, O'Ceallaigh, and others), and some 
of the h3rperons, viz. A, E~, S+, E~ (from 1947 on, Rochester and Butler, 
Levi-Setti,. and others). Later it was possible to obtain high particle fluxes 
by means of powerful proton accelerators and to discover new particles 
(p, n, kF. V, a- E~ E+, E°, vj) and the resonons. 

In particular, in 1960 y^ere discovered all the members of the antisigma- 
hyperon family, viz. , the particles 2° (the Alvarez group in Berkeley, 
U.S.A.), E~ (the Van Ganchan group, and V. I. Veksler in Dubna), S+ (the 
Amaldi and Manfredini group in Rome, in the analysis of photographic 
plates irradiated at Berkeley). 

In order to give a picture of the efforts being devoted to probing into 
matter, let us list the most important accelerators operating in the world 
today, starting with the protonmachines: we have the American "Cosmotron", 
of 3.5 Bev; the American "Bevatron", of 7 Bev; the Soviet machine of lOBev 
at Dubna (with an electromagnet weighing about SO, 000 tons and weak 
focusing); and the French installation "Saturne", of 2.5 Bev. In 1960 a 
record-breaking proton accelerator, of 28 Bev (with a magnet weighing 
only about 3000 tons, strong focusing), was put into operation in Geneva, 
at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). A similar 
accelerator, of 33 Bev, was put into operation in 1962 at Brookhaven. 

In 1961 the Soviet 7 Bev proton accelerator (strong focusing) was built 
in Moscow, and it will serve as a model for a proton machine of 50-70 BevI 
Machines of up to 1000 Bev are now being planned. 

Certainly further advances in the detection of new particles and resonons 
and of their properties may be expected from the most powerful accelerators, 
and not only from the proton synchrotrons but also the electron synchrotrons. 

To this point we have been discussing only circular proton accelerators, 
in which the protons are pushed to high speeds by a comibination of electric 
and magnetic fields. Let us now list the existing top-energy electron 
accelerators. There are two machines in the U. S. A. , at the California 
Institute of Technology and at Cornell University, and a high-flux machine 
at Frascati, near Rome, imparting to the electrons energies in excess of 

1 Bev (1100-1200 Mev). In the fall of 1962 an electron synchrotron of about 

2 Bev was put into operation, which is planned to be brought up to 6 Bev 



42 



(U.S.A.). In addition, there is a linear electron accelerator of 1 Bev at 
Stanford University (U. S. A. ), where construction has also been started 
of a high-flux linear electron accelerator, two miles long, with an energy 
of about 30 Bev. 

The proton accelerators have made it possible to further considerably 
our knowledge of the nature of the strong interactions among nucleons, 
hyperons, and mesons. On the other hand, by scattering high electron 
fluxes from a linear accelerator on protons and deuterons, Hofstadter was 
able to explore for the first time the structure of the elementary particles, 
measure the size of the proton and the neutron ( /■ = 0.8-10~'' cm), and even- 
determine the way in which the charge is distributed within them. This is 
essentially a new development of the methods employed by Rutherford, who 
used helium nuclei to probe into the atom and thus discover its core, 
the atomic nucleus. 

Some promising experiments were performed at Frascati in 1961-62. 
Accelerated electrons were extracted from the accelerator and let into a 
storage ring, where they kept circulating with energies of several hundred 
Mev for about 2 days. By the same means it was also possible to store up 
fast positrons and even to create for the first time opposed beams of 
electrons and positrons. The resultant number of particles, however, was 
much too small to produce observable collisions, whose analysis is so 
important for determining the size and structure of the electron and the 
positron. Protons and tc and K~ mesons could not be used to determine 
the structure of particles, because when they come close to each other 
fresh particles are generated by the strong interaction; electrons, on the 
other hand, can smoothly "burrow" into the proton and undergo deflections 
by the electric forces stemming from the charge distribution within the 
particle. An accumulator for electrons was recently built in Novosibirsk. 

Let us now pause to consider a very interesting phenomenon detected in 
circular accelerators, which involves the emission of electromagnetic waves 
by relativistic electrons moving at nearly the speed of light. 

This special kind of radiation, of "radiating electrons", also known as 
"synchrotron" radiation, is the only instance of light emission that does 
not involve the collision of electrons with matter, i. e. , with other particles. 
In this case the relativistic electrons may be pictured as moving at such 
high accelerations that the electromagnetic field cannot "keep up" with 
them and detaches itself, i.e. , is emitted. In the energy range of tens to 
hundreds of Mev the maximum of this radiation lies in the visible region. 
This unusual type of radiation, visible to the naked eye, was discovered by 
Pollack in 1944, thus bearing out the theoretical predictions of Soviet 
physicists Ivanenko, Pomeranchuk, Artsimovich, and Sokolov. The 
electrons lose a considerable part of their energy by intense synchrotron 
radiation, and that sets a practical limit to the energies at which circular 
electron accelerators, for instance, the betatrons (Kerst) and their 
variations, the synchrotrons (V.I. Veksler, McMillan), can be operated. 

Photographs have been taken of beams of radiating electrons. At F. A. 
Korolev's laboratory a detailed study was made, on the synchrotron of the 
Academy of Sciences of the USSR, of the spreading of an electron beam with 
the increase of energy, owing to quantum oscillations of the orbits. As has 
been predicted by Sokolov and Ternov, at very high energies account has to 
be taken of the recoil experienced by the electrons when they emit photons. 



43 



At Frascati the emission of a single electron has been recorded photogra- 
phically, i. e. , the electron itself was made visible, rather than its tracks, 
which are seen in cloud chambers or photographic emulsions. We may 
note that the same kind of "synchrotron" radiation is emitted by fast 
relativistic electrons in interstellar and stellar magnetic fields and under 
other astronomical conditions. 

In the latter case the radiation is of much longer wavelength and is 
received as radio emission from stars, galaxies, etc. Synchrotron radia- 
tion also plays a part in plasma, where there are similarly relativistic 
electrons moving in a magnetic field (Trubnikov). 

Improvements in detection techniques (such as protracted irradiation of 
plates at high altitudes by means of planes and rockets, the launching of 
artificial satellites, the use of stacks of photographic emulsion measuring 
some cubic meters, etc. ) will certainly provide new means of using cosmic 
rays for discovering particles and studying their properties. The cosmic 
rays involve processes of stupendous energies of the order of 10^^ to 10*^ 
electron-volts, which are not likely to be attainedby terrestrial accelerators 
in the near future, even though there is some promise in the process of 
accelerating particles by means of self-regulation (Mints, Petukhov in 
Moscow), by means of intense laser radiation, and by accelerating plas- 
moids (V.I. Veksler), etc. 

It is an extremely complicated matter to discover a new particle, as was once 
the case with the discovery of anew chemical element, or, at a different time, of 
a new radioactive isotope. Thus, it has happened that after some particles 
had been "discovered" they had to be "undiscovered" later. This was the 
case with the now defunct varitrons and some heavy mesons, thought to 
exist in the mass range of 1000-1400 m, which later proved to be none other 
than the K meson with a basic mass of 966 m. Preliminary data on Z)-meson 
tracks (Van Ganchan in Dubna, 1959) prompted a reexamination of the old 
material on particles with masses of 1200-1500 m in the hope of discovering 
perhaps some rare D-meson tracks. They were, in fact, never found. 

A.I. Alikhanyan and his coworkers reported a flux of particles with a 
mass of approximately 550 m (about 1 % of the number of n mesons) 
observable in cosmic rays, but no such evidence has been uncovered in the 
experiments performed by Conversi (Rome) and in some other laboratories. 



III. PARTICLE CLASSIFICATION. ATTEMPTS TO 
CREATE A UNIFIED THEORY OF MATTER 

Let us construct a table of elementary particles (including the 
resonons), arranging them essentially by order of increasing mass (simi- 
larly to the way Mendeleev arranged the chemical elements by order of 
increasing atomic weight), and then segregate them into families, in 
accordance with current views. The mass or self-energy of a particle is 
ultimately its most significant characteristic, as it is for a nucleus and 
an atom, as well as a planet or a star. 

Let us now pause to examine the fundamental, irreducible properties 
of particles that are known. An important property after the mass is the 
spin of the particle, i.e. , its intrinsic angular momentum. In terms of 



44 



spin the particles fall into two distinct categories: the fermions, which have 
half-integral spin and are subject to Pauli's exclusion principle and to Fermi 
statistics, and the bosons, which have integral spin and obey the Bose 
statistics. The spin of a particle defines also the number of components of 
the corresponding wave function. Thus, for instance, in the case of a 
photon (spin S — \, in units of h/2ic) we have a vector wave function with three 
independent components; for the graviton (S = 2) we have a wave function 
in the form of a symmetric tensor of the second rank (10 components, 5 of 
them independent); for the it and K mesons (S = 0) we have a single- 
component wave function; finally, for all the fermions {S='ii) the wave 
function will be a spinor (of the Cartan type, or a tensor of rank one-half), 
in the general case with four components (Dirac-type bispinor); only in 
the case of the electron-type neutrinos v and, apparently, the other, muon- 
type neutrinos ■»', is it sufficient to take a 2-component spinor (of the Weyl 
type). It is further necessary to take into account the parity of the wave 
function, defined by the behavior of the function under a mirror reflection 
of the coordinates, or respectively under a time reversal. The wave 
function of the ic and K mesons then turns out to be a pseudoscalar and 
not a scalar (also characterized by a single component). A scalar and a 
pseudoscalar behave in the same way under all continuous transformations 
of the coordinates (and of time), such as rotation and Lorentz transforma- 
tions, but under mirror reflections a pseudoscalar changes sign, whereas 
a scalar remains invariant. 

Up to this point we have been discussing the "old" properties of particles 
and their behavior in space-time. The fundamental characteristics of 
space-time determine the invariance properties and the principal con- 
servation laws, viz, , 1) the homogeneity of space leads to the invariance 
of the field equations (and the corresponding Lagrangians) with respect to 
translations, and to the law of conservation of momentum; 2) the homo- 
geneity of the time dimension leads to the law of conservation of energy; 
and 3) the isotropy of space leads to the invariance with respect to rotation 
and to the conservation of angular momentum. 

The transformations of 3- and 4-dimensional translations and rotations 
and the corresponding conservation laws have been known for a long time; 
invariance with respect to mirror reflections of the coordinates (i. e. , the 
equivalence of left and right) and with respect to time reversal was also 
well-known, but the corresponding laws of conservation of the "parity" of 
the wave function were developed, of course, only after quantum mechanics 
had come into being, in 1924-1927. In the middle of the fifties it was found 
(thanks to the work of Lee, Yang, Wu, and others), however, that space 
parity (P) is conserved only in the strong, but not in the weak, interactions. 
What is conserved at all times is a composite quantity, the "combined 
parity", equal to the product of P and the charge parity C. Without going 
into detail, we may describe the basic operation involved not as a simple 
transition into the mirror world (since in fact mirror symmetry does not 
always hold), but rather as such a transition coupled with a change of sign 
of the charges (i.e. , together with charge conjugation, or particle-anti- 
particle conjugation). We can see, therefore, that it is impossible to 
remain within the framework of ordinary 4-dimensional space-time with 
the corresponding conservation laws, and that it is necessary to appeal to 
new particle properties and new conservation laws in order to understand 
the phenomena involved. The resultant new quantum numbers provide a 



45 



means of classifying the particles more accurately than can be done in 
terms of spin and parity alone. 

For instance, in terms of the old properties that are associated with 
ordinary space-time, all the fermions are identical, whereas it is a fact 
that there are significant differences between the hyperons, the nucleons, 
the muons, the electrons, and the neutrinos. 

We have previously mentioned some new characteristics currently 
employed for the classification of particles: the baryon number N and the 
lepton number I (sometimes referred to as " charges"), the isotopic spin 
/, and the strangeness S. The baryon number of all the nucleons and 
hyperons (proton, A„, etc.) is A'= + l, and for the antiparticles (antiproton, 
antineutron, Ao, etc.) it is N = — 1. In a similar manner, the number / 
is applied to the leptons (the v' and ji particles have not yet been 
definitively correlated with it). The N and / numbers may be called 
together the fermion numbers of the particles. Accordingly, a baryon 
can transform into light particles only in the presence of an antibaryon, 
for example p+p^Sit, but the proton cannot decay on its own into 
pions and positrons. According to our present state of knowledge, N and / 
are always strictly conserved individually. Some preliminary empirical 
considerations pointing to nonconservation of the number of baryons have 
been put forward by Wheeler, in connection with the possible upper limit 
for stellar masses. We may note here that the nonconservation of the 
baryon number could be theoretically founded on the description of particles 
by "anomalous" spinors (Brodskii and Ivanenko), The isospin, on the other 
hand, is conserved only in the strong interactions, but not in the electro- 
magnetic or weak interactions. Strangeness is also conserved only in the 
strong interactions. These conservation laws are correlated with invariance 
with respect to the corresponding transformations in isotopic space, viz. , 
rotations in the case of isospin conservation, and phase transitions (or gauge 
transformations) in the case of conservation of the baryon or lepton number. 
The conservation of ordinary electric charge, i.e. , of current, also follows 
from phase, or gauge invariance. As a result, the transformation and 
conservation laws now involve not only ordinary space but also isotopic 
space, in addition to various phase transformations of the wave function. 

The concept of isotopic spin was introduced by Heisenberg, when modern 
nuclear physics was still in its infancy, in order to describe the family of 
nucleons. Assuming that the basic nucleon has the isospin /=Vz, its 
projection /a may assume the two values +'/2 and — Vsi one is made to 
correspond to the proton (/a = 'I2) and the other to the neutron (/a = — V2). In 
addition, there are the two antiparticles p and n. 

The 7c meson has the isospin 1=1, whose three projections correspond 
to the three pions (i.e. , two charged and one neutral; thus/3= + 1.0, —1). 
The It"*" and v" mesons are the antiparticles of each other. In reactions 
produced by the strong coupling the isospin of the system and the third 
component are conserved. The isospin of the A„ hyperonisO, which 
indicates that there are no other members in the family, though there is 
still an antiparticle; the isospin of the E hyperons is equal to 1 (a family of 
three particles, together with three antiparticles); the isospin of the 
S hyperons is equal to V2 (two components); the isospin of the K mesons 
is apparently equal to V2 (two components, together with their antiparticles). 

As we see, the number of possible particles is doubled because of the 
antiparticles, with the exception of the neutral pions and photons which have 



46 



no antiparticles (or rather, for which the particles and antiparticles are 
identical). It has not yet been definitely ascertained whether isospin or a 
similar concept applies to the leptons; they might possibly form a quadruplet 
(b~, Vj, vj, ii~ ), supplemented by the quadruplet of antiparticles (e^, v,,. Vj, p."*"), 
or perhaps the doublet of muons ((i"*", (i~ ) and their neutrinos v', v'make a 
separate set. 

As we said before, the kaons and hyperons must be defined by an 
additional fundamental property, the strangeness, with the particles and 
antiparticles being assigned a strangeness 5 of opposite sign (Gell-Mann, 
Nishijima and Nakano). Strangeness is conserved in strong interactions 
(for instance, in the coupling between nucleons and pions), and therefore 
the strange particles produced in the collision of nonstrange particles 
always appear in pairs, so that their strangeness Si and S2 should cancel 
out. The conservation of strangeness may be violated when a strange 
particle decays by weak interaction and transforms into nonstrange particles. 
There is a fundamental relationship between the ordinary charge Q (in units 
of e), the third isospin component /a, the baryon number N, and the strange- 
ness S, which holds for all the pions, kaons, and baryons, viz. , Q = /sH ~~ . 

The combination Y = N+S is an important concept, known as the hypercharge. 

The family of leptons e~, e^, v, ■», (j."", |j,+, v', v' is headed by the photon 
7, i.e. , the electromagnetic field. We will add to the table the gravitational 
field (denoted by g) as well, even though, as we said, gravitational waves 
and their corresponding field quanta (gravitons) have not yet been discovered. 
In any case, the gravitational field, being associated with the curvature of 
space-time, must be taken into account in the description of physical reality, 
and its transverse part, which can take the form of radiation, ought to be 
in many ways equivalent to ordinary matter. It is predicted that the graviton 
will have no rest mass and that its spin will be S = 2 (units of A/2ic). 

After having segregated all the known particles into groups in accordance 
with the classification of Gell-Mann and Nishijima and Nakano, with the addi- 
tion of the leptons, photons, gravitons, and the newly discovered resonons, 
it would be natural to seek a theoretical foundation for this grouping. The first 
successful attempt was made in the beginning of 1956 by d'Espagnat and 
Prentki, who took as a basis a three-dimensional isospace and considered 
in it not only rotations, which lead to isospin, but also reflections; by 
means of the latter it was possible to explain strangeness. This procedure 
describes particles by defining their isotopic properties; it is thus assumed 
that the three u mesons form a pseudovector in isospace (isobosons), as do 
the three E hyperons, the two nucleons (the proton and neutron) and the 
K mesons form in isospace spinors of the first kind (isofermions), and the 
cascade S hyperons form spinors of the second kind (anti-isofermions), 
differing from the former only under inversions (by the sign) but not under 
rotations or Lorentz transformations. (Spinors are wave functions of the 
Dirac type, describing the particles of spin V2 ■ they may be said to be half- 
vectors, or square roots of vectors, that is to say, tensors of rank V2 • ) 

The correct value for the hypercharge of every particle is then obtained 
by subtracting the anti-isofermion number from the isofermion number. 

It has been predicted by Gell-Mann that in principle particles with S = 3 
may exist. However, the d'Espagnat-Prentki theory does not allow for a 
strangeness larger than 2, and this is for the time being in full agreement 
with experimental data. 



47 



The discovery of the new particle properties, isospin, strangeness, and 
the baryon and lepton numbers, and the resultant classification of particles, 
made in 1955-1956, have been major advances in particle physics. To 
those should be added the very recent discovery of the groups of "resonons", 
the second type of neutrinos, and the neutral anti-S particle. 

We should pause to consider briefly the further development of this problem, 
however, in order to appraise the shortcomings in the system of Nishijima, 
Gell-Mann, and d'Espagnat-Prentki and to outline the prospects that look 
most promising in this particular field. 

The inadequacy of the given system is clearly exhibited by two facts. 
First, it does not take into account the leptons and photons and it leaves 
out gravitation altogether. Second, the systematization does not account 
for the similarity displayed by all the baryons in their interactions with 
It and K mesons. All the independent coupling constants of the nucleons 
and hyperons with n and K mesons have been empirically shown to be 
virtually the same, in fact. As a result, a number of more general theories 
have been produced. 

In some of the theories the three-dimensional isospace is generalized to 
a four-dimensional space, mostly taken to be Euclidean (Salam, Polkinghorne, 
Schwinger, etc.). Some authors, however, use pseudo-Euclidean space. 
Four-dimensional isospace provides a more unified treatment of particles. 
Thus, for instance, the A and the three E hyperons are characterized by 
a single four-dimensional isotopic pseudovector; it then becomes clear that 
the coupling constants of the A and E hyperons with pions are actually 
identical, and not independent as in the earlier three-dimensional system. 
Schwinger' s system classifies not only the mesons and baryons, but also 
the leptons; thus e_, v, ^^ form an isotriplet; the photon proves to be a 
member of a new triplet family, whose other two charged components are 
not yet known, but are only theoretically predicted. 

Schwinger' s theory also predicts a fourth it meson (a similar particle, 
alternatively called a p, o, or x°° nneson, was predicted in a number of 
papers by A.M. Baldin and some others). This particle has still not 
been discovered either. Several "intermediate" heavy bosons have 
been also variously proposed, as the pj^rticle mediating between the 
baryons and leptons. 

The new bosons have also been predicted by the "compensating field" 
theory recently developed by Yang and Mills and by Sakurai, a theory held by 
many physicists (Schwinger, Utiyama, Gell-Mann, Feynman, etc.). This 
theory once again stresses the point that to each conservation law there 
corresponds some field — for instance, to the conservation of electric charge 
there corresponds the electromagnetic field and its quanta, the photons. Ana- 
logously to the conservation of baryon charge, of isotopic spin, and of 
strangeness there must correspond three new types of particles. 

These ideas were applied by A.M. Brodskii, G.A. Sokolik and by us to 
a new treatment of gravitation. It is possible that part of the boson-type 
vector resonons R^ are the same as the vector mesons predicted by the 
"compensating field" theory. 

It has been suggested that isotopic and ordinary space might be closely 
related and that transitions might be possible from one to the other 
(Ivanenko-Brodskii and G.A. Sokolik, Schwinger, Pais, Vigier, Yukawa); 
a total reflection could be then defined, as the product of reflections in 
ordinary and in isotopic space. If one allows for the possibility of transitions 



48 



from ordinary into isospace, this means that isotopic properties could go 
over into ordinary "external" properties. Roughly speaking, if such a 
hypothesis should prove correct, a particle, for instance, would be able 
to lose its isospin and acquire ordinary spin instead. The compensating- 
field theory, which assumes that the phase transitions in isospace are 
dependent on the ordinary coordinates, also runs along similar lines. 

In this connection, Schwinger noted an interesting regularity which 
applies to neutral bosons: the K mesons do not have ordinary spin, but 
have an isospin and strangeness; the photons have both ordinary spin and 
isospin (within Schwinger' s scheme); finally, the gravitons should possess 
spin but no isotopic properties at all. It has been proposed by De Broglie 
and Vigier that isospace may be considered as an extension of ordinary 
space inside the particles. 

Aside from the O3 group of rotations in three-dimensional isospace, use 
has also been made of the groups Ot (Salam and Polkinghorne), 05(Behrends, 
Fronsdal), OrCTiomno), and even Og (rotations in eight-dimensional 
isospace, Gourski). Out of various other symmetry groups (almost all 
of which are compact Lie groups, i. e. , continuous and described by unitary 
matrices), theoreticians have recently found particular interest in the groups 
SU3 (the group of 3X3 unimodular unitary matrices) and Gj (the anomalous 
Cartan group which gives a regular representation of the multiplet components 
in 14 dimensions). However none of the groups has yet provided a complete 
classification of the particles and resonons into families. We thus see that 
in spite of extensive research the problem is far from being solved. 

In his summary review of the group-theoretical approach recently 
presented at the Eleventh International Conference on High-Energy Physics 
(elementary particles) held in Geneva in the summer of 1962, d'Espagnat 
expressed particular hopes for the SU3 and G2 group treatment, though he 
also did not consider the problem solved as yet. 

A possible method of classification of particles has been proposed, on 
the basis of which particles of spin Vs (fermions) are associated with a 
class of spinors that differ only in the way they behave under space or time 
reflections. 

Somewhat earlier Yang and Tiomno proposed using in the same way the recip- 
rocal cofactors 1, — 1, +i, — I, to differentiate between types of mirror-image 
spinors (classes A, B, C, D), and to assci.iate with them the electrons, 
neutrinos and fx mesons, respectively. A. Mirianashvili and Gyurshi 
suggested using in the coalescence method combinations of spinors of 
different classes, for example A and D, rather than spinors of one class 
as was done before; unusual boson functions are then obtained, which 
could perhaps be correlated with the K mesons. A.M. Brodskii, in 
conjunction with G. A. Sokolik and us, extended these considerations to 
include a supplementary naatrix factor 75 for inversions; in that case, if 
a spinor behaves normally under space reflections, but under a time 
reflection its wave function is additionally multiplied by yt, then this spinor 
will show an "anomalous" behavior in some relations. It then becomes 
possible to associate the anomalous spinors with the strange fermions. 
According to such an interpretation, developed in part by Salam, Taylor, 
Ognevetskii, and Chou Kuang-chao, the origin of the "strange" properties 
may be rooted in the anomaly of the spinors, i. e. , the way in which their 
behavior differs under space and time reflections. 



49 



After our brief account of the group -theoretical approach, let us turn 
to the attempt to produce a unified field picture of particles and fields. The 
basic idea was originated by Louis de Broglie, who proceeded from a 
simple spinor wave function ij), describing the particle of least nonvanishing 
angular momentum, i.e. , with spin V2 • 

If we combine these wave functions under given supplementary conditions, 
we obtain by such a "fusion" all the other possible wave functions of particles 
with the spins 0, I, V2. 2... etc. By combiningthe two angular momenta + V2 and 
— Vs we obtain 0, by combining the two angular momenta +'/2 and +V2 we 
obtain 1 (since the spins ar'/smay be oriented only parallel or antiparallel), 
etc. By means of the coalescence method it is possible to combine two 
Dirac equations, each describing a spinor-type particle (fermion) of spin 
V2, thus obtaining the Klein-Gordon and the Proca equations, and in the 
special case of a vanishing rest mass. Maxwell's electrodjrnamic equations; 
in principle, therefore, photons could be constructed out of neutrino-anti- 
neutrino parts. The ideas of de Broglie' s neutrino theory of light have been 
developed by Kronig, Jordan, and A. A. Sokolov. 

A weak point in the coalescence method is the absence of any forces 
responsible for the coalescence. It fails to explain, for instance, what 
would cause the neutrino functions to transform into the electromagnetic 
field. An answer to this has been attempted by a unified nonlinear spinor 
theory of matter. If one postulates for matter some unique spinor field, 
then this field would be able to interact only with itself. This leads to 
the appearance of the nonlinear terms in Dirac' s equation, which we 
introduced for the first time in 1938 and later examined in more detail 
together with A.M. Brodskii. If it is required that not only relativistic, 
Lorentz invariance should hold, but also invariance with respect to isotopic 
rotations (Pauli-Gyurshi transformations) as well as transformations 
conserving the baryon number (Salam-Touschek transformations), then, as 
Heisenberg and Pauli have shown, it is necessary to choose the pseudo- 
vector term from the set of possible corrections to Dirac' s equations. 
Heisenberg further suggests discarding the mass term, since mass should 
directly follow from a unified theory. We then obtain the following basic 
nonlinear spinor equation of a unified theory of matter, which we simply 
give in symbolic form, without any special explanations: 

V,^ -g^ + ''^'? Y,. -Ys ('Fv^ Ys'l') t = 0, 

where y,i are Dirac matrices, h is Planck's constant, c is the velocity of 
light, /o is a new constant denoting the minimal length, and i|) is the spinor 
wave function. 

By formulating some new field-quantization rules, Heisenberg and his 
colleagues obtained approximate solutions to these equations and derived 
a basic particle, the nucleon, having a finite mass, and also some mesons 
with lower masses, which could be associated with n and K mesons. The 
theory also yields the magnitude of the electric charge and of the Fermi 
constant of weak interaction between four fermions (for example, the 
neutron, proton, electron, and antineutrino in beta-decay). Although the 
theory does not yet provide precise values for the masses of particles or 
for the coupling constants, it is likely that quite a plausible unified picture 
of known matter is beginning to take shape. In summing up the proceedings 



50 



of the International Conference on Elementary Particles of 1959 in Kiev, 
I.E. Tamm correctly pointed out that the nonlinear spinor theory looks like 
one of the most promising trends in particle theory. Some subsequent 
interesting work on nonlinear spinor theory was done by D. F. Kurdgelaidze, 
Ya, I. Granovskii, and by Marshak-Okuba and Nambu, who found some 
points of similarity between this theory and the Bardin-Bogolyubov super- 
conductivity theory. As we mentioned in the first section of this article, 
according to V. I. Rodichev the nonlinear term in the Dirac equation follows 
in a straightforward manner if one considers spinor motion not in ordinary 
flat or curved space, but in a twisted space. 

A second version of unified particle theory takes as its point of departure 
the proposal of Fermi and Yang to consider the -x meson as formed from 
a nucleon and an antinucleon by means of some as yet unknown forces 
acting at very small ranges, i.e. ; 

The enormous binding energy involved "swallows up" almost all the 
mass of the two nucleons, leaving only the mass of the pion. In this case, 
again, a boson is constructed from two fermions. 

Goldhaber proceeded from the p, p, n, n, k, and k particles. The proposal 
that proved most successful was Sakata's, further developed by M. A. 
Markov, B. L. Okun' , and others, who took as point of departure the 
proton, neutron, and A particle and the three corresponding antiparticles. 
It is then possible, by combining these basic particles, to obtain all the 
pions, K mesons, and hyperons. For example, ic+=p + n; K^ = p + ^. In this 
case also the nature of the binding or coalescence forces remains unex- 
plained. A minimum of three basic particles is necessary to ensure the 
presence of the fundamental properties of charge, isospin, and strangeness. 
Obviously, it is necessary to start off with "rotating", spinor-type particles 
or fermions, because if "rotation" is not provided to begin with, there is 
no way of deriving it. These attempts, as the coalescence theory and the 
nonlinear spinor theory, can be seen to revive in their way the old ideas 
of Helmholtz and Kelvin, who tried in the middle of the 19th century to 
construct matter out of hypothetical ether vortices. An attempt was 
recently made by Sakata and his coworkers at the University of Nagoya to 
include the leptons in the above model too. They proceeded from the 
leptons e^, v, ^ (in the last version of Katayama and others, v ) and 
some "baryon" field B. By combining every lepton with the field B, one 
obtains the basic heavy particles of the old Sakata model. This also achieves 
the correspondence between the baryons (p. n, A ) and leptons ( v, e~, (i), noted 
by Marshak, Gamba, and Okuba; the same symmetry is also realized in 
the nonlinear spinor theory of particles. We may remark that Sakata's 
scheme follows directly from group-theoretical considerations, within the 
SUi group. 

Aside from the group-theoretical, the spinor-field, and the model (Sakata) 
approaches to the system atization of particles, a new method was developed 
in the last few years, based on the dispersion relations and the analytical 
properties of scattering amplitudes, i.e. , probabilities of processes. 

A number of promising results have been worked out by Goldberger, 
Nambu, Cini, N.N. Bogolyubov and colleagues. Chew, Frautschi, Yu. M. 
Lomsadze, A.M. Brodskii, Domokos, and Gribov, and particularly by 



51 



S. Mandel'shtam, M. Regge and others, by means of the dispersion 
relations and calculations based on complex variables of the energy and 
the linear and angular moments. Briefly, dispersion theory excludes the 
possibility or the need of describing in detail the interaction and behavior 
of particles by means of a Lagrangian or a Hamiltonian; it proceeds to 
treat the scattering probability of particles, for instance, on the basis of 
the formalism of the scattering matrix S (Wheeler-Heisenberg). The 
definition of the scattering matrix rests on the most general requirements 
of invariance, causality, and unitarity. By means of the 5 matrix the 
asymptotic scattering of a wave is immediately derived from the incident 
wave, omitting a detailed description of the interaction. A program of this 
kind was first formulated by Heisenberg in the forties and was later revived 
in the form of a dispersion- relation theory. The decisive move was made 
when it was realized that the S matrix and the scattering amplitudes must 
be treated as analytical functions of the energy of angular momentum. 

The dispersion relations provided the means of drawing up equations 
for the scattering probabilities of pions and nucleons in various directions, 
and some important formulas for the scattering probabilities at extremely 
high energies. The hope has arisen, most clearly expressed by Chew, of 
linking together the ordinary elementary particles and the resonons, which 
are all equally treated as poles in terms of the theory of analytic S-matrix 
functions. This theory gives rise again, though on a different basis, to 
the concept of excited states of particles. Thus, for instance, the particles 
in the family formed by the nucleon and the nucleon resonons, Rf,: N*, N** 
N***, N**** , all lie on a single trajectory of Regge poles. The masses of 
the resonons are obtained given the appropriate spin values. Chew's rather 
extreme program stands in sharp opposition to the old Lagrangian and all 
ordinary field-theoretical methods. But in spite of the fact that some of 
the notable successes of particle theory in recent times have been associated 
with dispersion theory, analytic properties, and Regge poles, we still have 
doubts about the possibility of constructing a particle theory divorced from 
field-dynamic conceptions, as do Schwinger, Heisenberg, Feynman, Sakurai, 
Nambu, and others, as well. At any rate, this field of inquiry is evolving 
quite rapidly, mainly due to the development produced by the discovery of 
the resonons, of new particles, and of many reactions. 

In concluding, we must return to gravitation once more. Within nonlinear 
spinor theory it is in principle possible to derive the gravitons as quanta 
of a weak transverse gravitational field, though it is doubtful that the total 
field g can be obtained. On the other hand, by proceeding from various 
geometrical considerations (particularly, Wheeler's geometrodynamics) 
it might be possible to derive the electromagnetic field and perhaps other 
boson fields as well (the k and K mesons), but for the time being there are 
no chances that spinors will be obtained. 

It thus seems that our representation of physical reality must, for the 
time being, remain dualistic — on the one hsuid there is space (curved or 
perhaps twisted) and time, and on the other, intimately connected with them, 
"ordinary" matter in the form of vsirious elementary particles and 
"resonons"; the latter might perhaps be excited or compound states of a 
few basic particles or of some unique (spinor-type) "protomatter". 

The graviton (the transverse part or waves of the gravitational field) 
would occupy an intermediate position, forming some sort of "ripples" 



52 



on the fundamental space-time network and being at the same time capable 
of transforming into ordinary matter. 

Modern physics has now at its disposal giant accelerators, recording 
devices on Earth and in space, and highly sophisticated computers. It is 
bound to uncover new horizons in our knowledge of matter and the universe, 
and to contribute to the technical achievements of civilization. 



Elementary particles (1962) 



Class 



1=1 

N=0 



•s.ao; 



1=0 
N=0 



S a: 



+1 
s=o 
—1 
+1 
— 1 



Sym- 
bol 



P 
1 
/o 

K+ 
K- 

K* 

P 



Particle 



Mass 



graviton 





photon 





neutrino 





antineutrino 





electron 


I 


positron 


1 


mu -minus 
mu-plus 


206.8 


mu-neutrino 




mu-anti 
neutrino 





pi-minus 
pi-plus 


1 273.2 


pi-neutral 


264.2 


omega resonon 


788 Mev 


rho resonon 


750 . 


eta resonon 


548 . 


zeta resonon 


1250 . 


K-plus 

anti-K-plus 
(or K-minus) 


966.6 m 


K-neutral 
anti-K-neutral 


1 974.2 m 


/C-resonon 


888 Mev 




1020 


proton 




antiproton 
neutron 


1836.1 
(938 Mev) 

1838.6 


antineutron 





Spin 
parity 


Isotopic 
spin 7 (com- 
ponents /„ 


Strange- 
ness, s 


2+ 






I- 













1 
2 


/3=1] 





0- 


+ 1 1=1 






1- 







1- 


1 




0- 







2 








(+'/»)] 




+ 1] 






(-V2) 




— 1 




0- 




'U 


+ 1 
— 1 


1 


0+ 









(+V.V 









V. 


(-V.) 


"/. 











53 



Continued 




Mass 
1512 Mev 


Spin 
parity 


Isotopic 

spin / (com 

ponents /,. 

/,. /,) 




Class 


Sym- 
bol 


Particle 


Strange 
ness s 








'h- 














a ^ 




N* 




1688 . 


=/2+ 








lis 








2190 . 
1238 . 


'h+ 


=/2 






cH 




A 




1650 . 
1920 . 










1 






2330 . 


? 










+ 1 




lamba 
antilambda 


1 2183 m 








-(-1 










2+ 
1 + 


sigma-plus 

antisigma- 
plus 


2328 




-t-1 
—1 


-hi 


■ I 




C 




I." 


sigma-neutral 

antisigma- 
neutral 


2332 


J 






+ 1 






a, 
>< 






sigma-minus 
antisigma- 


I 2341 
J 


7+ 


-1 

H-I 


+ 1 












minus 
















^0 
-0 


xi-neutral 

antixi- 
neutral 


1 2566 






—2 
+2 


2 








^■- 


xi-minus 


2580 






-2 










"E" 


antixi-minus 


' 






+2 








"^ 


K' 


hyperon 


1405 Mev 










11* 






- resonons 


1520 . 
1381 . 
1815 . 












— 


E* 




1535 


? 


',3 


—2 





REFERENCES 



Publications in Russian 



Filosofskie problemy sovremennogo estestvoznaniya (Philosophical Prob- 
lems of Modern Science).— Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1959. 

IVANENKO, D. and A. SOKOLOV. Klassicheskaya teoriya polya (Novye 
problemy) (Classical Field Theory (New Problems)), 2ncl edition. - 
Gostekhizdat, Moskva- Leningrad. 1951. 

IVANENKO, D. and A. A. STARTSEV. Klassifikatsiya elementarnykh 

chastit3 (Classification of the Elementary Particles).— In: UFN. 
December 1960. 

KOL'MAN, E. V. I. Lenin i noveiskaya fizika (V. I. Lenin and Modern 
Physics).— Gospolitizdat. 1959. 

KUDRYAVTSEV, P. S. Istoriya fiziki (History of Physics), Vols. I and II.- 
Uchpedgiz. 1956. 



54 



Hill 



KUZNETSOV, B. G. Razvitie nauchnoi kartiny mira (The Evolution of a 

Scientific World Picture).— Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1955. 
KUZNETSOV, B. G. Printsipy klassicheskoi fiziki (Principles of Classical 

Physics).— Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1958. 
LENIN, V. I. Materializm i empiriokrititsizm (Materialism and Empirio- 

criticism). Collected Works, Vol. 14. 
MARKOV, M. A. Giperony i K-mezony (Hyperons and K-Mesons).— 

Fizmatgiz. 1958. 
Nelineinaya teoriya polya (Nonlinear Field Theory) . Collection of trans- 
lated articles by Heisenberg and others, with an introduction by 

D. Ivanenko.— Moskva, IL. 1959. 
Noveishie problemy gravitatsii (Modern Problems in Gravitation). Collec- 
tion of translated articles with an introduction by D. Ivanenko. — 

Moskva, IL. 1961. 
NOVOZHILOV, Yu. V. Elementarnye chastitsy (Elementary Particles). — 

Fizmatgiz, Moskva. 1963. 
Ocherki razvitiya osnovnykh fizicheskikh idei (Outlines on the Development 

of Fundamental Ideas in Physics), Collection of Articles. — 

Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1959. 
SMORODINSKII, Ya.A. Elementarnye chastitsy (Elementary Particles). — 

In: Narodnyi universitet kul'tury. No. 1. Izdatel'stvo "Znanie." 1962. 
SOKOLOV, A. A. Elementarnye chastitsy (Elementary Particles). — 

Izdatel'stvo MGU. 1962. 
SOKOLOV, A. and D. IVANENKO. Kvantovaya teoriya polya (Izbrannye 

voprosy) (Quantum Field Theory (Selected Topics)). — Gostekhizdat, 

Moskva-Leningrad. 1952. 
SOKOLOV, A. A., Yu. M. LOSKUTOV, and I. M. TERNOV. Kvantovaya 

mekhanika (Quantum Mechanics). — Uchpedgiz. 1962. 
Tezisy I Sovetskoi gravitatsionnoi konferentsii (Papers of the First Soviet 

Conference on Gravitation).— Izdatel'stvo MGU. 1961. 



Publications in Other Languages 

WHEELER, J. A. Geometrodynamics. Neutrinos, Gravitation, and Geo- 
metry. — New York, Academic Press. 1962 [Russian translation. 
1962.] 



55 



Yu.S. Vladimir ov 

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE STUDY OF GRAVITATION 



At the end of June 1961 the First Soviet Conference on Gravitation was 
held in Moscow. The conference was convened by the Physics Faculty of 
Moscow State University [MGU] and the Shternberg State Astronomical 
Institute [GAISh]. At the time of the conference, significant advances were 
being made in gravitational research, and physicists were beginning to 
have at their disposal more and more experimental means for the investiga- 
tion of gravitation. Artificial satellites and space rockets, the latest 
techniques of nuclear physics (utilization of the Mossbauer effect, i.e., of 
recoilless gamma rays), the development of atomic and molecular time 
standards ("clocks"), and finally the advances made in radio physics, all 
combined to make possible an experimental check of the effects predicted 
by the gravitation theory based on the general theory of relativity, both 
under terrestrial conditions and on the scale of the entire solar system. 

It should be noted that at this time considerable changes were also 
occurring in the theoretical methods used to study gravitation. In recent 
studies of the general theory of relativity, extensive use was made of the 
methods of relativistic quantum field theory (quantization of the gravitational 
field). Moreover, the relation between the general theory of relativity and 
elementary-particle theory was investigated (the transmutation of gravitation 
into ordinary matter and vice versa, the existence of antigravitation, etc.), 
and the group-theoretical approach was applied to gravitation (the compen- 
sating- field interpretation of the gravitational field). A number of attempts 
were also made to go beyond the traditional framework of Einsteinian 
geonietry. Thus, such problems as the variation of the gravitational 
constant and the introduction of generalized geometries were posed, both in 
order to provide geonietrical interpretations of the already known fields 
and to use these interpretations to predict new fields and physical effects 
(the twisted field). Finally, certain studies offering a fresh treatment of 
Einstein's original equations had appeared. 

These factors made it imperative to hold an AU-Union Conference on 
Gravitation. The conference was intended to provide an overall view of 
current gravitational research, to appraise the results obtained, and to 
promote further studies of the general theory of relativity. 

Many scientific and educational institutions of the USSR were notified 
of the forthcoming conference. The number of participants and reports 
was more than three times that anticipated by the organizers. The 
scientists participating in the conference came from many Soviet cities and 
towns, including Leningrad, Kazan, Tartu, Minsk, Kharkov, Dubna, Kiev, 
Yerevan, Samarkand, Sverdlovsk, Krasnodar, Odessa, Poltava, and Tbilisi. 



56 



The following major institutions of physical science in Moscow were 
represented: Moscow State University, the N. E. Baiunan Moscow 
Technical College [MVTU], the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute of the 
USSR Academy of Sciences, the S. I. Vavilov Institute of Physical Studies, 
the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, the Institute of 
Earth Physics, the Institute of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of 
Sciences, the Aeronautical Institute, and many others. Scientists from 
the major Soviet laboratories at Dubna (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research) 
[OIYal] also participated actively. 

Over 900 reports were presented at the conference. These were 
divided according to subject matter into several groups, and each group of 
problems was discussed at a separate session. Seven individual sessions 
were held. Two of these were devoted to classical gravitation problems, and 
one session each was devoted to the following subjects: problems in the quantum 
theory of gravitation; non-Riemannian generalizations of geometry; cosmology; 
the fundamental problems of gravimetry; and experimental investigations. 

Just before the opening of the conference, a small symposium was 
arranged for the junior participants, at which the following survey lectures 
were delivered: "The Energy-Momentum Tensor", by Dr. N.V. Mitskevich 
(Samarkand); "Cosmological Models", by Dr. A.L. Zel'manov (GAISh and 
MGU); and "Relativistic Hydrodynamics", by Prof. K. P. Stanyukovich 
(MVTU). During the conference itself. Prof. Ya. A. Smorodinskii (OIYal, 
Dubna) gave a lecture entitled "Neutrino Physics". 

The conference sessions were well attended (usually 150 to 200 people 
were present), and lively debates constantly took place, developing at 
times into heated discussions. 

The conference opened with an introductory address by the representa- 
tive of the organizing committee. Prof. D. D. Ivanenko, who reviewed in 
brief the aims of the conference. The conference then proceeded to its 
first topic of discussion, "The Classical Theory of Gravitation". 

The first report was read by Prof. A. Z. Petrov (Kazan University), who 
gave an account of his fundamental studies of gravitation theory (one of the 
main contributions to this field during the last decade). A detailed account 
of these studies cannot be given here; we should mention, however, that 
Petrov has classified the solutions of Einstein's equations according to 
three mutually irreducible types. It was shown that practically all the 
solutions known at that time could be reduced to the first type, and that 
the requirement of a flat space at infinity applies only to this type (this 
requirement being intrinsically invalid for the other two types). Petrov' s 
studies stimulated considerably the search for new solutions, and now 
solutions of all three types have been obtained. 

New solutions of Einstein's equations were analyzed and discussed in 
the contributions of N. V. Mitskevich (Samarkand), A.A.Koppel' (Tartu), 
V. S. Brezhnev (MGU), and Prof. N. M. Petrova (Alma-Ata). 

The Schwarzschild solution is known to have a singularity at certain 
values of Tq, the gravitational radius. The physical interpretation of this 
problem was dealt with in the reports of the young theoreticians V. A. Unt 
(Tartu), I. D. Novikov (MGU), and Yu. A. Rylov (MGU). 

Some interesting studies of particle motion near the gravitational 
radius were discussed by S. L. Galkin (MGU). These investigations are of 
particular interest in connection with the prediction recently made by 



57 



V. A. Ambartsumyan and G. S. Saakyan concerning the existence of hyperon 
stars (stars consisting mainly of superheavy hyperons) having radii 
comparable to the gravitational radius. 

The second session on the first day of the conference was combined with 
a session of the Sixth AU-Union Conference on Extragalactic Nebulae, which 
was being held concurrently. Reports were read by E,M. Lifshits, 
V. V. Sudakov, and I. M. Khalatnikov (Institute for Physical Problems, 
USSR Academy of Sciences), M. F. Shirokov (Moscow), I. Z. Fisher (Minsk), 
R. I. Khrapko (Moscow), and A. L. Zel'manov (GAISh). These contributions 
examined various aspects of the expansion of the universe and the problem 
of a singular point in time (the beginning of the expansion). 

Ya.A. Smorodinskii (Dubna), B.M. Pontecorvo (Dubna), and V.M. Kharitonov 
(Yerevan) presented reports discussing the role played by neutrinos 
in the structure of the universe (see V. S. Brezhnev's article in this collec- 
tion). 

The discussion of the classical theory of gravitation was resumed at 
the morning session of 28 June. The energy of the gravitational field, or 
rather the energy- momentum tensor of the field, was discussed by 
N. V. Mitskevich (Samarkand), 1. 1. Gutman (Uzbek SSR), M. E. Gertsenshtein 
(Moscow), and others. Although some interesting findings were reported 
by these investigators, this difficult problem is unfortunately still far from 
being solved. 

The participants of the conference expressed considerable interest in 
the possibility of the existence of antigravitation (this term denotes 
repulsion instead of attraction between bodies). D. I. Blokhintsev considered 
the paradoxes which would be associated with the nonconservation of 
gravitational energy if antigravitation did exist. The question was also 
discussed in the report by Prof. Ya. P. Terletskii (MGU), 

Podgoretskii, Okonov, and Khrustalev, of the Joint Institute for 
Nuclear Research, proposed an experiment designed to detect antigravita- 
tional properties in antiparticles. This experiment would use vertical 
beams of K mesons, whose decay is strongly affected by the magnitude and 
sign of the mass. At the same session, some reports on gravitational 
waves were also read. As a spokesman for himself and his colleagues, 
(A. M. Brodskii and D. D. Ivanenko), G. A. Sokolik discussed the new "com- 
pensating- field" treatment of the gravitational field. According to this new 
approach, which is based on the ideas recently developed by Sakurai, the 
parameters of the Lorentz group of transformations are considered to be 
functions of the coordinates. This leads to the appearance of some 
additional terms in the Lagrangian and in the equations of motion. If the 
Lagrangian is to remain invariant under Lorentz transformations, some 
new field must be introduced which would transform from point to point in 
such a way as to compensate for the extra terms. It was shown in the 
report that the compensating field must be the gravitational field. The 
authors are of the opinion that the new approach should enable a re- exami- 
nation of certain problems in the general theory of relativity and should 
facilitate their solution. 

The evening session of the second day of the conference was devoted to 
a discussion of non-Riemannian generalizations of geometry. Under the 
very general requirements imposed upon geometry, there are 27 possible 
types of differential geometries, of which the Riemannian geometry 



1419 



58 



■■■■■II lllllll 



employed in the general theory of relativity is a particular trivial case. 
At this session the physical implications of the spaces related to these 
geometries were considered, particularly with reference to spaces 
possessing a twist. This problem was discussed in the reports of 
A. E. Levashov (Kiev), O. S. Ivanitskaya (Kiev), V. I. Rodichev (Moscow), 
and Yu. S. Vladimirov (MGU). The report read by Rodichev was quite 
interesting; he demonstrated that if Dirac's fundamental equation is 
considered in twisted space, a nonlinear term of the Ivanenko-Heisenberg 
type appears. Thus, in the equation describing the basic elementary 
particles and the "protomatter" which apparently forms a basis for the 
entire world, any particle is shown to interact with itself, the interaction 
being precisely of the type established by Ivanenko and Heisenberg on the 
basis of oth^ considerations. Similar subjects were also considered in 
the reports of D. F. Kurdgelaidze (MGU), S. F. Shushurin (MGU), and 
V. B. Lysikov (Kharkov), dealing with new exact solutions of nonlinear 
equations of this kind. Also at this session, A. Z. Petrov presented a 
brief survey and analysis of some unified field theories, and V.S. Brezhnev 
presented a study of Finslerian geometry. 

The fifth session was devoted to a relatively new field of gravitational 
research, the quantum theory of gravitation. The report of D.I. Blokhintsev 
(Dubna) dealt with fluctuations of the metric, which are especially 
significant at small distances (of the order of 10-^^ cm). The possibility 
of the transformation of particle- antiparticle pairs into transverse quanta 
of the gravitational field, and vice versa, was examined in the report 
presented by D. D. Ivanenko (MGU). The author suggests that such 
processes may be of considerable importance in cosmology. An interesting 
report was read by V. G. Kadyshevskii (MGU), giving a geometrical 
interpretation of weak interactions. 

The study of weak interactions of particles should indicate a new 
geometry of space-time, with discrete properties at small distances (of 
the order of 10" ^'^ cm), in the same way as the general theory of relativity 
indicates the curvature of space- time as a result of the presence of 
gravitating masses. The mechanism of gravitational interaction involving 
the emission of gravitational field quanta, or gravitons, by gravitating 
bodies was considered by Prof. K. P. Stanyukovich (MVTU), who constructed 
a theory of gravitational interaction based on the hypothesis of emission 
and absorption of the actual gravitational field quanta (gravitons). This 
report provoked a lively debate. 

One of the high points of the conference was the session at which 
experimental verification of the general theory of relativity was discussed. 
This session was held at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. 
A very interesting report, presenting a critical survey of all known 
observations of the Einsteinian deflection of light rays near the Sun, was 
read by A. A. Mikhailov, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of 
Sciences. 

Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences V. L. Ginzburg 
(Lebedev Institute of Physics) gave a review of the experimental studies 
of gravitation which are possible using artificial satellites. A basic study 
entitled "The Possibility of Studying some Relativistic and Cosmological 
Effects by means of Molecular and Atomic Frequency Standards", which 
was the work of five collaborators at the Lebedev Institute of Physics 



59 



(N. G. Basov, O. N. Krokhin, A. N. Oraevskii, G. M. Strakhovskii. and 
B. M. Chikhachev) was presented by G. M. Strakhovskii. Atomic and 
molecular frequency standards are known to be extremely precise, due to 
the use of the natural frequency of spectral lines as a reference. With the 
help of rockets and artificial satellites, atomic standards can be carried 
far away from the Earth, which provides a means of measuring reliably 
the frequency shift produced in a gravitational field. V. B. Braginskii and 
G. I. Rukman (MGU) presented an interesting report dealing with a 
projected experiment for detecting gravitational waves under laboratory 
conditions. The project proposed by colleagues at the Joint Institute for 
Nuclear Research, namely that an experiment to detect antigravitational 
properties in antiparticles be carried out, was brought up again and raised 
considerable interest. A report was also presented by A. A. Bonch- 
Bruevich and Ya. E. Kariss (Leningrad), dealing with the possible existence 
of anisotropic features of gravitation, and describing an experiment for 
determining the velocity of propagation of gravity. 

The last group of subjects to be considered at the conference concerned 
the basic problems of gravimetry. The reports presented in connection 
with this were: "The Maximum Accuracy of Modern Gravity Measure- 
ments", by P.N. Agaletskii, and "Gravity Observations during a Total 
Solar Eclipse", by N. P. Grushinskii and M. U. Sagitov (MGU). 

A number of the reports discussed the Earth's expansion and the 
possible connection between this hypothetical phenomenon and gravity, a 
subject which proved to be rather controversial. The reports which dealt 
with this were: "The Secular Weakening of Gravity and the Earth's 
Expansion", byD.D. IvanenkoandM.U. Sagitov (MGU); "Facts in Support of the 
Expanding- Earth Hypothesis", by V. B. Neiman and I. V. Kirillov; and 
"Geological Facts Indicating Absence of the Decrease in the Gravitational 
Constant Assumed by the Jordan-Dirac Hypothesis", by P. N. Kropotkin. 
Back in the thirties, Dirac and Jordan proposed that the gravitational 
constant decreases with time. If such were the case, the Earth (as well 
as any other planet or star) would undergo a gradual expansion. In 
particular, the fact that some of the continents have matching contours 
may be explained in this way, provided it is assumed that the Earth was 
considerably smaller at the beginning of its expansion (4 • 10* years ago), 
and that its total surface was then equal to the present area of the con- 
tinents. The facts adduced in support of this argument were related to 
the slowing down of the rotation of the Earth and to the presence of cracks 
in the terrestrial crust. The discussion of this subject eventually 
developed into an analysis of geological and biological problems. 

It should be noted that of the large number of reports presented at the 
conference only one (that of V. V. Radzievskii) treated gravitation from 
the pre- Einsteinian point of view. This approach, moreover, was not 
received favorably by the participants of the conference. 

On 1 July, the last day of the conference, a supplementary session 
was held, so that reports which had not been presented at the main 
sessions (due to the overcrowded agenda) could be given. Of these, 
mention should be made of the report by G. E. Skrotskii (Sverdlovsk), 
dealing with the effect of the Sun on the rotational properties of an electro- 
magnetic field, and the report by 1. 1. Kogal'nikova giving a historical 
survey of the evolution of gravitational concepts. 



60 



It is safe to say that the conference was successful and timely, and 
that it indicated where Soviet gravitational research is up to par in compar- 
ison with work, abroad (the classical theory of gravitation, cosmology) 
and also where further effort is necessary (the quantum theory of gravita- 
tion and experimental studies). In addition, the conference was helpful in 
preparing Soviet gravitation physicists for the Fourth International 
Conference on Gravitation, which was held in Warsaw in July, 1962. 

In conclusion, the participants of the conference unanimously adopted 
the following resolutions: 1) to call a Second Soviet Conference on 
Gravitation in 1963; 2) to publish all the proceedings of the conference; 
3) to establish laboratories for the study of gravitational problems in 
Moscow and Kazan; and 4) to set up a Soviet Advisory Commission on 
Gravitational Research, for coordinating and promoting further research 
in this field. 



61 



PART TWO 

STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE 



V.A. Ambartsumyan 

GALAXIES AND GALACTIC EVOLUTION 

This article will review the main facts of extragalactic astronomy. A 
correct representation of the outer star systems (galaxies) was obtained 
only about 40 years ago, so that many basic problems concerning the outer 
galactic world still remain unsolved. Therefore, it will be advisable to 
formulate here some of the problems which we consider the most significant 
for future extragalactic investigations. An attempt will be made to remain 
within the domain of facts and to devote specific attention to those problems 
which appear capable of solution with the means now available. 

Extragalactic astronomy is closely related to cosmology, the theoretical 
science which attempts to describe the universe as a whole. Cosmological 
theories are of definite value, in that they analyze certain solutions of the 
equations of Einstein's general theory of gravitation and aim at a compari- 
son of these solutions with the properties of the observable portion of the 
universe. It is a fact, though, that these theories are often used as a 
basis for gross oversimplifications and wild extrapolations. 

The scope of this article does not allow us to analyze these theories or 
to consider their further development, although it is our opinion that a 
critical survey of current studies in this field would be very valuable. At 
the same time, the facts and problems considered below should be relevant 
to cosmological theories as well. 



I. THE MAIN FACTS RELATED TO THE DISTRIBUTION 
OF MATTER 

One of the properties of the world surrounding us is that the bulk of the 
observable matter is concentrated in stars. Other bodies contain only a 
small part of the total observable m,ass. 

The most significant fact of extragalactic astronomy is that the great 
majority of observable stars are members of stellar systems known as 
galaxies. The dimensions of galaxies and their stellar populations vary 
within unusually wide limits. Supergiant systems (such as the two brightest 
galaxies, NGC4874 and NGC4889, situated at the center of the cluster in 
Coma Berenices) may have absolute photographic magnitudes as high as 
-22 and may contain hundreds of billions of stars. Dwarf systems, on the 
other hand (such as the galaxy in Sculptor), have absolute magnitudes of about 
-11 and apparently only contain several million stars. On the fringes of 
the dwarf galaxies, moreover, systems with even lower luminosities have 



62 



been detected, which may be referred to as subdwarf galaxies. An example 
of such a system is the galaxy in Capricornus, discovered by Zwicky, which 
has an absolute photographic magnitude of about -6.5. This system pre- 
sumably contains at most several tens of thousands of stars. It thus has 
less than one ten-millionth of the population of a supergiant galaxy and it 
even contains fewer stars than many of the globular clusters. 

The diameters of galaxies usually range between 50,000 par sees (for 
the supergiants) and 500 parsecs (for the subdwarf s). Giant and supergiant 
galaxies (diameters between 5000 and 50,000 parsecs) have high surface 
brightnesses (over 24"". per square second of arc) and they have intense 
concentrations of luminosity toward the galactic center. 
The dwarf galaxies include objects with high surface brightness as well as 
objects with low brightness. It is significant, however, that in addition to 
dwarf systems with high gradients of surface brightness from edge to 
center, galaxies have also been observed in which this gradient is very low, 
so that on photographs the system appears as a disk of almost uniform 
brightness*. 

The fact that most stars are members of galaxies is quite significant, if 
we take into consideration that, as a first approximation, the galaxies 
constitute isolated systems. The distances between neighboring galaxies 
are normally many times larger than the diameters of their central, 
densest regions, although the very tenuous parts of the galaxies, located 
a long way from the galactic centers, may often interpenetrate. In 
addition to being topographically isolated, galaxies are also dynamically 
closed stellar systems. A dynamically closed system here refers to the 
fact that the motions of the stars in each galaxy are mainly determined by 
their interactions with the other members of the same galaxy. However, 
the condition of dynamic isolation is satisfied only to a certain degree of 
approximation. Mutual disturbances of stellar systems which are close 
to one another, and eruptions from galactic centers (galactic eruptions 
will be discussed below), are instances in which the dynamic isolation is 
more or less violated. 

In the same way as stars form into galaxies, the galaxies in turn form 
larger systems, such as galactic clusters, galactic groups, and multiple 
galaxies. 

Two decades ago the idea prevailed that, in addition to the galactic 
clusters and groups, there exists a general field in which most of the 
galaxies are contained (just as in our stellar system there is a general 
star field impregnated with star clusters and associations). At present, 

• The dwarf systems discovered by Shapley in Sculptor and Fornax are examples of galaxies in the 

Local Group which have low density gradients. The surface brightnesses of these systems are unusually low. 
Baade subsequently showed that galaxies NGC147 and NGC185 (also in the Local Group) have low density 
gradients too. This galactic pair has a surface brightness considerably higher than that of the systems in 
Sculptor and Fornax. Two other members of the Local Group (Sextans B and Leo 2) have intermediate 
surface brightnesses. These also have very low density gradients. In the Virgo cluster there are a large 
number of objects with low surface luminosities and low density gradients. Some of these have linear 
dimensions close to those of medium-sized galaxies. For instance, galaxy ICn3475 has a very low surface 
brightness and a negligible density gradient, while its diameter is 5000 parsecs. The dimensions of this 
galaxy thus exceed by far those of similar objects in the Local Group. 

It should be noted, nevertheless, that relatively large objects with low density gradients and low surface 
brightnesses are quite rare. For instance, in the cluster in Cancer the largest galaxy of this kind has a linear 
diameter of about 2500 parsecs. 



63 



however, the existence <5f such a general field is considered to be unlikely. 
Nevertheless, as far as high- luminosity galaxies are concerned, it is 
true to say that for the most part they are members of galactic clusters, 
groups, and multiple systems. 

The observed galactic clusters are divided into two types: globular 
clusters, with regular, symmetrical distributions of galaxies about 
the center; and diffuse clusters, in which the galaxies have largely 
irregular distributions. The populations of globular clusters are mainly 
made up of elliptical galaxies, while diffuse clusters contain a high 
percentage of spiral galaxies. On the fringes of diffuse clusters there are 
galactic groups, such as the Local Group or the groups around Ml 01 
and M81. 

The galactic groups associated with Ml 01 and M81, for instance, do not 
actually contain a single elliptical galaxy; they consist only of spiral and 
irregular galaxies. The galactic group in Sculptor (studied by de 
Vaucouleurs) contains only galaxies of the Sc type and irregular galaxies. 
Finally, the Local Group does not contain any elliptical galaxies of high 
luminosity either, but it does include some elliptical galaxies of low and 
medium luminosity. 

It is interesting to note too that the Local Group essentially consists of 
two quite small galactic groups, with dimensions close to those of multiple 
galaxies. The first group comprises our Galaxy, the Large and Small 
Magellanic Clouds, and apparently a few galaxies of the type of the system 
in Sculptor as well. The second group contains the Andromeda Nebula 
with its four companions and M33. However, this division can be considered 
valid only for galaxies of high and medium luminosity. Dwarf galaxies, 
on the other hand, may quite possibly be distributed continuously throughout 
the entire Local Group. It should be added that the total mass of the Local 
Group is mainly determined by the masses of the two galaxies which are 
essentially the centers of the above-mentioned two subgroups (M31 and our 
Galaxy). 

In some cases, galactic clusters which have many members occur in 
twos and threes, and thus form multiple galactic clusters. It was 
mentioned above that galaxies as a rule represent closed stellar systems. 
There are cases, however, when the systems are not isolated, and three 
categories of such objects will now be described. 

a) Interacting galaxies. These are cases in which two galaxies 
are close together, and the presence of one galaxy has a strong effect on 
the structure of the other. Many examples of interacting galaxies are 
listed in the atlas of B. A. Vorontsov- Vel'yaminov, who has contributed 
considerably to the study of these interesting objects. The observed 
interactions may be explained in two ways: 1) as a result of tidal action, 
and 2) as a result of the separation of two galaxies which were initially 
together. In the latter case the "interactions" are considered to be a 
consequence of the separation process. 

b) Pairs of galaxies connected by bridges or bars. 
Many instances of this have been reported by Zwicky, who has demonstra- 
ted that the bars are made up of stars. Jets, or streamers, emanating 
from the central regions of some spherical galaxies, and containing blue 
condensations made up of dwarf galaxies, border upon the bars. * It has 

' For example, NGC3561 and IC1182 are high -luminosity galaxies which have streamers containing blue 
condensations issuing from their central regions. 

64 



been noted that the streamer joining a large galaxy to a dwarf galaxy also 
resembles a bar, and in such cases there is little doubt but that the dwarf 
galaxy detached itself from the central core of the main galaxy. It thus 
seems more plausible to assiame that bridges and bars are in fact the 
result of a division of a single galaxy into two parts. 

c) Radio galaxies. Previously, radio galaxies were assumed to 
be the result of random collisions between two independent stellar systems, 
and the energy of the observed radio emission was assumed to comie from 
the collision of the gaseous masses contained in the two galaxies. However, 
the facts have not supported such a hypothesis. All the data tend to indicate 
that radio galaxies represent some (possibly very brief) stage in the 
internal evolution of galaxies of very high luminosity (supergiant galaxies). 

The radio- emission intensity of a galaxy is apparently closely connected 
with the genesis of new intragalactic formations, such as condensations 
and streamers (which are expelled from the center), spiral arms, and 
even whole new galaxies. In other words, in some cases a galactic center 
divides, and a new galaxy forms in the depths of the old one. This is why 
radio galaxies are often extremely compact systems consisting of an old 
galaxy and new formations, the latter usually being still embedded in the 
parent galaxy. 

It should be noted that all the types of nonisolated galaxies described 
above together constitute only a small percentage of the total number of 
galaxies. There is good reason to believe that such cases of nonisolation 
occur at a definite stage of galactic evolution (specifically, when new 
galaxies are formed). 

Despite the significant advances which have been made in the study of 
the spatial distribution of galaxies, there are still naany important 
problems which remain unsolved. Let us now consider some of these. 

a) Do galactic clusters as a rule combine to form systems of higher 
order, such as superclusters or a supergalaxy? Our Local Group is 
evidently a member of a certain group of clusters whose center is 
represented by the large cluster in Virgo. This extensive spatial grouping 
was designated the Supergalaxy by de Vaucouleurs. It measures about 
20 million parsecs across. However, we have as yet no evidence for the 
dynamic unity of this system, or for the existence of any forces capable of 
sustaining it. 

At the same time, it is noteworthy that a study of the distribution of 
galaxies on the celestial sphere does not clearly reveal any appreciable 
number of such supergalaxies. When considering this problem, however, 
two conceivable possibilities should be taken into account: 1) that the 
distances between supergalaxies are very large in comparison with their 
diameters; and 2) that these distances are of the same order as the 
diameters of the supergalaxies. 

In the first case, many of these supergalaxies would be distinctly 
visible against the celestial sphere as isolated formations. In the second 
case, we would see projected against the sky only a small number of 
relatively near isolated systems of this kind, and by means of a superficial 
study it would be difficult to deduce the existence of any distant super- 
galaxies. 

Observations show clearly that the distribution of galactic clusters and 
groups is nonuniform, and the existence of supergalaxies may explain 
this to a certain extent. It may be assumed at the same time that we only 



65 



observe a few isolated nearby clouds consisting of a large number of 
condensations. The only thing which has been definitely established is 
the presence of a large cloud in the southern sky, extending between 
galactic longitudes of 160° and 240° and having a galactic latitude of -40°. * 

These two facts indicate that the second alternative is the correct one, 
that is, that supergalaxies do exist and that the distances between them 
are of the same order as their diameters. 

Thus, even though the existence of individual supergalaxies seems to 
be an established fact, there are still certain questions which remain 
unanswered. For example, it is not known what percentage of the galactic 
clusters are members of such higher- order systems, or whether both of 
the known t3^es of clusters (globular and diffuse) exhibit an equally strong 
tendency toward bunching together. Answers to these questions will be 
possible only on the basis of more detailed photometric and statistical 
studies. 

b) To what extent do low- luminosity galaxies have the same spatial 
distribution as high- luminosity galaxies? As we said before, the fact that 
galaxies concentrate in clusters has been quite well established for high- 
luminosity objects. Objects of low luminosity, however, lying at distances 
of a few million parsecs or more, would be completely lost among the 
galaxies of the distant background, so that the question is not very easy to 
settle in this case. On the other hand, galaxies with low surface 
luminosities are one class of low- luminosity objects about which something 
is known. It has been found by Rijves that the distribution of objects with 
low surface luminosities in the Virgo cluster is roughly the same as the 
distribution of high- luminosity galaxies. On the other hand, it cannot yet 
be established with any certainty whether galaxies at the low limit of 
surface luminosity (such as the Sculptor system or the Zwicky object in 
Capricornus) constitute a general metagalactic field or whether they are 
concentrated in clusters and groups. 

c) The supergalaxies discussed above are objects with diameters of the 
order of 20 million parsecs. If these represent the largest inhomogeneities 
in the distribution of galaxies, then any given portion of space measuring 
50 or 100 million parsecs across can be expected to have approximately 

" Nonuniformity of the distribution of galaxies in the sky, aside from that caused by absorption in out 

Galaxy, was clearly attested to by the galaxy catalog of Sljapley and Ames (stellar magnitude limit of 13.0). 
This nonuniformity is mainly due to the existence of the local Supergalaxy. An even more pronounced 
nonuniformity is revealed by the calculations of Shane and Wirtanen (stellar magnitude limit of 18.4). In 
this case, small-scale inhomogeneities are produced by the concentration of galaxies in clusters. There 
are also larger- scale inhomogeneities, which ate a result of the tendency of clusters to form into groups 
similar to supergalaxies. 

According to the data of Zwicky and others, the nonuniformities in the distribution of galaxies extend up 
to the limit attained by the Schmidt telescope at Palomar (nearly up to the 20th stellar magnitude). As an 
example, we cite the large galactic clouds in the vicinity of the Corona Botealis cluster. However, with 
respect to the tendency of clusters to crowd together, it is of interest to study the distribution of centers of 
galactic clusters. Such a study was carried out by Abell on the basis of the photographs in the Palomar Atlas. 
His findings prove that the distribution of clusters is nonuniform. 

Zwicky suggests that the nonuniformities observed in the cluster distribution are mainly due to patchy 
absorption of the intergalactic dust. The arguments he adduces to show that intergalactic absorption occurs 
in well-defined directions are quite compelling, but there are still many cases in which the inhomogeneities 
cannot be explained in this way. Consequently, we must assume that galaxies at great distances from us 
actually have a nonuniform distribution. 



66 



the same amount of matter (galaxies) in it. It is possible, however, that 
inhomogeneities of a larger scale exist. Whether this is true or not can 
be decided only by studying the distribution of faint galactic clusters (up 
to the 21st stellar magnitude), or by studying the distribution of extra- 
galactic radio sources. The solution of this problem is very important, 
since it will provide a check of the various cosmological theories 
proposed. At present it can only be stated that no justification for the 
postulate of homogeneity usually adopted by cosmologists has yet been 
found. 

d) It was mentioned previously that there is strong evidence for the 
existence of intergalactic dust matter. In this connection, a study of all 
the various kinds of intergalactic matter would be advisable. So far, the 
following kinds have been identified: 

1) Luminous intergalactic matter, which sometimes fills the central 
part of the volume occupied by a galactic cluster. All the data indicate that 
this luminous matter consists of stars, in the same way as the bridges 
and bars often observed in binary galaxies do. 

2) Intergalactic globular clusters, a few of which- have been detected 
at distances of more than 100,000 parsecs. 

3) Giant clouds of relativistic electrons which have been ejected from 
the interiors of galaxies. Radio source Centaurus A, for instance, 
consists of three such clouds, while radio source Cygnus A consists of 
two. Each cloud of this type is larger than a normal- sized galaxy, and 
many such clouds must have been scattered throughout intergalactic space in 
the past. 

4) Absorbing dust. There do not seem to be any data available on 
the sizes of individual dust clouds. 

5) Neutral gas masses, which seem to be present in such small 
amounts that the radiation they emit (for instance, in the X = 21 cm line) 
has not yet been detected with any certainty. 

Each of the foregoing kinds of intergalactic matter definitely deserves 
a special study. 



II. BASIC FACTS RELATED TO THE KINEMATICS AND 
DYNAMICS OF GALACTIC SYSTEMS 

Our knowledge of galactic naotions is confined to information on the 
radial velocities of about a thousand galaxies. We have no data at all 
concerning their tangential velocities. Nevertheless, the available data 
on the radial velocities (nearly all of which were obtained at the Mount 
Wilson, Palomar, and Lick Observatories) have posed some of the most 
difficult problems which astronomy has ever had to face. 

The totality of observable galaxies constitutes a part of some vast 
system which we call the Metagalaxy. The concept of the Metagalaxy, 
by the way, is meaningful regardless of whether galaxies exist beyond 
this system or not. The most important consequence of our information 
on the radial velocities of the galaxies is the fact that the Metagalaxy is 
expanding. 



67 



Hubble' s law, which was derived from empirical data, states that 

where o, is the radial velocity of the galaxy, // is a constant, and r is the 
distance to the galaxy. This law, which is valid within minor fluctuations 
for values of r up to almost 2 billion parsecs, indicates that the observed 
expansion is approximately uniform. All attempts to find an explanation for 
the red shift other than the Doppler effect have turned out to be artificial 
and futile. Consequently, whenever we consider any problems concerning 
the nature, and particularly the evolution, of the Metagalaxy, we have to 
take into account its expansion. 

Clearly, Bubble's law is valid only as an average. In addition to the 
velocity defined by Hubble' s formula, each galactic cluster has its own 
peculiar velocity, as does each galaxy with respect to the center of 
gravity of its cluster. 

For instance, in the Local Group, where the distances between galaxies 
are small, the relative velocities are mainly determined by the peculiar 
motions of the individual members. However, even the nearest galactic 
clusters and the nearest outer groups are receding from us, indicating 
that the peculiar velocities of these clusters and groups are small 
compared with the systematic recession velocities given by Hubble' s law. 

It is important to know the value of the constant H , since this makes it 
possible to determine the distances of the remotest clusters. Unfortunately, 
this value is not precisely known, although probably it lies somewhere 
between the following limits: 

60 "'"^^"^ <//<140 ^^'^^ 



megaparsec megaparsec * 

and it is a fair guess that it lies between the narrower limits: 
70 ^Wse^ <//<ioo '""/'^" 



megaparsec megaparsec * 

according to the measurements of Sandage (1958). It will not be advisable 
to consider here the problems involved in determining H, but we should 
note that under any given conditions Bubble's law provides a good estimate 
of the relative distances. 

Another important factor with respect to galactic motions is the 
existence of a certain dispersion of velocities within each galactic cluster, 
this being associated with internal motions in the clusters. 

If a cluster is in a steady state, or if it is supposed to reach a steady 
state after a certain length of time, its total energy E must be negative: 

£=r + t/<0, 

where T and U are the kinetic and potential energies of the system. If 
£>0 , on the other hand, the system cannot reach a steady state, and at 
least some of its members must move off to infinity. 

Recent investigations have shown that there are some groups and 
multiple systems for which the kinetic energy of internal motion (deter- 
mined from the radial velocities) is many times higher than the probable 



68 



absolute magnitude of the potential energy; the latter was calculated 
assuming that the main mass of the cluster is concentrated in its galaxies 

M 

and that the mass- luminosity ration /=--— for a given type of galaxy is of 

the same order as in cases when this ratio could be determined by studying 
the galactic rotation. This gave rise to the conclusion that some groups 
and clusters have a positive energy and should immediately become 
scattered throughout space. Such a conclusion was reached, for instance, 
for the galactic clusters in Virgo and Hercules, and also for the relatively 
nearby group in Sculptor. The latter case, which was analyzed in detail 
by de Vaucouleurs, is a particularly striking example, because its kinetic 
energy apparently exceeds the calculated absolute potential energy by one 
and one half or two orders of magnitude. Since a positive energy must 
cause some members of the cluster to wander away, and sometimes even 
makes the whole cluster disperse, it could be assumed that there is 
something in common between unsteady- state processes in clusters, on 
the one hand, and the expansion of the Metagalaxy on the other. 

Systems such as the local Supergalaxy should occupy an intermediate 
position in this respect. The constituent parts of the Supergalaxy are 
receding from each other (for instance, the Virgo cluster and the group 
associated with M81 are receding from the Local Group of galaxies). 

What we have said about the sign of the total internal energy of 
galactic clusters applies to multiple systems of galaxies as 
well. Apparently, some multiple systems have a positive total energy, 
indicating that their components must be rather young (of the order of 
10^ years old). 

However, regardless of the sign of the total energy, another feature of 
the aggregate of multiple galaxies (triple, quadruple, etc. ) is significant. 
Most multiple stars are known to have configurations of the "ordinary" 
type, whereas configurations of the "Trapezium of Orion" type occur in 
only a small percentage of cases (~10%). Approximately half of the 
multiple galaxies, on the other hand, have configurations of the 
Trapezium type. Inasmuch as systems of the Trapezium type are usually 
unstable, the time which has elapsed since these multiple groups were 
formed cannot be much longer than several periods of revolution of such 
a multiple system (one period lasts for 10^ to 5-10^ years). 

Finally, since the assumption that all binary galaxies have a negative 
total energy occasionally yields improbably high values for the mass of 
the components, it is likely that some binary galaxies have positive total 
energies. 

For superclose systems such as the radio galaxies, considerable 
differences in the velocities of the components are observed. In radio 
galaxy Perseus A, for instance, this difference is as high as 3000 km/ sec. 
Consequently, such galactic pairs also have positive energies. In our 
opinion, what is observed in this case is the formation of a galaxy pair 
from a single galaxy. 

When further data are compiled on the radial velocities of galaxies, it 
will be possible to answer many of the remaining questions concerning 
their kinematics and dynamics. Some of the problems still awaiting 
solution are the following: 

a) More precise determination of the constant in the red- shift law. For 
this, the scale of extragalactic distances must be specified more accurately. 



69 



b) Determination of the red shift as a function of distance for very 
great distances. Departure from the linear dependence should undoubtedly 
be observed. A knowledge of the sign of this nonlinearity, and a determi- 
nation of whether its value is independent of direction, is very important 
for the solution of fundamental cosmologlcal problems. 

c) It is very important to determine the peculiar velocities of the 
centers of gravity of individual galactic clusters (that is, the discrepancies 
between their observed velocities and Hubble's law). Solution of this 
problem is essential in order to determine whether there is a genetic 
relation between neighboring clusters. However, in order to determine 
these discrepancies, some way must be found to measure the distances of 
distant clusters more accurately, without using Hubble's law. 

d) The solution of many problems concerning the dynamics of galactic 
clusters and multiple galaxies requires the determination of their masses. 
Unfortunately, if the galaxies in these systems are far away, their masses 
are determined statistically, proceeding from the assumption that the 
energy is negative and that the virial theorem is applicable. However, 

the masses of galaxies, even if only of the galaxies contained in the 
nearest clusters, must be calculated independently of this. In addition, 
methods must be found for estimating at least the upper limit of the inter- 
galactic masses possible in each system (cluster or group), 

e) Marked disagreements have sometimes been foiond between the mass 
of a system determined according to the virial theorem and the mass 
calculated according to the luminosities of individual members of the 
system. This has been observed for several diffuse clusters and galactic 
groups (the clusters in Virgo and Hercules, the galactic groups in Sculptor 
and Leo, etc.). Moreover, according to Zwicky, the large globular 
clusters do not show any signs of expansion. Recently, however, Agekyan 
came to the opposite conclusion concerning the globular cluster in Coma 
Berenices. 

In order to settle this question finally, as many radial velocities as 
possible in several of the nearest large globular clusters will have to be 
determined. 



III. BASIC FACTS RELATED TO THE NATURE OF 
GALAXIES AND GALACTIC CLUSTERS 

Observations show that the known galaxies have a great variety of shapes 
and intrinsic properties. In order to gain a better understanding of the 
nature of galaxies, it is very important to have a fairly complete and yet 
simple system of classification of galaxies. It is quite obvious that the 
greater the physical significance of the classification criteria, the more 
useful the classification will be for solving problems in extragalactic 
astronomy. 

The currently prevalent classification (that of Hubble) is based on a 
study of the external shapes of galaxies. It has proved to be extremely 
useful, since until recently all the information we have had on most 
galaxies was data on their shapes, integral brightnesses, and apparent 
diameters. The last two parameters cannot be used to characterize a 



70 



system unless the distance is also known. In recent years, however, it 
has become possible to find the approximate absolute brightness in terms 
of the linear diameter for a large number of galaxies contained in thickly 
populated clusters. This could be done because it was found that the 
brightest members of these clusters are always supergiants, with absolute 
magnitudes of the order of -21.0. By comparing this absolute magnitude 
with the apparent magnitude of the brightest members, it is possible to 
obtain a rough estimate of the distance, and thus of the luminosities and 
absolute dimensions of the other members as well. As mentioned at the 
beginning of the article, the luminosities of galaxies in clusters vary over 
a wide range. It has gradually become clear that denoting a given galaxy 
as a supergiant, a giant, an object of medium lunainosity, a dwarf, or an 
object of extremely low luminosity (such as Zwicky's object in Capricornus) 
is quite often much more important than specifying its shape. Let us recall 
once more that a supergiant galaxy contains tens of millions of times 
more stars than a galaxy of extremely low luminosity does. 

In order to understand the properties of a galaxy it is important to 
study its central region, and in particular to determine whether it 
contains a small central nucleus. Any new attempts to work out a classi- 
fication of galaxies should take into account the luminosity; moreover, a 
specification of the galaxy class should also define the role of the central 
regions and possibly of the nucleus itself. Lastly, other, as yet unknown, 
parameters may exist which are very important for describing the state 
of a galaxy. 

The recently proposed Morgan classification, which takes into account 
the degree of concentration of the luminosity, fulfills one of these 
requirements to a certain extent. Specifying the Morgan class, however, 
leaves the luminosity undefined. Lately an attempt has been made by van 
den Bergh to introduce a parameter derived from the observed shape of a 
galaxy, but essentially defining its luminosity as well. The basic idea here 
is quite good, but unfortunately the van den Bergh classification is not 
comprehensive and it covers only spirals of the more recent types. 
Therefore, it is likely that in the future new classifications will be 
proposed which will specify the essential parameters of every galaxy. 

A significant advance was made during the second quarter of this 
century, with the introduction of the concept of galactic subsystems 
(Lindblad, Kukarkin, Baade) and the specification of different types of 
stellar populations. In some galaxies (EO systems) the stellar populations 
are fairly uniform, so that the whole galaxy may be said to comprise a 
single subsystem. This is true, specifically, of such members of the 
Local Group as the system in Sculptor, and of galaxies M32 and NGC147. 
Contrary to the opinion once expressed by Baade, we apparently do not 
encounter in nature systems consisting entirely of Population I stars (the 
type of stars in the spiral arms). In many galaxies, however, there is a 
superposition of two or several subsystems containing 
different types of populations. 

For example, a lens- shaped galaxy (SO) consists of two subsystems, 
made up respectively of the stellar populations of a spherical component 
and a disk. Giant spirals of the M31 type consist of a spherical 
component, a disk, and spiral arms. It may be that a more detailed 
subdivision is required in these cases, but the main point is that here we 
have to do with the superposition of different subsystems. 



71 



The available data indicate that the populations of different subsystems 
follow distinct, independent lines of evolution. Moreover, there is also 
reason to believe that the average stellar age differs for different sub- 
systems. Accordingly, if we disregard the dynamic interaction, each 
subsystem has an autonomous existence. This is an important factor when 
describing galaxies as composite systems apparently produced by a 
simple superposition of subsystems. 

The relative independence of the different subsystems constituting a 
single galaxy is shown by the fact that the degree of development of one 
subsystem fin terms of its population density and size) is unrelated to that 
of the other subsystems. 

For instance, the population density and dimensions of the spherical 
subsystem of galaxy M31 do not differ greatly from those of a normal EO 
galaxy, which has an absolute magnitude of about -19.0. The latter type of 
galaxy, however, contains no stellar population in a plane subsystem or 
spiral arms, whereas M31 has thick spiral arms and a densely populated 
disk. 

In this respect it is also interesting to consider systems occupying an 
intermediate position (that is, systems in which one subsystem is highly 
developed and another is only poorly developed). A notable instance of 
this is galaxy NGC5128 (radio source Centaurus A), which appears to be 
a giant elliptical galaxy on overexposed photographs, but which actually 
contains in its central region a poorly developed plane subsystem containing 
a large amount of absorbing material. Studies conducted by the Burbidges, 
based on measurements of the radial velocities in this plane subsystem, 
have shown that the equatorial plane of the latter is approximately 
perpendicular to the equatorial plane of the elliptical subsystem. This is 
a good illustration of the independence of subsystems. Another interesting 
instance is NGC5718. The spiral arms of this galaxy are rather thin, but 
unlike those of NGC5128 they extend far beyond the volume occupied by the 
spherical subsystem. Dark matter is concentrated in a plane tilted about 
25° to the equatorial plane of the elliptical subsystem of the galaxy, which 
is also an indication that the subsystems are independent. 

It is possible to cite opposite examples as well, in which the spherical 
subsystem is very poorly developed and the plane subsystem is quite 
prominent. The Large Magellanic Cloud is an example of such a case. That 
this cloud contains a spherical subsystem follows only from the fact that 
there are in it at least about 30 globular clusters similar to those in our 
Galaxy and in M31. Unfortunately, however, other objects associated 
with spherical subsystems are very difficult to distinguish against the 
background of the stellar population of the plane component. It is therefore 
difficult to ascertain which elliptical systems the spherical component of 
the Large Magellanic Cloud resembles. Judging by the distribution and 
number of globular clusters in this component, however, it should be an 
elliptical galaxy of medium luminosity (16th absolute stellar magnitude) 
with a low density gradient from center to edge. As we progress down the 
scale from supergiant elliptical galaxies to elliptical galaxies of medium 
and low luminosity, we encounter objects with low density gradients more 
and more frequently. 

Mention was made above of the comparative independence of the different 
subsystems included in a given galaxy. In one respect, however, the 



72 



subsystems are almost always quite definitely interrelated, in that they 
have a common center. The center of the spherical subsystem usually 
coincides with the center of the disk, and also with the region from 'which 
the spiral arms emerge. Observations of nearby high- luminosity galaxies 
indicate that this center is usually the site of a galactic nucleus, 
measuring only a few parsecs across (less than the diameter of an 
ordinary globular cluster). It is reasonable to assume that the origin 
of the separate nearly independent subsystems is in 
some way related to the presence of this nucleus. 

In some galaxies, on the other hand, no traces of a nucleus have been 
found (for instance, in NGC185 and in the system in Sculptor). However, 
let us consider the absolute magnitudes of galactic nuclei. The absolute 
photographic stellar magnitude of the nucleus of M31 is -11.6, that of 
M32 is -11.1, that of M33 is -10.3, and that of NGC147 is -5.0. Consequent- 
ly, we see that the absolute magnitude of the nucleus diminishes as the 
density gradient decreases. Therefore, the nuclei of NGC185 and the 
system in Sculptor, and possibly the nuclei of the Magellanic Clouds as 
well, should have luminosities which are even lower than the nucleus of 
NGC147. If this luminosity is of the order of -2, the nucleus may well 
become lost among the stars. It should be noted, moreover, that the 
nuclei in the Magellanic Clouds will be imperceptible even if their absolute 
photographic stellar magnitudes are as high as -5. It is thus a bit pre- 
mature to conclude definitely that there are no nuclei in these systems. 
If they do have nuclei, however, they must be very faint. 

It was mentioned above that the subsystems in virtually every galaxy 
are concentric. Some individual cases exist, however, in which this is 
not true; for example, in galaxy NGC4438 in the Virgo cluster, the two 
subsystems are clearly displaced with respect to each other. 

There is a certain similarity between galaxies and galactic clusters: 
just as the stellar populations of galaxies can be roughly divided into two 
basic types, the members of galactic clusters can also be referred to two 
different types of population. The first type is associated with spiral and 
irregular galaxies, and the second with elliptical and lens- shaped (SO) 
galaxies. 

Densely populated globular galactic clusters such as the cluster in 
Coma Berenices contain mainly Population II galaxies. Diffuse galactic 
clouds, such as the nearby cloud in Ursa Major, contain almost no 
elliptical galaxies of high luminosity. The nearby galactic group in 
Sculptor, which was studied by de Vaucouleurs, contains neither elliptical 
galaxies nor galaxies of types SO, Sa, and Sb. This group includes only 
spirals of later subclasses. The diffuse cluster in Virgo, on the other 
hand, contains both giant elliptical galaxies sind giant spirals. 

Let us consider whether in this case a superposition of different 
subsystems in one cluster is involved. There are not always indications 
that two quasi- independent subclusters have combined to form one system, 
although in some cases there is definite evidence of this. For example, 
in the Coma Berenices cluster one of the central galaxies (NGC4874), a 
supergiant of type SO, is distinctly surrounded by a symmetric cloud of 
elliptical galaxies of lower luminosity. Externally, this group bears a 
great resemblance to galaxy NGC4486, which is surrounded by globular 
clusters (the only difference being that, instead of globular clusters. 



73 



NGC4874 has elliptical galaxies of medium luminosity around it). The 
group of elliptical galaxies with NGC4874 at its center, however, appears 
to be superimposed onto a large and densely populated galactic cluster 
with a lower density gradient. 

For diffuse galactic clusters it is apparently possible to find 
many more phenomena indicating that different groups are superimposed. 
A good case in point is the chain of bright galaxies M84, M86, NGC4435, 
4438, etc., in the Virgo cluster. As Markaryan pointed out some years 
ago, this chain is not an accidental formation, but rather is an independent 
group which is superimposed onto the Virgo cluster. 

It is quite possible that diffuse galactic clusters are in general 
produced by the combination and superposition of a number of similar 
groups (this would also explain their irregular shapes). In this connection 
it should be recalled that there are some clusters (or groups) which con- 
sist of a central galaxy surrounded by a certain number of objects of 
lower luminosity (for instance, the group around MlOl forms such a 
system). This point is important because in such cases it appears certain 
that the central galaxy and its fainter companions have a common origin. 
It must be noted, however, that in addition to these systems there are 
also some groups which consist almost exclusively of supergiants 
(Stefan's quintet is an example of this). In contrast to the previous case, 
however, no appreciable number of low -luminosity galaxies is observed 
around these supergiants. With respect to this, however, we should 
note that the luminosity function may have a discontinuity and that this 
system may contain a number of galaxies whose absolute magnitudes are 
less than the lowest observable magnitude. The facts just considered, 
together with what we said at the beginning of the article concerning the 
special position of M31 and our Galaxy in the Local Group, indicate that 
the supergiant galaxies in clusters and groups are of considerable cosmo- 
gonic significance. 

From the foregoing it is also clear that, in addition to investigating 
densely populated galactic clusters, it is very important to obtain as many 
data as possible on groups with relatively low populations. In particular, 
it is essential to ascertain whether any isolated groups exist which consist 
exclusively of low- luminosity galaxies. If there were no such groups, then 
this would inriply that the cosmogonic processes occurring in high- luminosity 
galaxies play a decisive role in the formation of dwarf galaxies. 

Although a certain amount of progress has been made in studying the 
stellar populations of galaxies and of the different subsystems, it must be 
admitted that only the first steps have been taken so far. Additional 
information on the composition of stellar populations must be obtained, 
on the basis of spectral data (as suggested by Morgan and Mayall), and on 
the basis of a quantitative analysis of spectrophotometric curves 
(Markaryan et al.). 

Another important task lying before us is an analysis of the nature of 
the galactic arms. It has been observed that arms with the same degree 
of opening and the same length may, in different instances, have very 
different abimdances in their stellar associations. If the nature of the 
galactic arms can be correlated with the other parameters of the galaxy, 
the factors causing these differences will be understood better. 



74 



The barred spirals (or SB galaxies) are particularly interesting. 
Unfortunately, however, we do not yet know exactly how the populations 
of the bars differ from the populations of the arms in these galaxies. We 
know only that the bars are usually much redder in color than the arms, 
and that the arms must thus contain a relatively larger number of yo\ing 
stars. It will be especially important to determine how many open 
clusters and supergiant stars the bars contain. 



IV. AN EXTENSION OF THE SUPERPOSITION CONCEPT 

In the foregoing we discussed some cases in which the centers of the 
subsystems composing a given galaxy are displaced with respect to one 
another. Some galaxies are also known which are binary but which are at 
the same time connected by a material medium, so that they can also be 
considered as single systems. Examples of such galaxies are M51, 
NGC7752, and NGC7753. It is reasonable to assume that these are galaxies 
in which the centers of the subsystems have separated. IntheIC1613 system 
there is a superassociation lying to one side of the main galactic body, and 
this can equally well be considered either a part of the main galaxy or else 
a separate companion galaxy. It is quite probable that this superassociation, 
which consists of hot giants, was formed much later than the rest of the 
galaxy. >:< 

Consequently, the impression is created that a galaxy evolves by means 
of the successive formation of different subsystems; any of the subsystems, 
or sometimes a group of subsystems with a new center, may become a 
companion of the main galaxy. This implies that the formation of a 
companion and the appearance of a new subsystem within a given galaxy 
are related phenomena. 

It can be assumed, moreover, that these phenomena take place concur- 
rently. For example, in cases where a spiral arm joins the center of a 
given galaxy to a companion, it seems reasonable that the spiral arm and 
the companion were formed together. 

Finally, any companion revolving around a primary galaxy (such as the 
system in Sculptor) is very similar in size and stellar population to a 
globular cluster. Since globular clusters are most probably produced by 
internal processes occurring in the main galaxy, the same can be assumed 
to hold true for companions like the one in Sculptor. 



V. TRANSIENT PHENOMENA IN GALAXIES 

Up to this point we have considered galaxies as static formations. 
However, transient phenomena also occur in galaxies, especially in the 
supergiants, and these phenomena are of great interest. 



* The same situation exists in IC2574: a bright superassociation lies to the north of the main part of this 
galaxy, the two parts being connected by a barely visible arm. 



75 



We are not referring here to the processes of stellar formation 
which take place in O and T associations, although these play a significant 
role in galactic evolution. What we have in mind are more rapid changes 
which are directly observable. It is noteworthy that most of these 
transient phenomena are associated with galactic nuclei and that they may 
even be regarded as manifestations of activity of the nuclei. 

A) A stream of neutral hydrogen is flowing out of the central region 
of our Galaxy. This phenomenon was discovered by Dutch astronomers 
as a result of observations of the 21 -cm radio- emission line of hydrogen. 
The same sort of gas-efflux process was detected for the nucleus of M31 
by Munch, as a result of studies of the X = 3727 A line. In both cases the 
mass of the efflux amounts to about 1 solar mass per year. Oddly enough, 
this figure does not agree with existing estimates of the masses of galactic 
nuclei (about 10' solar masses). 

B) Seyfert has demonstrated that for some galaxies with high- luminosity 
nuclei the X = 3727 A emission line is broadened considerably, which 
corresponds to velocities of motion of the order of several thousand kilo- 
meters per second. Such velocities exceed the usual escape velocities of 
galaxies. This undoubtedly indicates that intense fluxes of matter are 
ejected from the nuclei at high velocities and then dispersed throughout 
space. The amount of ejected matter in this case is apparently much 
greater than that released in our Galaxy and in M31. Presumably, the 
blue galaxies in Ara, which have strong emission lines in the regions 

near the nuclei, are of a similar nature. 

o 

C) The X = 3727 A line is also observed at the very center of radio 
galaxy NGC4486, and it is apparently associated with a quite intensive gas 
efflux at a velocity of about 500 km/ sec. If this is correlated with the 
fact that a radial jet issues from the center of the galaxy and contains 
condensations which are strongly emitting in the radio range, we can 
conclude that the condensations were expelled from the central nucleus 

of the galaxy at high velocities. The light of these condensations is 
polarized, indicating that they contain high- energy electrons. These 
formations, however, are not on the same scale as the Crab Nebula, 
since the energy of their radio emission (measured in absolute units) is 
about ten million times higher. If we take into account that in this case 
the radio emission lasts at least a thousand times longer as well, then it 
follows that the energy reserves in these condensations are a billion times 
greater than the total energy reserves of the Crab Nebula. This means 
that, in terms of energy and mass, these condensations are objects which 
correspond to small galaxies, and this is found to agree with their 
absolute photographic magnitudes. 

It is not yet known whether these condensations are ejected from the 
galactic nucleus as already- formed clouds of relativistic electrons, or 
(which is more probable) whether the nucleus expels objects which in 
turn continually produce new streams of such electrons. What is 
important, however, is that the nucleus of a giant galaxy is 
able to eject such immense c on d en s at i on s ,. a fact which 
does not seem to agree with the information we have on the masses of 
galactic nuclei. 

D) It is much more difficult to explain the phenomena occurring in 
other radio galaxies. It is known, though, that galaxy NGC1275 (PerseusA) 



76 



is one of the Seyfert galaxies, in which the X = 3727 A line is broadened 
considerably for the central region. Thus, in this case also matter is 
ejected from the nucleus at a high rate. 

The presence of two nuclei in radio galaxy Cygnus A may be the result 
of a recent splitting of one parent nucleus. According to our previous 
considerations, such a division should lead to the formation of subsystems 
with different centers and subsequently to the formation of a binary galaxy. 

At any rate, the case of NGC5128 (Centaurus A) also shows that 
galactic nuclei are capable of ejecting either tremendous clouds of 
relativistic electrons or else material which can subsequently produce such 
clouds. 

In any case, then, radio galaxies are systems in which the central 
nuclei show signs of intense activity ultimately leading to the formation of 
new condensations, new subsystems, and possibly even new galaxies. We 
may therefore safely say that in these cases the nuclei are cosmogo- 
nically active, although we still do not know where the masses 
involved in this activity come from. 

E) There are some giant galaxies which have streamers coming out 
of their central regions. These streamers contain blue galaxies with 
absolute magnitudes of about -15 (that is, with luminosities higher than 
that of the condensation in NGC4486). Typical examples of such galaxies 
are NGC3561 and IC1182. The ejection of such condensations is another 
type of cosmogonic activity in galactic nuclei. 

F) The fact that the spiral arms originate from the galactic nuclei 
themselves suggests that the generation of the armis is also directly 
associated with the nucleus. 

G) Radio observations of the center of our Galaxy, carried out by 
Pariiskii and others, indicate that the state of the nucleus, which presumably 
consists mostly of new stars, differs markedly from the states of other 
aggregates of such stars (for instance, the globular clusters). The 
galactic nucleus itself is a source of thermal radio emission, while the 
surrounding region (with a diameter of about 500 parsecs) is a region of 
strong nonthermal radiation. These facts imply that the physical states 

of galactic nuclei differ greatly from the states of ordinary stellar 
groupings. 

The quantitative evaluation of the ejected mass is one of the most 
important unsolved problems related to ejections and the efflux of matter 
from galactic nuclei. This applies equally well to galaxies whose central 
regions produce emission lines, and to radio galaxies and other cases 
involving discrete ejections. Even the meager information now available 
indicates that the findings may prove to be incompatible with the law of 
conservation of energy (and mass) in its present form, so that a generali- 
zation of this law may be necessary. 



CONCLUSION 

We have seen that the most important processes taking place in large 
galaxies are determined by the activity of the galactic nuclei. This activity 
can take various forms, and these were discussed above. There are two 
types of nuclear activity which are especially interesting; one of these is 



77 



II II I II II I III I II nil Mill 



related to the formation of spiral arms Eind the other is related to the 
formation of the stars and star clusters of the spherical component 
[Population II stars]. These processes apparently occur during different 
evolutionary stages and are accompanied by corresponding changes in the 
nuclei. It should be noted too that the different types of subsystems must 
be produced by different kinds of processes. For example, galaxy M32 
apparently does not contain any globular clusters, whereas the other 
companion of the Andromeda Nebula (NGC205) contains at least nine of 
them. The most surprising thing with respect to this is that globular 
clusters are present in galaxies with very low density gradients. 

If we adopt the hypothesis that galaxies are formed from diffuse star 
clouds, it is reasonable to assume that dense formations like globular 
clusters will appear in systems containing regions of very high density 
(and a high density gradient). Of course, such qualitative considerations 
cannot be considered satisfactory. The significant thing, however, is that 
the number of globular clusters per unit luminosity of 
Population II stars varies from system to system. 

We thus obtain an additional parameter for the description of spherical 
systems and subsystems. The relationship between this parameter and 
the other parameters of these systems (total luminosity and density 
gradient) must be determined by observation. 

Statistical data pertaining to multiple galaxies and galactic clusters 
show that these systems could not have been formed by the mutual capture 
of initially independent galaxies. The components of these systems must 
therefore have a common origin. This point was considered in detail in 
our report at the Solvay Conference in 1958. 

The above-mentioned data on the ejection from galactic nuclei of 
condensed masses which turn into complete galaxies of medium or low 
lunainosity, and also the data on the division of galactic nuclei, indicate 
that multiple systems and whole groups are probably created as a result 
of the division of a single parent nucleus into several nuclei. This division 
may take place in successive stages. 

In cases when a group contains a central galaxy with a high luminosity, 
the formation of faint galaxies must be connected primarily with activity 
of the nucleus of the high- luminosity galaxy. 

The nuclei of giant and supergiant galaxies have very high activities, 
as indicated by the fact that radio galaxies are usually among the brightest 
members of the clusters of which they form a part. If one of the galaxies 
in such a cluster is clearly predom.inant, this usually turns out to be the 
radio galaxy itself. 

Observations show that although all the large clusters contain supergiant 
galaxies, only a small number of these are radio galaxies. Radio- 
emissive activity must accordingly constitute a relatively brief phase in 
the evolutionary history of a galaxy. The liberation of radio- emissive 
agents is presumably a phenomenon associated with the ejection of very 
large masses from the galactic nuclei, and it probably occurs only at a 
certain stage of a given cosmogonic process. 

Even though extragalactic astronomy has at its disposal considerable 
means for studying the activity of galactic nuclei, the information we have 
on the various forms of this activity is still extremely meager. We know 
even less about the parameters characterizing the integral properties of 
the nuclei (luminosity, mass, color, size, and rotation). Finally, we 



78 



know nothing about the internal structure of galactic nuclei. Consequently, 
this particular aspect of extragalactic astronomy deserves extensive study. 
Let us now list some of the tasks involved in such a study. 

1. Determination of whether all galaxies have nuclei. If some do not, 
then the characteristics of these must also be determined. 

2. Determination of the integral characteristics of the nuclei for as 
many galaxies as possible. With respect to this, the difficulty involved in 
studying galaxies with high density gradients must be taken into account. 

It should be noted, though, that many galaxies of type Sc have nuclei which 
are so distinct that they can be studied without much interference from the 
central condensation around the nucleus. 

3. Determination of the relationship between the integral parameters 
of galactic nuclei and the parameters of galaxies. 

4. The study of the spectra of nuclei, in order to detect emission lines, 
rotation, and the ejection of matter. 

5. The study of the relation between the nucleus and the bar in a barred 
galaxy, and also of the relation between the bar and the efflux of matter 
from the nucleus. 

6. The study of galaxies with multiple nuclei, and of the radial velocities 
of the individual components of these nuclei. 

7. Determination of the number of globular clusters as a function of the 
nature of the galactic nucleus. 

In the foregoing we have presented some considerations of cosmogonical 
nature relating to the origin of galaxies. In all cases, it was attempted to 
remain within the domain of facts and not to make speculations. An analysis 
of the observations shows that the phenomena related to galactic origins are 
so unusual that it would have been impossible to predict them on the basis 
of any theoretical considerations. Thus, we are here confronted by a 
striking phenomenon which has recurred continually throughout the history 
of science. Whenever a new domain of phenomena is investigated, 
unsuspected relationships are discovered, which go beyond the framework 
of existing concepts. This, of course, makes each such domain of 
phenomena all the more interesting. Consequently, we must gather facts 
and make observations even more carefully, since more precise data on 
the actual objects and more extensive infornaation on the structures of the 
various parts of galaxies, together with a thorough analysis of the findings, 
are the only means of solving the difficult problems related to this subject. 



79 



B.A. Vorontsov- Vel ' yaminov 

FACTS AND PUZZLES CONCERNING THE 
STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES 

The views of V. A. Ambartsumyan on the origin of galaxies are often 
interpreted, especially in the west, as a hypothesis about the instability of 
multiple systems and galactic clusters. In point of fact, Ambartsumyan' s 
ideas on this subject are much more comprehensive than any hypothesis concer- 
ning the mechanical instability of galactic groups. The main thesis of his theory 
is that galactic centers are superdense formations, which are highly active. 
Their splitting gives rise to multiple galaxies, while the ejection of smaller 
masses of superdense prestellar matter produces spiral arms, globular 
star clusters, and diffuse matter. We would like to dwell on some consider- 
ations related to Ambartsumyan' s theory. 

The interesting idea of checking statistically whether double galaxies 
originate simultaneously, specifically by the splitting of a single one, or 
whether they are produced as a result of capture was advanced by Page /I/. 
His preliminary findings led to some unexpected and implausible results, 
and it became clear that his apparently simple idea is in practice complicated 
by a number of factors which have to be studied. 

It seems to us beyond doubt that physical double and multiple systems 
have a common origin. This has been well established by V. A. Ambartsu- 
myan and others. In jjarticular, interacting galactic pairs, which are 
evidently physically coupled, are so frequent that they could not possibly 
be produced by random encounters. 

The capture theory has been thoroughly studied in connection with O.Yu. 
Shmidt's cosmogonic hypothesis. It was shown that for capture to take 
place a very unique approach of three bodies is required. The possibility 
of capture among the isolated galaxies of the field in which interacting 
galaxies are commonly encountered is therefore highly unlikely. 

The velocity difference in physical pairs is also on the average lower 
than the peculiar velocity of the galaxies. This is an additional strong 
argument against the capture theory. 

Less certainty prevails where the instability of clusters and groups and 
their positive energy are concerned. Most authors tend to draw conclusions 
about the instability of the small groups brought under study on the basis 
of the known radial velocities. The calculations, however, involve a 
number of supplementary assumptions and some inaccurate data. These 
include the distance to the group, and the assumption that the directions 
linking a few galaxies in pairs are randomly distributed, with uniform 
probability, etc. An analysis of the possible calculation errors, carried 
out by Limber and Matthews /2/, shows that the results are quite unreliable. 
It is interesting to note that there were even cases where the determination 



80 



of the radial velocities of components which seemed definitely to belong to the 
same group yielded values differing by hundreds and thousands of kilometers 
per second from the mean velocity of the group. It thus becomes doubtful 
that such galaxies actually belong to a group, in spite of their apparent size 
and position in the sky. If we want to consider them as members of a group, 
we must necessarily conclude that the group has been formed by an explosion. 
The fact that the configurations of these components do not display any 
visible perturbations cannot be construed as evidence that their projection 
in space is accidental, though; such perturbations are apparently not of 
gravitational origin and are sometimes absent at quite small distances, 
while in other cases they are observable at considerable distances between 
the components. Matters are further complicated when galactic clusters 
are considered, because it is even more difficult to single out the member 
of a cluster. The size of any cluster is always much less than the distance 
to it. Thus the members of a cluster cannot be differentiated from a 
background galaxy situated, say, five cluster radii away from it along the 
line of sight. This is borne out by the fact that, for instance, there are 
many investigators who no longer consider the cluster in Virgo as a single 
cluster. 

In addition to this, it has been pointed out by Holmberg that the deter- 
mination of the radial velocity possibly involves some systematic errors 
associated with the brightness of the galaxies. 

In general, however, it seems most likely that at least part of the 
multiple galaxies are actually receding from each other. 

Ambartsumyan considers that systems of the Trapezium type are young 
and unstable. The same view is held by the Burbidges /3/ with respect to 
the tight galactic chains discovered by B. A. Vorontsov-Vel'yaminov. But 
these groups also include some elliptical galaxies, which are considered 
very old formations. The author has already pointed out elsewhere /4/ that 
the presence of very long connecting filaments and tails indicates, however, 
that such galaxies have existed for a long time and are fairly stable. The 
elliptical galaxies included in chains and trapeziums may be subjected to the 
following considerations: 

1. Such elliptical galaxies are young, although it is not yet known in what 
way they might differ from old elliptical galaxies. 

2. These are not elliptical galaxies, but only appear to be so 
(this view has not yet been confirmed). 

3. Notwithstanding mechanical considerations, the systems in which 
they are included may be old and stable. Might it not also be possible that 
in an old, initially stable system a mutual repulsion could subsequently 
develop, as a result of galactic evolution? 

Many people are puzzled by the question of the origins of the literally 
fantastic energies which make the fragments of a divided galactic center 
scatter with velocities of hundreds of kilometers per second. The break-up 
of galactic centers may perhaps be attributed to the ordinary properties of 
superdense prestellar material, but then it becomes difficult to explain what 
causes the mutual recession of already formed galaxies which interpenetrate 
and have independent rotations. 

If we base ourselves on the law of gravitation, the available data fail to 
allow for the enormous masses in the centers of some galaxies still 
consisting of superdense matter. The existence of such active centers in 
the younger galaxies shoiild be detected by observation. Ambartsumyan 



81 



considers that the "surge" from the center of the NGC4486 galaxy is a sign 
of such activity. That this is indeed a "surge" — as it is commonly called — 
has not yet been proved. Galactic centers should be investigated more 
thoroughly, in order to find whether they show traces of activity. 

Some new data seem to confirm, though perhaps not completely, 
Ambartsumyan's view that galactic centers have a special significance. 
Thus, for instance, the outflow of gas observed to take place from the nuclei 
of our Galaxy and other galaxies is hard to explain by ordinary processes. 
The unusually fast rotation of the centers which markedly differs from that 
of the surrounding regions, and the dark filaments issuing almost from the 
exact center of the M31 galaxy, are also indicative of the peculiar nature of 
galactic centers. This last might seem to prove Ambartsumyan's idea that 
spiral arms are formed by the ejection of relatively small superdense 
masses from the center. It is difficult to imagine though how spiral arms 
could be formed in this way. First of all, a fragment of superdense matter 
should move in a straight line after being ejected. Further, in order to 
form a spiral arm it should continuously release along its path matter which 
would turn into stars and gas. It is true that galaxies of the Sc type are 
observed, in which the spiral arms consist partly of widely spaced conden- 
sations, but such cases are generally rare among spiral galaxies. It is 
also difficult to explain the fact that spiral galaxies mostly have two arms, 
that the arms often branch out not from the center but from the ends of a 
bar, and that there are galaxies with a large number of branches issuing 
from the center in a single equatorial plane. 

To all appearances, the spiral arms develop inside an already existing 
disk or from it, rather than disks being the result of the dispersion of 
spiral arms. The arms are usually completely disconnected from the 
center. They often begin at the periphery of the disk or within it. There 
are sometimes internal and external spirals, which are not connected with 
each other. They branch out from a ring, sometimes in pairs from a 
single point, or are completely isolated from the internal regions. 

Ambartsumyan's assumption that during the formation of the various 
structural elements the galactic centers eject fragments in various planes 
may be to a certain extent substantiated by a number of specific examples. 
There occur structures in which the major axes are variously orientated 
in the same plane, as well as some systems, like M82, for instance, in 
which there are streams of matter directed perpendicular to the principal 
plane of symmetry. 

We consider as more probable the hypothesis that the components of 
multiple galaxies originate jointly in close proximity and proceed to draw 
apart in the course of their formation. Some kind of repulsion sometimes 
grows up between them, causing their mutual recession in spite of 
gravitation. The material experiencing the strongest repulsion forms 
tails. The high viscosity of the stellar systems, which must be assumed, 
leads to the formation of bars. The stability of the tails and bars is the 
same as that of spiral arms, and is thus considerable. The nearness 
of a galaxy disturbs for some reason the development of a spiral 
structure and leads to its "becoming disfigured". The phenomena 
responsible for the repulsion of interacting galaxies must be related to the 
phenomena causing the mutual recession of galaxies in groups. 

It should be recalled that while the Metagalaxy is made up of galaxies, 
it represents at the same time a unique type of continuous medium in which 



82 



the galaxies are condensations. Experimental physics has never had to deal 
with anything even remotely similar to it. Phenomena may therefore be 
discovered on a galactic scale which are utterly unexpected and as yet 
incomprehensible. 

It is not impossible that paired galaxies should have properties quite 
different from those associated only with the attraction of their combined 
masses, similarly to the way in which the properties of molecules differ 
from the properties of their constituent atoms. 

Certain pairs of living organisms are capable of reproduction, certain 
pairs of atoms exhibit new properties when combined, etc. , and these 
properties cannot be deduced from a knowledge of the properties of the 
individual components. There may be something similar in the galactic 
world as well. This seems to be borne out by the fact that, according to 
Zwicky, galactic clusters apparently do not interact gravitationally with 
each other. 



REFERENCES 

1. PAGE, T.L.-Astron. J., 61. 1961. 

2. LIMBER, D.N. and W. G. MATTHEWS. —Astron. J., 132, 286. 1960. 

3. BURBIDGE, G. R. and E. M. BURBIDGE. -Astron. J., 131, 742. 1960. 

4. VORONTSOV-VEL'YAMINOV, B.A.-A.Zh., 34, 8. 1957. 



83 



V.S. Brezhnev 

NEW IDEAS IN COSMOLOGY AND ASTROPHYSICS 



From 26 to 28 June 1961 a conference on extragalactic astronomy and 
cosmology was convened in Moscow under the auspices of the Cosmogony 
Commission of the Astronomical Council of the USSR Academy of Sciences. 
The conference was organized as a preparation for the symposium on 
these subjects which was to be held (in the USA) at the forthcoming 
Eleventh Congress of the International Astronomical Union in September 
1961. Many prominent Soviet scientists participated in the conference and 
some very interesting reports were presented. 

The main problems related to extragalactic research during recent 
years were considered in the comprehensive report of V. A. Ambartsumyan 
(Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory). 

B. A. Vorontsov-Vel'yaminov (GAISh) concentrated in his report upon 
interacting galaxies and the physical interpretation of the observed 
galactic interactions. 

The distances, motions, and distributions of galaxies within a sphere 
with a radius of 15 megaparsecs were discussed by Yu. P. Pskovskii 
(GAISh). He indicated that the complex of galaxies located within a sphere 
of radius 10 megaparsecs around our Galaxy is in a state of isotropic 
expansion associated with a rotation about some center lying in the constel- 
lation Virgo. A comparison of the distribution of galaxies and the nature 
of their motions makes it possible to specify the approximate pattern of 
galactic motions in our part of the Metagalaxy. 

E. A.Dibai (GAISh) suggested that the asymmetric distribution of gas 
and dust in the spiral galaxies be interpreted as a result of the combined 
action of rotation and radial motion along the arms. A comparison 
between the results obtained from this analysis and the observational data 
indicates that the spirals become twisted during the evolution of the 
spiral galaxies. 

The joint report of Ya. A. Smorodinskii and B. M. Pontecorvo (Joint 
Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna) was received with great interest. 
This report dealt with the possible role of neutrinos in astrophysics and 
cosmology. The two authors presented strong arguments in favor of the 
existence of a considerable neutrino- antineutrino background in the 
universe. In the present epoch the energy of the background particles 
may be very low, as a result of an adiabatic reduction of the energy during 
the expansion of our part of the universe. During earlier evolutionary 
stages, however, the energy possessed by neutrinos may have been miany 
orders of magnitude higher than the energy density of heavy matter. 
According to the available data, it is possible that even now the energy 



84 



density of neutrinos in the universe is comparable to that of nucleons, and 
that it is many times greater than the energy density of visible radiation. 
Consequently, neutrinos must play a significant part in determining the 
geometry of the world. During previous stages in the evolution of the 
universe, isotropically and uniformly distributed neutrinos may well have 
completely determined the space- time metric*. 

D. A. Frank-Kamenetskii (Atomic Energy Institute of the USSR Academy 
of Sciences), in developing his theory of the spontaneous instability of a 
vacuum, considered the hypothesis of the multiple production of nucleon 
pairs. This hypothesis is a modern variant of Boltzmann's fluctuation 
hypothesis. The gist of Frank-Kamenetskii' s hypothesis is as follows. 
The universe is assumed to be an infinite expanse which is essentially flat 
and free of matter. Somewhere in it, immense fluctuations of the vacuum 
take place very infrequently, accompanied by the formation of a colossal 
mass of neutrons and antineutrons. The presence of this mass causes a 
local twisting of space, which in turn leads to a local expansion of space. 
During this expansion, particles and antiparticles are annihilated and 
radiation is emitted. Turbulent motions arise, and eddies having 
unimaginably vast dimensions are formed. At a point in space where a 
neutron excess is accidentally created, a world similar to ours comes 
into existence (that is, a large accumulation of galaxies). In the event of 
an excess of antiparticles, on the other hand, an "antiworld" is created. 
The probability of such a fluctuation of the vacuum may turn out to be very 
low, but it will nevertheless not be zero. 

The gravitational condensation of galaxies and globular clusters of 
stars was discussed by L.M.Ozernoi (GAISh). He considers the structural 
development of the Metagalaxy to be a consequence of the gravitational 
instability of a nonuniform, essentially gaseous, medium with a tempera- 
ture of the order of 10® degrees centigrade and an average density of 
5.10-29 g/cm^. Calculations show that in such a medium large condensa- 
tions will form at first, and the cooling of these will make them suscept- 
ible to partition into individual protogalaxies. The latter will be stable 
with respect to disruptive tidal action. In addition, Ozernoi considered 
the formation of globular star clusters via a gravitational condensation 
of part of the protogalactic medium, which makes it possible to explain 
qualitatively certain observational data. In connection with this, he also 
concluded that the size of a globular cluster increases with the galacto- 
centric distance, and this is in good qualitative agreement with observations. 

G. I. Naan (Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR) 
reviewed certain philosophical works which excessively simplified or 
distorted the concept of cosmological infinity, and he pointed out how this 
concept should be considered from the viewpoint of modern physics. 

The idea of an infinite cosmic expanse filled with a countless number 
of stars goes all the way back to the time of Democritus. This theory of 
an infinite universe first encountered difficulties in the middle of the 19th 
century, in connection with the so-called photometric paradox. The 
German astronomer Olbers demonstrated that if there were an infinite 
number of stars distributed uniformly throughout an infinite Euclidean 
universe, the sky would have to shine with a dazzling light, against the 

• The metric here refers to the expression for the elementary interval between two infinitely close points of 
a space-time set. 



85 



background of which our Sun would show up as a dark spot. The situation 
would be analogous for a uniform distribution of galaxies throughout an 
infinite space. Then, at the end of the 19th century, the gravitational 
paradox was discovered. Seeliger, another German astronomer, showed 
that on the basis of Newton's theory of universal gravitation the total 
attraction which all the particles of an infinite universe exert upon each 
individual particle in the universe (including the Earth) would be infinitely 
great. 

The existence of the photometric and gravitational paradoxes induced 
many scientists to construct geometric models of a finite unbounded 
universe which closes upon itself as a result of an inward curvature. 
Long ago, Riemann pointed out that it is possible for the world to be 
finite and at the same time unbounded. The surface of a sphere constitutes 
a two-dimensional analog of such a world. The area of a spherical 
surface is finite, but an imaginary two-dimensional being moving over 
such a surface would nowhere be able to detect the limiits of his world, 
regardless of the length of the path it traverses. If this being nnaintained 
a constant direction of motion, then after some finite distance had been 
covered it would return to the starting point, having thereby completed a 
"round-the-world" journey. In other words, a spherical surface closes 
upon itself by virtue of its curvature. 

From the point of view of relativistic cosmology, which is based on 
Einstein's theory of gravitation, a finite, unbounded universe closed in 
three dimensions is in principle quite permissible. 

In his report Naan also stressed the fact that, whereas unboundedness 
in space and infinity in space amount to. the same thing for Euclidean 
space, this is no longer the case when a more general, non- Euclidean 
geometry is used to describe the universe. He also gave the correct 
formulation of the problem by pointing out that at the present level of 
scientific development the most probable conclusion is the following: the 
universe has unbounded extension in space and time, and at the same time 
it is infinite in space and time. With respect to a purely spatial projection, 
the theoretical possibility exists that the universe is finite, but this 
possibility is not realized in practice. It is Naan's opinion that the 
problem of cosmological infinity should be solved by the combined efforts 
of astronomers, physicists, and philosophers. 

On the basis of a study of cosmological solutions of Einstein's gravita- 
tion equations, E. M. Lif shits, I. M. Khalatnikov, and V. V. Sudakov 
(Institute for Physical Problems, USSR Academy of Sciences) demonstrated 
in their joint contribution that the existence of a physical singularity in 
time, at which the density of matter becomes infinite, is not a necessary 
consequence of cosmological models in the general theory of relativity. 

In the general case of an arbitrary distribution of matter and a gravi- 
tational field, there is no physical singularity. The findings of Lifshits, 
Khalatnikov, and Sudakov rule out the possibility of the appearance of 
such a singularity in the future. This means that a contraction of our 
part of the universe (if it takes place) must inevitably turn into an 
expansion. 

A. L. Zel'manov (GAISh) presented his theory of an anisotropic, non- 
uniform universe. He criticized the theory of a uniform, isotropic 
universe, and pointed out that the postulate of homogeneity involves an 



86 



unjustified extrapolation to the entire universe of the properties and 
characteristics of the observable portion of it. The formulation of a 
relativistic theory describing an anisotropic, nonuniform universe 
involves several other problems as well, and it leads to a reconsideration 
of the basic questions related to cosmology. One of the problems 
requiring such a re- evaluation is the problem of whether space and time 
are finite or infinite. 

Zel'manov demonstrated mathematically that, when applied to the whole 
universe, the mutually exclusive, opposite concepts of "finite" and 
"infinite" no longer have the simple meanings which we are accustomed 
to give them on the basis of our experience of the macroscopic world. 
According to the anisotropic model of the universe, which takes into 
account the general theory of relativity, spatial finiteness or infinity is 
relative: with respect to single material frames of reference having a 
single motion, the universe is infinite, whereas with respect to other 
frames of reference it is finite. Thus it follows that our customary 
conceptions of "infinity" and "finiteness" are inapplicable to the universe 
as a whole. 

It was also established by Zel'manov that in an anisotropic, nonuniform 
universe the spatial deformation may be so irregular that an expansion of 
the space in one region can be accompanied by contraction of the space in 
another region. Finally, he pointed out too that the anisotropy can affect 
the behavior of a volume of space so much that a regular volume minimum 
becomes possible instead of a singularity. 

M.F. Shirokov (Moscow Aeronautical Institute) and I.Z. Fisher presented 
their theory of a nonuniform, isotropic universe. They noted that 
Fridman's theory of a universe which is evolving in time does not formu- 
late the problem of cosmology correctly, and they offered a formulation 
which is physically and mathematically more correct. The solutions 
obtained by Shirokov and Fisher do not involve the difficulties, related to 
the infinite density of matter at some initial moment and to the finite 
lifetime of the universe, which plagued Fridman's theory. 

Ya. A. Kipper (Institute of Physics and Astronomy, Academy of 
Sciences of the Estonian SSR) discussed the gravitational paradox in 
Newton's theory of gravitation, and he indicated a possible means of 
eliminating this paradox. 

In a second contribution, A. L. Zel'manov also considered the 
gravitational paradox in the quasi- Newtonian approximation, and he 
analyzed the reasons for it. 

I. D. Novikov (GAISh) discussed some cosmological models in the 
quasi- Newtonian approximation. 

A number of other interesting reports were also presented at the 
conference. It is to be hoped that this conference on extragalactic 
astronomy and cosmology will have a stimulating effect on the future 
development of these two fields of study. 



87 



J 



l.Ya. Ballakh 

THE ROLE OF EXPLOSIVE PHENOMENA IN 
COSMOGONIC PROCESSES* 

In ancient times the science of the Earth was simply a description of 
the geometry of the flat surface of the planet. Now, however, the Earth 
sciences include a series of geological and geographical sciences which 
study the shape and size of the Earth, the regularities in the development 
of surface and underground processes, the formation of rocks and 
minerals, the distribution of rocks and minerals, and methods of pros- 
pecting for various rocks and mineral products. Boundary sciences like 
geophysics and geochemistry have now become independent sciences. 
Similarly, the science of the universe, astronomy, is being transformed 
from a purely descriptive science into a theoretical science, and (with 
the conquest of outer space) into an applied science as well. 

So far, geology and astronomy have developed almost independently of 
one another, although some scientists (for example, Vernadskii and 
Lichkov /7/) have made studies of the relation between the two sciences. 
Recently, however, a rapprochement between geology and astronomy has 
been noted, and this was recognized in a resolution of the Central 
Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Council 
of Ministers of the USSR on 3 April 1961. The sciences of the Earth and 
the universe were discussed especially in this resolution. The Earth 
sciences were called upon to ascertain the regularities in the natural 
processes involving the world as a whole /19/. This interpretation of the 
role of these sciences creates conditions favorable for solution of the 
problems common to geology and astronomy; such problems come up 
both during research studies and during the solution of applied problems. 

When studying the origin and development of the Earth as a planet, 
together with its development as an object of geological research, we 
are led to ask what factors modify the geological situation during different 
epochs. One of the reasons why we have written the present article is to 
try to ascertain the causes behind these modifying factors. 

Let us start by considering some hypotheses concerning the origin of 
the solar system. We shall stress the aspects of these hypotheses which 
are not contradicted by geological, geophysical, and astrophysical 
research and which thus will be useful for working out a new theory. 

Kant stated that in a rotating nebula "the central condensations form 
a Sun and the smaller masses become planets. " Essentially this same 
theory was held by Faye and du Ligondes, and then, on the basis of his 

* This article serves as a statement of the problem (Editors of Collection). 



88 



observations of nebulae, by Herschel as well /2, 11/. Subsequently, 
however, it was discovered that the spiral nebulae are incommensurably 
larger than the solar system. Shmidt /18/ suggested, and along with his 
successors developed, the hypothesis that the planets of the solar system 
were formed from a cold swarm of meteoritic dust which was captured 
by the Sun from outside. The gist of this theory fthe formation of the 
planets from a cold swarm of dust) is now accepted by most scientists. 
However, the assumption that the Sun captured a dust swarm involves a 
number of theoretical difficulties. Consequently, V. A.Krat/2/ assumes 
that the Sun and the planets were formed out of a single interstellar cloud, 
and Fesenkov /1 6/ also adheres to the point of view that the Sun and 
planets were created simultaneously. 

The above hypotheses do not consider the subsequent development of 
the solar system or the effect of this development on the evolution of 
individual planets f including the Earth); therefore, they do not take into 
account geological processes. Moreover, there are many facts which 
indicate that the physical conditions related to the Earth were different 
during different geological epochs. Some of these facts are: a) different 
sediment- accumulation conditions at different times /1 3/; b) tectonic 
movements of the Earth's crust /3/, causing deformations of the crust 
strata in geosynclinal regions and on platforms, the orientations of the 
directions of the deformation zones being different during different 
periods /17/; c) the presence of faults in the Earth's crust /9/ and 
mutual shifting of the rocks in the fault zones (thrusts, upthrusts, over- 
thrusts, etc. ); d) different orientations of the geophysical fields (for 
example, the geomagnetic field /6/) during different geological epochs; 
and e) continental drift (of the Wegener type), whose existence is now 
being demonstrated more and more convincingly. 

The indicated geological processes can be explained by assuming that 
explosions occur on celestial bodies. Such an assumption also makes it 
possible to recognize a periodicity in the origin and evolution of the solar 
system. 

The possibility of outbursts and explosions on stars and planets has 
been noted by a number of scientists. For example, with respect to stars, 
variations of the stellar spectral characteristics indicate single 1 20 1 or 
repeated /I/ stellar outbursts or even whole series of such outbursts /4/. 
Transformations of stars into gaseous nebulae /I/ are also noted. Here 
we should mention that, according to the opinion of Fesenkov, the Sun can 
also undergo analogous transformations /2/, and Ambartsumyan believes 
that there is no pronounced difference between the evolutions of stellar 
and planetary systems /2/. The possibility of explosive processes on the 
Sun is indicated by Stanyukovich /14/ and by Pikel'ner /lO/. With 
respect to planets, on the other hand, the origin of the asteroid belt lying 
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter can be explained /12/ by assuming 
that the formerly existing planet Phaethon disintegrated during a single 
explosion (Olbers, Fesenkov) or during a series of explosions (Putilin, 
Hirayama, Jung). This is an example of an explosion on a planet. The 
possibility of such processes on planets is also mentioned by Polak /ll/ 
and by Vsekhsvyatskii /5/. 

In this article, we shall not attempt to analyze in detail the nature and 
causes of the various explosions taking place on celestial bodies. It is 



89 



important to note, however, that abrupt changes take place during the 
evolution of these bodies, and during the evolution of nature as a whole 
as well, and that in the given case explosions caused by various processes 
constitute such changes. Here it should be kept in mind that explosions 
of this type are not random catastrophic phenomena in nature, but rather 
represent logical necessary steps in the evolution of the material 
world. Such discontinuous steps are expressions of the laws of the ener- 
getic redistribution of matter at certain stages in the evolution of the 
world. These processes may well be called universal, since they take 
place for such small objects as elementary particles and such large objects 
as gigantic celestial bodies or even systems of these. 

Consequently, if we assume that the principle of the evolutionary 
development of nature with discontinuous steps applies to planetary evolution, 
then the origin and development of the entire solar system, and also the 
evolution of the Earth as an object of geological study, can be represented 
as follows. 

In the remote past the Sun had a comparatively cold, heavy outer enve- 
lope, which originated as a result of the condensation of a cold interstellar 
cloud rotating about its own axis. Beneath the external envelope of this 
primordial cold Sun, the heating of matter took place. The high internal 
pressure and the rising temperature created conditions favorable for the 
initiation of a chain thermonuclear reaction involving the atoms of certain 
elements situated in the regions deep beneath the envelope. This resulted 
in an explosion, in which the shattered masses of the solar envelope were 
scattered in all directions. Some of the mass fragm.ents from the 
envelope fell back onto the surface of the Sun, either immediately or else 
after several rotations about the Sun. i^nother part of the shattered mass, 
the particles of which had sufficiently high space velocities, formed into 
a swarm of meteoritic dust around the Sun. During the formation of the 
explosion- caused dust swarm, the dust particles became differentiated in 
space according to density. The particles from the shattered envelope 
which escaped from the Sun in the equatorial zone or near it possessed a 
maximum angular momentum, by virtue of the solar rotation (the central 
body thereby undergoing angular braking). These particles formed, in the 
region around the Sun, the basis for the swarm of meteoritic dust within 
which the planets of the solar system subsequently were to develop, in 
accordance with the cosmogonic theory of Shmidt /18/. Thus, it is our 
opinion that it is not necessary to assume that the Sun captured a swarm 
of meteoritic dust from outside. 

The particles of the broken solar envelope may have been accelerated 
by more than one brief explosion. As nuclear reactions ignited the solar 
interior, explosions could recur periodically /14/, filling the space around 
the Sun with meteoritic dust. The initial explosion of the envelope of a 
celestial body may also occur under conditions when the energy of the 
nuclear reactions is insufficient to heat up the entire original star. In 
such a case, the creation of the meteoritic dust is not always accompanied 
by an ignition of the source (by the formation of a luminous star). 
Consequently, the swarms of meteoritic dust out of which larger celestial 
bodies will subsequently be formed may accompany cold, dark stars as 
well as ordinary stars. It is possible, too, that types of explosions of 
celestial bodies may take place in nature which result in the formation of 
dust swarms that do not have monolithic central parts. Then, just as in 



419 90 



the case of partial explosions of celestial bodies, the meteoritic dust may 
either be collected again into a single body, or may form several indepen- 
dent bodies, or it may supplement the masses of other celestial bodies and 
change their angular momenta. 

Asymmetrical explosions on planets may, without leading to destruction 
of the planet, displace the planetary center of mass, as a result of which 
external-force moments will be produced. As time goes by, the celestial 
body works toward a reduction of the external-force moment and toward a 
stable situation. The reduction of the external- force moment must take 
place mainly via a redistribution of the mass of the body. For example, 
such aredistributionwas effected on the Earthby means of the previously 
mentioned continental drift, and it is revealed, in particular, during 
studies of the paleomagnetism of the Earth /6/. Displacements of 
individual regions or continents continue as long as the shifting forces 
are available, that is, as long as the external-force moment of the body 
is not completely compensated. The nature of the tangential forces 
necessary to produce the tremendous thrusts and overthrusts taking place 
at various depths in the Earth's crust is explained convincingly and 
comparatively simply by the above scheme. These external-force 
moments, which modify the spatial orientations of the rotation axes of 
celestial bodies (in particular, the Earth) and which cause mass displace- 
ments, change the orientation of the Earth's surface relative to the Sun 
accordingly. Thus, there are particular zones in which the geological 
conditions are right for the formation of certain rocks and minerals /I 3/. 

Following the above general scheme, we may remark that the formation 
of central bodies (the Sun) and peripheral bodies (the planets) simultaneous- 
ly (Fesenkov) during a single condensation of an interstellar cloud (V.A.Krat) 
represents a definite phase in the evolution of a solar system. This 
evolutionary phase, which corresponds to the time interval between the 
accumiulation of the cold cloud into a large body and the beginning of mass 
and momentum transfer from it, is a phase during which attractive forces 
compete with repulsive forces. 

One of the reasons for writing this article was to illustrate the nature 
of the forces responsible for variations in the geological situation during 
different epochs. If the article proves to be of some use to the Earth 
sciences, then our studies of these forces have not been in vain. 

If the described scheme can be extended to serve as an approximate 
description of the origin and development of other stellar- planetary 
systems, then we may conclude that the number of planets in the universe 
on which conditions are favorable (according to Oparin /8/) for organic 
life must be very large, and apparently is commensurable with the 
number of stars in the sky. 

The author expresses his sincere thanks to N. 1. Taranov and to 
K. M. Sadilenko for their discussions of the article, their valuable 
comments, and their advice. 



91 



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2. BARABASHOV, N. P. Razvitie vzglyadov v oblasti kosmogonii 

Solnechnoi sistemy (The Development of Views on the 
Cosmogony of the Solar System).— Kharkov, Izdatel'stvo 
Khar'kovskogo universiteta A. M. Gor'kogo. 1953. 

3. BELOUSOV, V. V. Osnovnye voprosy geotektoniki (Basic Problems in 

Geotectonics).— Moskva, Gosgeolizdat. 1954. 

4. VORONTSOV-VEL'YAMINOV, B. A. Belo-golubaya posledovatel'nost' 

na diagramme Resselya; interpretatsiya belo-goluboi posledova- 
tel'nosti na diagramme Resselya (The White-Blue Sequence on 
the Russell Diagram; Interpretation of the White-Blue Sequence 
on the Russel Diagram).— Astronomicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 24, 
Nos. 2, 3. 1947. 

5. VSEKHSVYATSKIl, S. K. Konferentsia po voprosam proiskhozhdeniya 

i evolyutsii komet i drugikh malykh tel Solnechnoi sistemy 
(Moskva, 1958) (Conference on Problems of the Origin and 
Evolution of Comets and Other Small Bodies of the Solar System 
(Moscow, 1958)).— Voprosy Kosmogonii, Vol.7, pp. 375-382. 
1960. 

6. KROPOTKIN, P. N. Znachenie paleomagnetizma dlya stratigrafii i 

geotektoniki (The Significance of Paleomagnetisrn for Stratigraphy 
and Geotectonics).— ByuUeten' Moskovskogo Obshchestva 
Ispytatelei Prirody, No. 4. 1958. 

7. LICHKOV, B. L. Dvizhenie materikov i klimaty proshlogo Zemli 

(Continental Movement and the Past Climate of the Earth).— 
Moskva- Leningrad, ONTI. 1935. 

8. OPARIN, A. I. and V. G. FESENKOV. Zhizn' vo Vselennoi (Life in 

the Universe).— Moskva, Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1956. 

9. PEIVE, A.V. Obshchaya kharakteristika, klassifikatsiya i 

prostranstvennoe raspolozhenie glubinnykh razlomov. Glavneishie 
tipy glubinnykh razlomov (The General Description, Classifica- 
tion, and Location of Deep Breaks. The Main Types of Deep 
Breaks). — Article 1, Izvestiya AN SSSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya, 
No. 1. 1956. 

10. PIKEL'NER, S. B. Evolyutsiya i dinamika Solntsa (The Evolution and 

Dynamics of the Sun). Article in this collection. See p. 104. 

11. POLAK, 1. F. Proiskhozhdenie Vselennoi (The Origin of the Universe).— 

Moskva- Leningrad, ONTI, Gostekhizdat. 1934. 

12. PUTILIN, N.I. Malye planety (The Minor Planets).— Moskva, 

Gostekhizdat. 1953. 

13. STRAKHOV, N. M. Tipy klimaticheskoi zonal'nosti v posleprotero- 

zoiskoi istorii Zemli i ikh znachenie dlya geologii (Types of 
Climatic Zonality in the Postproterozoic History of the Earth 
and the Significance of These for Geology).— Izvestiya AN SSSR, 
Seriya Geologicheskaya, No. 3. 1960. 

14. STANYUKOVICH, K. P. K voprosy o proiskhozhdenii Solnechnoi 

sistemy (The Problem of the Origin of the Solar System). — 
Astronomicheskii Zhurnal, Vol, 29, No, 3, 1952, 



92 



15. FESENKOV, V. G. Postanovka problemy kosmogonii v sovremennoi 

astronomii (The Problem of Cosmogony in Contemporary 
Astronomy).— Astronomlcheskii Zhurnal, 26, 2, 67. 1949. 

16. FESENKOV, V. G. O proiskhozhdenii Solnechnoi sistemy (The Origin 

of the Solar System).— Izdatel'stvo Znanie, seriya 9, 1. 1960. 

17. SHEINMANN, Yu. M. Platformy, skladchatye poyasy i razvitie 

struktury Zemli (Platforms, Wrinkled Belts, and the Develop- 
ment of the Earth's Structure).— Magadan, VNII, No. 1. 1959. 

18. SHMIDT, O. Yu. Chetyre lektsii o teorii proiskhozhdeniya Zemli 

(Four Lectures on the Theory of the Origin of the Earth).— 
Moskva, Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1957. 

19. SHCHERBAKOV, D. I. - Vestnik Akademii Nauk, No. 4, p. 38. 1961. 

20. MILNE, E. A. The Analysis of Stellar Structure. — Monthly Notices 

of the Royal Astronomical Society, 91, 4, London. 1930. 



93 



S.S. Gamburg 

SOME REGULARITIES SHOWING SIMILARITY OF THE 
SOLAR AND PLANETARY SYSTEMS 

Four basic regularities of the solar system having cosmogonic signifi- 
cance have been established: 

1. All the planets revolve about the Sun along approximately circular 
orbits (ellipses). 

2. All the planets revolve about the Sun in the santie sense (counter- 
clockwise). 

3. The solar system is coplanar; the orbital planes of all the planets 
lie near the plane of the solar equator. 

4. Angular momentum is so distributed in the solar system that, 
although the Sun contains 99.87% of the total mass and the planets a mere 
0.13%, only 2% of the angular momentum is possessed by the Sun and 98% 
by the planets. 

The planets are usually divided into two groups: the giant planets 
(Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), and the terrestrial planets 
(Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars). Pluto is not included in either of 
these groups. 

The mass of all the planets taken together constitutes only 1/1000 of 
the mass of the Sun. The mass of Jupiter, for instance, is 1/1100, the 
mass of the Earth is 1/320,000. and the mass of Mercury is 1/3,000,000 of 
the solar mass. 

As a result of an analysis of these fundamental regularities, Shmidt 
concluded that the distribution of angular momentum in the solar system 
is of basic importance for solving the problem of the origin and evolution 
of the solar system. To solve the latter problem, Shmidt suggested the 
theory of the capture of a nebula by the Sun. 

A recent hypothesis of Fesenkov* assumes that a nebula composed of 
gas and dust broke up into parts, which formed into the planets of the 
solar system. It is the opinion of the author of the present article that 
the basic mechanism responsible for the formation of planets and satellites 
was the interaction of the Sun and planets with the gas-dust nebulae which 
surrounded them during an early stage in their evolution. 

The coplanarity of the solar system is the most fundamental of the above 
four regularities. The facts that the planets all revolve about the Sun in 
the same sense, that they follow nearly circular orbits, and that they 
possess most of the angular znotnentum in the solar system are all 
consequences of the coplanarity. 

* Fesenkov, V.G. O proiskhozhdenii Solnechnoi sistemy (The Origin of the Solar System). — Izdatel'stvo 
"Znanie". 1960. 



94 



1000- 
600. 
400 

200 

100 

60 

tr 40 

S 20 
E 

•SlO.O 
" 6.0 
•S4.0 

I 2-0 

S 0.4 

0.2 

0.1 

0.06 
0.04 

0.02 

0.01 



Group II 




Distance from Sun (10^ km) 
FIGURE 1. Mass distribution of the planets according to groups. 



All the foregoing considerations apply to the planet- satellite systems 
in the solar system as well. Moreover, it is a fact that no one has noted 
previously a very important parameter of the systems of the Sun and the 
planets, and the planets and their satellites. The parameter here referred 
to is the regularity of the distances: 1) between planets and between groups 
of planets, and 2) between satellites and between groups of satellites. 

We shall consider below the other regularities characteristic of the 
solar system. First, however, let us begin with a study of the satellite 
systems of the largest planets, Saturn and Jupiter, rather than with a 
study of the larger system of the Sun and the planets. Almost all the 
mass of the planets is concentrated in the two largest planets, the mass 
of Jupiter being equal to 317.37 Earth masses and the mass of Saturn 
being equal to 95.08 Earth masses (giving a total of 412.45 Earth masses). 

Uranus (14.6 Earth masses) and Neptune (17.2 Earth masses) are much 
smaller, with a combined mass of 31.8 Earth masses. The total mass of 
the terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars), moreover, 
only amounts to 1.984 Earth masses. 

The satellites of Jupiter can be grouped as follows, according to their 
distances from the planet and their equatorial diameters: 



95 



Group I 



1. Amalthea (V) 

2. lo (I) 

3. Eutopa (II) . . . 

4. Ganymede (III) 

5. CalUsto (IV) . . 

6. VI 

7. VII 

8. X 

9. XII 

10. XI 

11. VIII 

12. IX 



Distance from 


Equatorial 


Jupiter 


diameter 


(km) 


(km) 


181,000 


160 (?) 


421,800 


3550 


671,400 


3100 


1,071,000 


5600 


1,884,000 


5050 


11,500,000 


160 


11,730,000 


56 


11,750,000 


24 


21,000,000 


30 


22,500,000 


30 


23,500,000 


56 


23,700,000 


27 



Group II 



Group III 



Group IV 



As shown in the table, the satellites of Jupiter can be divided into four 
groups, on the basis of their distances from the planet. 

The first group (Amalthea, lo, and Europa) lie at distances of 100,000 
to 700,000 km from the planet. The second group (Ganymede and Callisto) 
are between one and two million km away, and it is interesting to note that 
these two are the largest Jovian satellites. Later, when we consider the 
satellite systems of other planets, we shall see that this constitutes a 
definite regularity which is significant with respect to the cosmogony of the 
solar system. The third group (satellites VI, VII, and X) are situated 
within a small spatial interval between 11,300,000 and 11,750,000 km from 
Jupiter. Finally, the fourth group (satellites XII. XI, VIII, and IX) lie at 
distances from 21,000,000 to 23,700,000 km from the planet. All four of 
the satellites in this group have retrograde motions. 

Amalthea, the satellite closest to Jupiter, is 181,000 km from the 
planet, an important fact which will be discussed later. The table shows 
that the distances between satellites and the satellite masses in the first 
group increase. It may be that between Amalthea and lo either there were 
or there ought to be two more satellites, larger than Amalthea and smaller 
than lo. 

The distance between the first and second groups (that is. between 
Europa and Ganymede) is 399.600 km. and the distance between Ganymede 
and Callisto (that is. between the satellites in the second group) is about 
twice this value (813.000 km). 

The second and third groups of Jovian satellites are separated by 
9.616.000 km. and the distance between the adjacent satellites of the third 
and fourth groups (9.250.000 km) is about the same [see table on inset page]. 

Next, let us consider the inclinations of the satellite orbits with respect 
to the planetary orbit and the planetary equator (see table on following 
page). 



96 



I to planetary 
orbit , 
to planetary 
equator. . . . 





Group 


I 


Group II 




Group III 




0) 

u 

S3 

B 
< 


o 


a. 

o 


■o 

E 
>> 
c: 
«j 
O 


o 

u 


VI 


VII 


X 


XXI 


3*7' 


3'T 


3*6' 


3'2' 


2'43' 


28'45' 


27'58' 


28'24' 


147'3" 


0*0' 


0*0' 


O'O' 


o-o- 


4'0' 


31* 


30* 


— 


145' 



Grou] 


IV 




XI 


VIII 


IX 


163*37' 


148'4' 
145* 


156* 
154* 



The further away from the planet the satellites are, the greater are 
the Inclinations of their orbits. This is particularly noticeable for the 
third and fourth groups. 

Now let us compare the densities of the terrestrial planets with the 
densities of the first group of Jovian satellites: 



Terrestrial planets 


density 

5.7 
4.94 
5.516 
3.99 
3.7 (?) 


lo . . 


Jovian satellite 




name 


name 


density 


Mercury 






Venus 




Earth 






3.22 




Europa 




3.15 







As the table shows, the satellites in the first satellite groups of the 
two largest bodies in the solar system (the Sun and Jupiter) have nearly 
identical densities. Thus it may be assumed that the physical situation 
on the primary, as well as the chemical processes taking place there, 
were of a similar nature during the evolutionary stages of the Sun and 
Jupiter in which their first satellite groups were formed. 

If the asteroids are considered to represent a fifth, fragmented planet 
in the first group of the Sun, then the density of this hypothetical planet 
(3.7) can be compared to that of the Jovian satellite Europa (3.15). 

When all these data are studied separately just for the Jupiter system, 
they are not particularly striking. However, a comparison with the data 
for the system of Saturn, the second giant planet in the solar system, 
leads us to draw the following conclusion: certain regularities in the solar 
system exist which have not as yet been recognized. 

Now let us consider the satellite system of Saturn. As the table 
compiled by the author shows [see inset page], the satellites of Saturn 
can be divided into four groups in the same way as were the Jovian 
satellites. 

The first group has five members, located (like the first group of 
Jovian satellites) at distances from 100.000 to 700,000 km from the planet. 



97 



1000 
800 

600 
500 
400 

300 
300 



-^ 100 

Q 80 

.S 60 
5 50 

s *o 



30 



e 20 



Triton* 



lo 



Moon ®* 

Europa* 
Group I 

EUiea 

Titania X 
Dione ■' 



Ariel 



Miranda 
?■ X ■' 

Mimas 



X 
Tethys 

, Enceladus 
>m Urabriel 



7 

Oberon 



• Amalthea 



to 






s 






6 

5 

4 


• 
X 


Satellites of Jupiter 
Saturn 


3 


■ 
+ 


Uranus 
Neptune 


2 


© 


Earth 



Ganymede 

X •'calUsto 
Titan 



Group II 



Hyperion 
X7 



X lapetus 
? 



Group III 

Nereid 

+ 



li 

|!x Phoebe 



•li 
II 

1 1 Group IV 

n 

VII I 



VIII 7 



jl 

•ii 

IL. 



IX ? 



3 4 5 6 8 to 20 30 40 60 60 100 

Distance of satellite from planet (R-10^ km) 



300 300 400 



FIGURE 2. Relative graph of satellite diameter (in 10 km) plotted against satellite 
distance from central body (in 10^ km). 



Mimas 



Enceladus 



Tethys 



Rhea 



Distance from planet, km 
Distance between satellites, 

km 

Equatorial diameter, km . . 



185,600 



238,100 



52,600 
590 I 740 



294,800 



56,700 
1200 



377,500 

82,700 
1400 



149,700 
1850 



The distances between the satellites in this group are found to increase 
consistently with the distance from the planet, and the same is true of the 
equatorial diameters of the satellites. Finally, the inclinations of the 
orbits of these five satellites also indicate that they should be members 
of a single group: 



Inclination of orbit 



To planetary orbit . 



To planetary equator , 



Mimas 
26"44' 



1.5* 



Enceladus 
26°44' 



0.0' 



Tethys 

26'44' 

0.1* 



Dione 

26*44' 

0.0* 



Rhea 

26°42' 

0.3* 



98 



Let us now compare the first satellite groups in the systems of Jupiter 
and Saturn. The following analogous regularities are observed for these 
two groups, 

1) The first satellite groups of both systems have the sam.e range of 
distances from the center of the system, that is, they are located from 
100,000 to 700,000 km from the planet. 

2) In both systems the closest satellite is located about the same 
distance away from the planet: Amalthea is 181,000 km from Jupiter, 
and Mimas is 185,600 km from Saturn. 

3) In both systems the distances between the first- group satellites 
increase with the distance from the planet. 

4) The sizes of the satellites also increase with the distance from the 
planet. 

The first group of the Jupiter system contains three satellites, and 
that of the Saturn system contains five. If we assume that the Sun and' the 
planets evolved according to a process which was similar to that according 
to which the planetary satellites were formed, then it is very likely that 
the first group of Jupiter also contains five members. 

Let us now consider the second satellite group of Saturn, which con- 
tains Titan (VI) and Hyperion (VII), and let us compare it with the second 
group of Jovian satellites. 

Like the second group of Jupiter, the second group of Saturn is located 
between one and two million km from the planet. The following table 
compares the characteristics of the two satellite groups. 





Jup 


tet 


Saturn 




Ganymede 


Callisto 


Titan 


Hyperion 


3 

Mean distance from planet, 10 km 


1071 


1884 


1222 




1481 


The same, in planetary radii 


15.04 


26.47 


20.38 




24.70 


Distance between satellites, 10^ km 


81 


3 




259 


Mass of satellite (1,3 planetary masses) 


1/12,520 


1/22,200 


1/4700 




1/4,500,000 


Equatorial diameter, km 


5600 


5050 


4950 




500 (?) 


Density 


2.25 


1.56 


2.34 




1.6(?) 


, ,. , , . 1 to planetary orbit 
Inclination or orbit . ' 

to planetary equator 


3'2' 
0.0" 


2'43' 
4.0* 


26'7' 
0.3' 




26'0' 
0.6* 



Titan, the largest satellite in the Saturn system, is a member of the 
second group of this system. This may be compared with the Jupiter 
system, in which the two largest satellites (Ganymede and Callisto) are in 
the second group. Such a comparison shows that, with respect to size, 
the other satellite in the second group of Saturn, Hyperion, constitutes 
an exception. In general, however, a comparison of the data for the 
second groups of Jupiter and Saturn indicates that the satellites in these 
groups have similar parameters. 

So far, the third group of the Saturn system has only one known 
member, lapetus. This satellite lies at a distance of 3,562,000 km from 



99 



the planet. The fourth group of this system also has only one known 
member, Phoebe, which is 12,961,000 km away from Saturn. The 
distance between lapetus and Phoebe is 9,399,000 km, a figure comparable 
to the distance between the third and fourth groups of the Jupiter system 
(9,250,000 km). 

It is interesting that Phoebe, the fourth-group satellite of the Saturn 
system, is similar to all four fourth-group satellites of the Jupiter 
system in that it has retrograde motion. This is another indication of 
the overall regularity in the formation of the fourth- group satellites for 
the two planets. 

It is thus likely that there are more satellites in the third and fourth 
groups of the Saturn system, in addition to lapetus and Phoebe. 

Now that we have compared the satellite systems of the two giant 
planets, we see that there is in fact a great similarity between them. The 
salient points of this similarity are as follows: 

1. Both systems can be divided into four satellite groups. 

2. The first and second groups are located within the same ranges of 
distance from the planet. 

3. The second groups of both systems contain two members each, 
these being (with the exception of Hyperion) the largest satellites in the 
systems. 

4. The distances between the third and fourth groups of both systems 
are about the same (9,250,000 and 9,399,000 km), 

5. The satellites in the fourth groups of both systems have retrograde 
motions. 

6. For the fourth satellite groups of both systems, the inclinations of 
the orbits with respect to the planetary orbit and the planetary equator 
are greater than the inclinations for the other satellite groups. 

7. The closest satellites in these two systems (Amalthea and Mimas) 
lie at nearly the same distances from their planets. 

8. In both systems there is an increase in the mass of the satellites 
and in the distance between satellites for the first group, as we move 
outward from the planet. 

9. In both systems the densities of the second-group satellites are 
about the same: Ganymede, 2.25; Titan, 2.34; Callisto, 1.56; Hyperion, 
1.6(?). 

Consequently, in these two systems the same regularities exist with 
respect to the distribution of matter according to zones, according to 
the distances from the centers of the systems, and according to the sizes 
of the satellites. This all goes to show that the satellites in question 
were formed in groups. The foregoing data also indicate that these two 
planets passed through the same four evolutionary stages, leading in each 
case to the formation of four satellite groups. 

The systems of the other two comparatively large planets, Uranus 
and Neptune, have not yet been studied properly, since these planets are 
far from the Earth. However, the data which are already available 
indicate that the same regularities exist in these systems as in the 
systems of Jupiter and Saturn. For example, the known satellites of 
Uranus conform to the same rule as the first satellite groups of Jupiter 
and Saturn. As regards Neptune, however, only two satellites have as 
yet been discovered, so that it is too early to evaluate the structure of 
this system. 



100 



We shall conclude our study of the planetary systems by considering 
the Earth and Mars, the remaining two planets possessing satellites, no 
satellites of Mercury, Venus, or Pluto having been discovered so far. 

First let us consider the system of Mars. The two Martian satellites, 
Phobos and Deimos, lie quite close to the planet: Phobos is 9400 km away, 
and Deimos is 23,500 km away. These two satellites are both very small, 
being comparable in size to asteroids: Phobos has a diameter of 16 km 
and Deimos has a diameter of 8 km. 

The orbital inclinations of these satellites to the orbit and equator of 
the planet are approximately the same as the inclinations of the satellites 
of Saturn in groups I, II, and III. 



Inclination of orbit 





Phobos 


Deimos 


to planetary orbit 


27'29' 


27'2S' 


to planetary equator 


1-4' 


2* 



The Earth has one satellite, the Moon, lying 384,000 km away from it. 
The data for the Moon are as follows: mass, 1/81.5 of the mass of the 
Earth; equatorial diameter, 347 6 km; inclination of orbit to planetary 
orbit, 5°9'; inclination to planetary equator, 18°18'; and density, 3.34. 
With respect to distance from planet and equatorial diameter, the Moon 
should belong to the first group. However, this system undoubtedly con- 
stitutes an anomaly, because of the very large size and mass of the satellite 
relative to the primary. 

Now let us consider the system of the Sun and the planets, and let us see 
whether the same regularities as were observed for the planet- satellite 
systems exist in this larger system. When we arrange the planets accord- 
ing to their distances from the Sun, we see that the planets (or solar 
satellites) fall into four groups. The first group contains Mercury, Venus, 
Earth, Mars, and the asteroids (a fragmented planet). The table shows 
the relevant characteristics for this group of planets. 



1. Distance from Sun, 10^ km. . . . 

2. Distance between planets, 10^ km 

3. Equatorial diameter, km 

4. The same (Earth =1) 

5. Volume (Earth =1) 

6. Mass (Earth =1) 

7. Density (Earth =1) 

8. Density (water =1) 

9. Inclination 



Mercury 

57.87 

5 
4770 
0.37 
0.052 
0.0543 
1.03 
5.7 
7*004' 



Venus 
108.14 


Earth 


Mars 


Asteroids 


149.50 


227.79 


420.0 


27 41. 


36 7E 


.29 192.3 


12,350 


12,756 


6740 




0.969 


1.000 


0.629 




0.910 


1.00 


0.148 




0.8136 


1.00 


0.1069 


0.1 of Earth 


0.90 


1.00 


0.72 




4.94 


5.616 


3.99 




3*394' 


0" 


1*850' 





These four planets should be placed in one group. Moreover, if the 
asteroids are considered to be a fragmented planet, the first satellite 



101 



II 






Symbol 


Units 


First group, terreJI 




1. Planet 






Mercury 




Venus 




Ear 




2. Distance from Sun 


R 


10^ km 


,57.87 




108.14 




149 




3. Distance between planets 


r 


lO^km 




50.27 




41.36 




SUN- 
PLANET 
SYSTEM 


4. Equatorial diameter 

5. The same, relative to Earth 

6. Volume (Earth = 1) 


d 

V 


km 


4770 
0.37 
0.052 




12,350 

0.969 

0.910 




12/ 

1.0CJ 

1.00 


7. Mass (Earth = 1) 


m 




0.0543 




0.8136 




1.00 




8. Density relative to Earth 






1.03 




0.90 




1.00 




9. Density 


P 


g/cm3 


5.7 




4.94 




5.51. 




10. Inclination 


i 




7.004 




3.394 




— 










First gr | 




1. Satellite 






Amalthea V 




? 




7 




2. Mean distance from planet 


R 


lO^km 


181~^___^_^ 












3. The same, in planetary radii 






2.56 '' 




— 




^_^_^ 




4. Distance between satellites 


r 


loSknr 






~ 


-240.8 - 




JUPITER 


5. Satellite mass rel. to planet 


m 




7 










SYSTEM 


6. Equatorial diameter 

7. Volume 


d 

V 


km 


160 












8. Density 


P 


g/cm3 


— 












9. Inclination of orbit to plan, orbit 


i 


— 


3"7' 












10. The same, to plan, equator 




— 


0.0 


















First gr 1 




1. Satellite 






Mimas I 




Enceladus II 




Tethy 




2. Mean distance from planet 


R 


lO^km 


185.6 




238.1 




294.8 




3. The same, in planetary radii 






3.10 




3.97 




4.92 




4. Distance between satellites 


r 


lO^km 




52.500 




56.700 




SATURN 


5. Satellite mass rel. to planet 


m 




1/16,340,000 




1/4,000,000 




V921, 


SYSTEM 


6. Equatorial diameter 


d 


km 


590 




740 




1200 




7. Volume 


V 




•> 




— 




— 




8. Density 


P 


g/cm3 


0.6? 




0.98 




1.60 




9. Inclination oforbit to plan, orbit 


i 




26 '44' 




26'44' 




26*44' 




10. The same, to plan, equator 






1.5 




0.0 




0.1 




Rings of Saturn 






Dist. from planet 90,000 to 138,000 km. In plan, radii 1. 1 










First gr I 




1. Satellite 






Miranda V** 




Ariel I" 




Umbrit 




2. Mean distance from planet 


R 


loSkm 


130.4 




191.9 




267.3 




3. The same, in planetary radii 






5.11 




1.52 




10.48 




4. Distance between satellites 


r 


103km 




61.5 


— 


75.4 




URANUS 


5. Satellite mass rel. to planet 


m 




— 




— 




— 


SYSTEM 


6. Equatorial diameter 


d 


km 


— 




800(?) 




640 (?) 




7. Volume 


V 




— 




— 




— 




8. Density 


P 


g/cm^ 


— 




— 




— 




9. Inclination of orbit to plan, orbit 


i 




98* 




97'59' 




97*59' 




10. The same, to plan, equator 


























First grH 




1. Satellite 






7 




7 




? 




2. Mean distance from planet 


R 


lO^km 














3. The same, in planetary radii 


















4. Distance between satellites 


T 


lO^km 












NEPTUNE 


5. Satellite mass rel. to planet 


m 














SYSTEM 


6. Equatorial diameter 

7. Volume 

8. Density 

9. Inclination oforbit to plan. orbit 
10. The same, to plan, equator 


d 
V 
P 
i 


km 
g/cm^ 

















roup, terrestrial 










F *-' - 






. 1 


': 


First g 


v me : ^ 1 li c ) j 




■second group, hydrogen 


\ 




Venus 




Earth 




Mars 




Asteroids 




jL-piter 




Saturn 


1 




108.14 




149.50 




227.79 




420.0 




777.8 




1426.1 




50.27 


12,350 

0.969 

O.JIO 

0.8136 

0.90 

4.94 

3.394 


41.36 


12,756 

1.000 

1.00 

1.000 

1.00 

6.516 


78.29 


6470 

0.529 

0.148 

0.1069 

0.72 

3.93 

1.860 


192.3 


1 
1/10 Earth 


357.8 


142.550 

11.19 

1.314 

317.37 

0.24 

1.33 

1.306 


648.3 


119.500 

9.38 

744 

95.08 

0.13 

0.71 

2.491 


1' 


First group i 




Second group 




" - 


? 


■240.8 - 


7 




Io(I) 

— -421.8 
5.94 

1/22,240 
3550 

3.22 
3*7' 
0.0 


249.5 


Europa II 

671.4 

9.44 

1/39,430 
3100 

3.15 
3*6' 
0.0 


399,6 


Ganymede III 

1071 

15.04 

1/12,520 
5600 

2.26 
3*2' 
0.0 


813 


CalUsto rv 

1884 

26.47 

1/22,200 
5050 

1.56 

2*43* 

4.0 


9 


First group 




Second group 






Enceiadus II 




Tethys III 




Dione IV 




Rhea V 




Titan VI 




Hyperion vn 




238.1 




294.8 




377.5 




527.2 




1222.0 




1481.0 




3.97 




4.92 




6.30 




8.79 




20.38 




24.70 




62.500 


1/4,000,000 
740 

0.98 

26*44' 

0.0 


56.700 


1/921,500 
1200 

1.60 

26*44' 

0.1 


82.700 


1/526,000 
1400 

3.24 

26*44' 

0.0 


149.700 


1/250000 
1850 

0.15 

26*42' 

0.3 


694.8 


1/4700 
4950 

2.34 

26*7' 

0.3 


259 


1/4,500,000 
500 (?) 

1.6? 

26*0* 

0.6 


2 


( to plan, equat., 0* 
let 90,000 to 138,000 km. m plan, radii 1.48-2.29. Inclin. of orbit { , ,. .. 
' ' ^ V to plan, orbit, 28*6' 






First group 




Second group 






Ariel I" 




Umbriel II** 




Titania III** 




Ofaeron IV** 




7 




7 






191.9 




267.3 




4Q9.2 




687.0 














1.52 




10.48 




17.21 




23.01 












61.5 


800 (?) 

97*69' 



75.4 


640(?) 

97*59' 



171.9 


1600(?) 

97*59' 





1450(?) 

97*59' 













First group 




• Second group 






7 




? 




Triton* 
363.7- — 
12 9 




7 




7 




7 














1/290 


























4800 


























4.7 


























139*49' 
















- 










20° 












_ 



Third group, Uranlan i 




Fourth group, Plutonian 


Uranus 
2869.1 




i 

Neptune 
4495.7 




Pluto 
5905.0 




7 




7 




7 


48.230 

3.78 

54 

14.61 

0.26 

1.49 

0.773 


1626.6 


1 
45.550 
3.58 
46 
. 17.23 
0.38 
2.09 
1.774 


1409.3 


12.700? 
1 ? 
i ? 
0.8 ? 
0,8 ,? 
4.4 ? 
17,144 














Third group 




Fourth group j 


VI 

11.500 

160.4 


250 


VII 

11,750 

165.4 




X 
n.750 

165.4 


9.250 


XII* 

21.000 

296.0 


1,500 


XI' 

22.500 
316.7 


1.000 


vm* 

23,500 
330,7 


200 


IX* 

23.700 

338,0 






7 




? 




7 




7 




7 




7 


160 




56 




24 




30(?) 




30 




56 




27 


— 




— 




_ 




_ 












_ 


2 8*45 • 
31* 




27*58* 
30* 




28*24' 




147*3' 
145* 




147*3' 
145* 




148*4' 
145* 




156* 
154* 


Third group 




Fourth group 1 


apetus VIII 

3562.0 , 

59.41 




7 




9 


• 9399.0'' 


Phoebe IX' 
12.961 
''^216.2 




7 




7 




7 


L/100,000 
























L600(?) 












320 (?) 














1.15 


























16*18' 
14* 












174*42' 
30* 














Mass of rings, in units of mass of planet, 1/3000 


Third group 




Fourth group j 


7 




? 




7 




? 




7 




7 




7 


Third group 

— I 1 1 




Fourth group ' 


? 




7 




? 





Nereid 
—5.570.000 
200 




? 




7 




7 




5.216.300 


















1/1, 160,00c 


























320 


























2.4 


























5-6* 














1 










— 















Third group 



lapetus VIII 

3562.0 

59.41 

1/100,000 
1600(?) 

1.15 

16*18' 

14* 



/ 



9399.0' 



/ 



Fourth group 



Phoebe IX* 

12,961 

216.2 



320 (?) 



174M2* 
30' 



Mass of rings, in units of mass of planet, 1/3000 



Third group 



Fourth group 



Third group 



Fourth group 



5,216,S0C 



Nereid 
-5,570,000 
200 

1/1,160,000 
320 

2.4 
5-6* 



* Retrograde motion 
*• Retrograde motion, corresponding to sense of rotation of Uranus 



FIGURE 3. Regularities showing similarity between solar and planetary systems. 

Notes: 1. The group of terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) is called the "metallic" 
group, since these planets contain a large amount of heavy metals. 

2. The second group of planets, Jupiter and Saturn, is called the "hydrogen" group, since the 
planets of this group contain a large amount of hydrogen (Jupiter, 857o; Saturn, SOfo). 

3. The third group of planets, Uranus and Neptune, is called arbitrarily the "Uranian" group, 
after the planet Uranus. There is less hydrogen in these planets than in Jupiter and Saturn. 

4. The fourth group, comprising Pluto and the planeu which will be discovered beyonc Pluto, is 
called arbiuarily the "Plutonic" group, after the planet Pluto. 

5. Question marks are introduced wherever, according to the opinion of the author, planets and 
planetary satellites diould exist. 



1419/98— 



1 


i 


, ... 1 1 




• 








Second group 






Jr.-rd group 




Dione IV 




Rhea V 




Titan VI 




Hyperion Vn 


Sqjetus VIII 


7 






377.5 




527.2 




1222,0 




1481.0 


SS2.Q 


— -—_ i 








6.30 




8.79 




20.38 




24,70 




SL41 






_____ 


00 


1/526,000 
1400 


149.700 


1/250000 
1860 


694.8 


1/4700 
4950 


259 


1/4,500,000 
500 (?) 

1.6? 


208:. 


V100,000 
»00(?) 










3.24 




0.15 




2.34 




26*0' 


J ia5 










26*44' 




26;42' 




26*7' 




fl.6 


r 


■SSI 8' 










0.0 




0.3 




0,3 


_ . 






M* 


. 






( to plan, equal., 0' 
iclin. of orbit < , ,. „o.^. 
I, to plan, orbit, 28 6' 




Mass of rings, in units of 






Second group 


Third group 




Titania III** 




Oberon IV** 




7 




? 


? 




? 






4<39.2 




587.0 


















.9 


17.21 

1600(?) 

97*59* 





23.01 

1450 (?) 

97*59' 











I 
! 

\ 












Second group 


1 Third group 




Triton* 




7 




? 




7 


ll ? 




7 






353.7^ 

12.9 









■ 






J; 















r 








5,216,300 

1 




1/290 


























4800 
















1 










4.7 


























139*49' 


























20* 




























* Retrograde mo 
*• Retrograde mo 




Moon 
384.4 




7 




60.27 












1/81.5 












3476 






.' 






0.020 












3.33 












5*9' 












1.8 








FIGURE 3. Regi 










' 



- 



Notes: 1. Th 
group, since the 

2. Th 
planets of this g 

3. Th 
after the plaiiet 

4. Th 
called arbitrari! 

5. Ou 
planetar)' satell 













^•^ 1 , 11 












First grc 




1. Satellite 

2. Mean distance from planet 

3. The same, in planetary radii 

4. Distance between satellites 


R 

r 


lO^km 
lO^km 


Mimas I 

185.6 

3.10 


52.500 


Enceladus U 

238.1 

3.97 


56.700 


Tethys 

294.8 

4.92 




1 SATURN 
f SYSTEM 

r 


5. Satellite mass rel. to planet 

6. Equatorial diameter 

7. Volume 


m 
d 
V 


km 


1/16.340.000 
590 




1/4,000,000 
740 




V921.{ 
1200 




1 


8. Density 

9. Inclination oforbit to plan, orbit 
10. The same, to plan, equator 


P 

i 


g/cm3 


0.6? 
26*44 • 
1.5 




0.98 
26*44 • 
0.0 




1.60 

26*44' 

0.1 




Rings of Saturn 






Dist. from planet 90,000 to 138,000 km. In plan, radii 1.4 












First grc 




1. Satellite 

2. Mean distance from planet 

3. The same, in planetary radii 

4. Distance between satellites 


R 

T 


loSkm 
103km 


Miranda V** 

130.4 

5.11 


61.5 


Ariel I" 

191.9 

1.52 


75.4 


Umbrie: 

267.3 

10.48 




URANUS 


5. Satellite mass rel. to planet 


m 




— 




— 









SYSTEM 


6. Equatorial diameter 

7. Volume 


d 
V 


km 


— 




800(?) 




640 (?) 






8. Density 

9. Inclinationoforbittoplan. orbit 


P 
i 


g/cm^ 


98' 




97'59' 




97*59' 






10. The same, to plan, equator 




























First gr 




1. Satellite 






r> 




? 




7 






2. Mean distance from planet 


R 


10^ km 
















3. The same, in planetary radii 

4. Distance between satellites 


T 


lO^km 














NEPTUNE 


5. Satellite mass rel. to planet 


m 
















SYSTEM 


6. Equatorial diameter 

7. Volume 

8. Density 

9. Inclination oforbit to plan. orbit 
10. The same, to plan, equator 


d 
V 
P 

i 


km 
g/cm3 






















First gr 




1. Satellite 






? 




? 




? 






2. Mean distance from planet 


R 


10^ km 
















3. The same, in planetary radii 

4. Distance between satellites 


T 


10^ km 














EARTH 


5. Satellite mass rel. to planet 


m 
















SYSTEM 


6. Equatorial diameter 

7. Volume 


d 

V 


km 














! 


8. Density 

9. Inclination of orbit to plan, orbit 


P 
i 


gtm^ 














! 


10. The same, to plan, equator 


























First group 






1. Satellite 






Phobos 




Deimos 








2. Mean distance from planet 


R 


10^ km 


9.4 




23.5 








3. The same, in planetary radii 

4. Distance between satellites 


T 


lO^km 


2.77 


14.1 


6.96 

10-^ 

8 
27*25' 






MARS 
' * SYSTEM 


5. Satellite mass reL to planet 

6. Equatorial diameter 

7. Volume 

8. Density 

' 9. Inclination of orbit to plan, orbit 


m 
d 
V 
P 
i 


km 
g/fcmS 


10-^ 
16 

27'29' 








1 ;-^-t: 


10. The same, to plan, equator 






IV 




2* 








'\. tef ;^^ 



group of the Sun will contain five members, the same number as the first 
group of the system of Saturn. The distances between the planets 
gradually increase with increasing distance from the Sun, a situation 
similar to that observed in the systems of the giant planets. 

The second group in the solar system contains the two very large 
planets Jupiter and Saturn. It is noteworthy that the second groups in the 
systems of Jupiter and Saturn also each have two satellites in them, and 
that these (with the exception of Hyperion) are the largest in each system. 
It is thus likely that this constitutes a general regularity for both the 
system of the Sun and the systems of the planets, although exceptions do 
exist. 

The following table lists the basic characteristics of Jupiter, Saturn, 
Uranus, and Neptune. 



1. Distance from Sun, 10^ km ... 

2. Distance between planets, 10° km 

3. Equatorial diameter, km 

4. The same (Earth = 1) 

5. Volume (Earth =1) 

6. Mass (Earth =1) 

1. Density (Earth =1) 

8. Density (water =1) 

9. Inclination 



Jupiter 


Saturn 


Uranus 
2,869.1 


Neptun 


777.8 


1,426.1 


4,495.7 


648.3 1443.0 1626.6 


142,550 


119,500 


48,230 


45,550 


11.19 


9.38 


3.78 


3.58 


1,314 


744 


54 


46 


317.37 


95.08 


14.61 


17.23 


0.24 


0.13 


0.26 


0.38 


1.33 


0.71 


1.49 


2.09 


1'306' 


2'491' 


0°773' 


1*774 



It is the opinion of the author that, with respect to size, mass, and 
chemical composition, Uranus and Neptune constitute an independent, 
third group of planets of the solar system. This is corroborated by the 
fact that from Venus out to Saturn the distances between planets consistent- 
ly increase, whereas from Saturn to Pluto these distances remain about 
the same (1.5 billion km, on the average). 

Pluto, which is 5.905 billion km from the Sun, has been studied 
less than the other planets. Its diameter is approximately half 
that of the Earth. Different explanations have been suggested for the 
origin of Pluto. For instance, it has been proposed that Pluto was 
captured by the Sun as an already- formed planet, that it is a former 
satellite of Neptune, and that it is a large member of a second asteroid 
belt located beyond Neptune. 

By virtue of the existence of four satellite groups in the systems of 
Jupiter and Saturn, the author is led to the assumption that the Sun also 
has four groups of satellites (planets), and that Pluto belongs to the fourth 
group. 

Consequently, it is possible that other planets belonging to this fourth 
group exist beyond Pluto. If the regularity of the distances between 
planets continues to be observed further out, then the next planet beyond 
Pluto ("Transpluto") should be 1.5 billion km from Pluto (about 
50 astronomical units from the Sun). The inclination of the orbit of this 
planet should be approximately the same as that of Pluto, and the planet 
should be smaller in size than Pluto. 



102 



An analysis of the regularities existing in the system of the Sun and 
its satellites (planets) has led the author to conclude that these regulari- 
ties are analogous to those of the systems of Jupiter and Saturn. A 
complete classification of the distribution of matter throughout the solar 
system, according to zones, is presented in the table on the inset page. 
We assume that the following things are possible: 1) the existence of 
planets beyond Pluto; 2) the presence of satellites between lo and Europa 
in the first group of Jupiter; 3) the presence of outer satellites of Saturn 
in addition to lapetus and Phoebe; 4) the existence of additional satellites 
of Uranus and Neptune, especially in the first group of Neptune, and also 
in the group of Nereid and in the other places in the table where we have 
placed question marks. 

A study of this table brings up several important questions, and any 
adopted cosmogonic hypothesis concerning the origin and evolution of the 
solar system must find answers to them. In particular, how can we 
explain the existence of four groups of satellites in each of the main 
systems of the solar system (the systems of the Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn)? 
Moreover, if this is related to the fact that the Sun and the planets went 
through the same four stages during their development, then what were 
the stages and how did they differ from one another? What types of 
nuclear reactions took place in the Sun and what processes occurred on 
the planets during each of these four stages? Why are the planetary 
satellites of the first and second groups located within definite spatial 
intervals from their planets, and why is it that the second groups have 
two members, the largest satellites in the system? Finally, how can we 
explain the fact that approximately the same distances separate the third 
and fourth groups of the Jupiter and Saturn systems? There are also 
several other questions which come up, but the answers to these require 
a further development of our cosmogonic concepts, and this is difficult 
to accomplish within the framework of the present article. 



103 



S.B.Pikel'ner 

THE EVOLUTION AND DYNAMICS OF THE. SUN 

The Sun's bright surface, the photosphere, is an opaque layer of incan- 
descent gas at a temperature of about 5800°K* and with a density of about 
10"^ g/cm^. The properties of the deeper layers can only be theoretically 
calculated, on the basis of conditions of hydrostatic equilibrium, thermal 
equilibrium (constancy of temperature at any given point), and local thermo- 
dynamic equilibrium. These conditions, expressed in the form of a set of 
differential equations, make it possible to compute the distribution of the 
properties of the gas with depth, given the chemical composition of the gas 
(the relative content of hydrogen, helium, and heavy elements), the condi- 
tions on the outer boundary, and some additional parameters. The calcula- 
tion also includes the energy released in the nuclear reactions taking place 
at the high temperature and density prevailing in the Sun's inner core. The 
first reaction involves the fusion of two hydrogen nuclei, which form 
deuterium and a positron. In the process gamma rays are given off. The 
deuterium nucleus quickly captures a proton, turning into the He^ isotope, 
and then two He^ nuclei fuse, transforming into He'* and two protons. In 
the course of these reactions a large amount of energy is released, which 
gradually diffuses outward in the form of radiation quanta. The mean 
wavelength of the radiation depends on the temperature; in the interior it 
falls within the X-ray range, while at the surface visible light emerges. 

The rate at which energy is released depends on the temperature and 
density at the center, and in a star of normal constitution it is ultimately 
determined by the mass. Under the conditions existing inside the Sun, it 
will take about 7 billion years for the hydrogen in the central region to 
transform almost completely into helium. At present more than half of 
the hydrogen originally contained in this region has been transformed into 
helium. The composition of the middle and surface layers has apparently 
remained the same as it was when the Sun was formed. The increasing 
helium content in the core makes the mean molecular weight of the gas 
higher, and that causes the temperature at the center to rise. At present 
the temperature there is about 13 million degrees. The rate of the reactions 
strongly depends on the temperature, and thus the Sun's radiation is growing 
stronger, even though the relative content of hydrogen is decreasing. Cal- 
culations show that during its existence (about 5 billion years) the brightness 
of the Sun has risen by about 60%. Accordingly, in the course of 
the last billion years the radiant energy received by the Earth has increased 
by about 10% and there has been a rise in the Earth's mean temperature. 
It is a fact, though, that the temperature of the Earth depends to a large 
extent on factors such as the atmospheric composition and circulation, and 

" Here and in the following, the temperatures are given in degrees Kelvin, the zero point of which is 
absolute zero (-273'C). 

104 



it is therefore difficult to obtain a precise value for the net rise in 
temperature. 

As the hydrogen in the center of the Sun becomes depleted, a core of 
high molecular weight is formed. This core, deprived of energy sources, 
will start contracting until it goes into a state of degeneracy in which the 
contraction will almost cease. There will be no energy release either in 
the core Dr in the outer portion of the Sun, but only at the boundary of the 
core, where some hydrogen will have remained and the temperature will be 
sufficiently high. The size of the outer portion of the Sun will slowly 
increase, and the Sun will eventually turn into a red giant. At that time 
the temperature of the Earth will have reached about lOOCK. The Sun's 
envelope will gradually expand and transform into a planetary nebula 
(Figure 1), while the core will become a small dense hot star, i.e. , a 
white dwarf. 




FIGURE 1 



At an early stage of its development the Sun was apparently a contracting 
gas sphere. It might have possibly been formed from the central part of 
the same cloud of gas and dust from which the planets were produced. The 
main argument against the nebular hypothesis of the formation of the Sun 
and planets has been the fact that the specific angular momentum of the Sun 
is too small, only 1/50,000 of that of the planets, per unit mass. It 
has been found, however, that in the presence of a magnetic field momentum 
could be transferred from the central part of the cloud to the disk. The lines 
of force are twisted by the rapidly rotating central condensation and slow it 
down, and at the same time they speed up the rotation of the disk. This 
effect is apparently associated with the fact that, beginning with the F class, 
stars have a slow rotation, much slower than should be the rotation of a 
body condensed from a relatively rarefied medium which possesses even 
a very small momentum. This suggests that most stars of the main 
sequence may have planetary systems or gas-dust disks. 



105 



Let us now turn back to the present state of the Sun. The energy diffusing 
from the interior does not produce in most of the solar body any macro- 
scopic motions. However, in the layer underlying the surface, to a depth 
of about 0.1 solar radii, convective motions arise. The appearance of 
convection in that particular layer is caused by partial ionization of the 
hydrogen. The ionization changes with temperature variations of the gas, 
which is equivalent to an increase in heat capacity facilitating convection. In 
the deeper layers the hydrogen is fully ionized, but convection may be sus- 
tained by partially ionized helium. At greater depths convection ceases. 
In the main part of the convection zone heat transfer is effected not by 
radiation but by ascending and descending currents. Only in the uppermost, 
photospheric layers, where the transparency of the gas is higher, the 
convective energy transfer is sharply reduced. 

In the convection zone, at least in its upper layers, individual cells are 
formed, in which the gas rises along the centerline and sinks along the 
border. These cells, or rather streams of gas, which move across the 
photosphere, appear as brilliant patches — granules — which cover the whole 
solar surface. The granules appear and disappear within a few minutes. 
Their temperature is several hundred degrees higher than that of the darker 
areas between them. 

The motions in the upper layers of the convection zone produce contrac- 
tions and expansions of the gas. These disturbances are propagated in the 
form of sound waves into the higher layers of the solar atmosphere. 

As the waves advance into a medium of lower density, their amplitude 
increases and thus the sound waves gradually turn into shock waves. The 
shock waves damp out fairly rapidly, and their energy is converted into heat. 
The upper atmosphere of the Sun is continuously heated in this way by the 
waves coming up from the underlying convection zone. This is responsible 
for certain anomalous properties displayed by the upper layers of the 
atmosphere. 

The radiation of the visible surface of the Sun has a continuous spectrum 
with dark absorption lines. When the Sun's disk is eclipsed by the Moon, 
the chromosphere is visible around it as a thin crescent, whose spectrum 
is mainly composed of bright lines. 

The thickness of the chromosphere is about 10,000km. Above it extends 
the tenuous corona (Figure 2), from which streamers stretch out to a 
distance of some tens of solar radii. The great extent of the streamers 
has been a mystery for a long time, and it now appears that the explanation 
is connected with the flux of energy from-below. 

The temperature that the gas attains by the heating depends also on the 
process by which the gas is cooled. The solar gas cools down by self- 
radiation; electrons lose thermal energy by exciting atoms which in turn 
emit radiation quanta into space. The emission of the transparent gas layer 
depends on its density — the higher the density the more frequently collisions 
occur, and thus the more intense is the emission of the gas and the stronger 
the cooling. The rarefied corona radiates very little, and is consequently 
heated by the waves to a very high temperature, exceeding a million degrees. 
The upper layers of the chromosphere, being denser, are cooled more, so 
that the temperature there only goes up to 10,000 or 20,000°K. The lower 
layers of the atmosphere radiate so intensely that they gain no heat from 
the waves. Accordingly, the corona is very hot because it is so tenuous 
and emits little radiation. This is why its high temperature does not affect 



106 



the Sun's emission in the visible portion of the spectrum, and thus the 
temperature of the Sun is said to be close to 5800°. If the corona were 
denser, it would radiate more intensely. But then its temperature would 
be lower and it would not be a corona. 

The statement that the corona is transparent is not quite correct. In 
certain ranges of the short-wave X-ray region and for radio waves longer 
than a meter the corona is opaque, and consequently within these ranges 
it radiates like a black body with a temperature of more than a million 
degrees. 




In the longer-wavelength region, the ultraviolet, the emission of the 
corona is low, but the chromosphere is still opaque and radiates relatively 
strongly. Thus, the short-wave and radio regions of the spectrum are 
emitted not by the relatively cool photosphere, butby the hotter upper layers 
of the solar atmosphere. If the corona and the chromosphere were absent, 
the Sun's radiation could not produce any detectable ionosphere on Earth, 
and our short-wave radio communications would greatly suffer from it. It 
is true that the upper layers of the terrestrial atmosphere are ionized not 
only by radiation but also by corpuscular fluxes and other phenomena 



107 



associated with them, which explains why the ionosphere persists even 
during the long polar night. But in the middle latitudes the effect of these 
factors is small, and the main source of ionization remains the radiation 
of the chromosphere. 

The density of the upper layers of the corona is lower than that of the 
lower portion, and thus they radiate even less. At this point, however, 
the temperature of the corona no longer grows, but rather declines. This 
is explained by the fact that in the outer corona a new process comes into 
play, which causes cooling. Part of the protons in the outer corona attain 
velocities at which they are able to escape from the Sun completely. The 
resultant emission of fast particles is similar to evaporation; it cools the 
corona and prevents its temperature from rising beyond a certain limit. 
The particles escaping from the corona form a weak stream, or wind, 
which manifests itself in certain geophysical phenomena and is directly 
measurable by means of space rockets. 

Let us now consider the formations on the surface of the Sun. A cons- 
picuous feature on photographs are the sunspots (Figure 3). These are 
relatively dark, because their temperature is almost a thousand degrees 
lower than that of the photosphere. Their dark central core is surrounded 
by a less dark area, the penumbra, in which the temperature is somewhat 
higher than in the central umbra. The number of sunspots varies from 
year to year, with a recurrence period of about 11 years. This period is 
known as the solar- activity cycle. The spots are distributed in belts 
which slowly move toward the equator in the course of a cycle. The 
sunspots usually forrn groups, in which there are one or two main spots. 
A salient feature of the sunspots is that they display a strong magnetic 
field, whose intensity may reach 3 or 4 thousand oersteds. 




FIGURE 3 



108 



Apart from the sunspots, the Sun exhibits many other phenomena 
associated with the solar- activity cycle, in all of which a magnetic field 
is prominent, though not as strong as that of the sunspots. By means of 
modern instruments it is possible to detect on the Sun very weak fields, 
considerably weaker than the field of the Earth. Investigations have shown 
that there are on the Sun extensive magnetic regions, in which the field 
intensity goes from some fractions of an oersted to several hundred oersteds. 
These nnagnetic regions exist for several months, sometimes up to a year, 
and then they disappear. The magnetic field in extended masses of the con- 
ducting gas cannot actually just vanish; it only penetrates into the interior 
or else is carried off into space. Conversely, a magnetic region appears 
when the field emerges from the interior. 

By analyzing the motion of the zones containing magnetic regions and 
the nature of the field within them it has been possible to construct a model, 
for the time being empirical, describing the magnetic field in the interior. 
In each hemisphere under the surface of the Sun there are two moving 
systems of magnetic force-field tubes of opposite polarity which cover the 
Sun along parallels. One system of tubes rises up in the middle latitudes 
and moves under the surface toward the equator. At the same time the 
other system moves in the interior, from the equator to the middle latitudes. 
When it approaches the equator, the first system penetrates to the interior 
and starts moving toward the middle latitudes, while the second system 
rises toward the surface and moves to the equator. An identical process 
takes place in the other hemisphere. 

The reason for this circulation, or the mechanism generating the field, 
is not yet clear. The circulation has a period of 22 years, during which 
time two cycles of reversed polarity are completed. 

Under certain conditions a tube traveling close to the surface may rise 
and emerge to the outside, thus forming a magnetic region. Where the 
intensity of the field is very high a spot is formed, and in other places an 
active region appears, producing a number of phenomena. The formation 
of the spots and active regions is caused by the effect exerted by the field 
on the motions in the conducting medium, and specifically on convective 
motions. The field inhibits motions in the medium across the force lines, 
if its energy is comparable with the kinetic energy of the motion. At field 
intensities of more than 500 oersteds the magnetic forces arrest any motion 
in the upper portion of the convection zone. Now since convection is the 
main means of heat transfer in these layers, the photosphere overlying a 
stagnant area receives less energy, its temperature drops, and a cool spot 
is formed. In regions of lower intensity the energy of the field is not 
sufficient to check the motion of convective currents, but it changes the 
pattern of motion. Under normal conditions the large-scale motion is 
turbulent, i.e. , it is accompanied by ripples and eddies which are super- 
imposed on the main flow. These ripples cross over from the rising current 
into the sinking current and thus exert a drag on the motion. This drag, 
known as eddy viscosity, acts on the currents rising from granules. A 
weak magnetic field cannot arrest the main flow, but it inhibits the ripples 
whose energy is considerably lower than that of the main flow. A reduction 
of the turbulence, and therefore of the eddy viscosity, leads to an 
increase in the velocity of the currents. Consequently, a weak field helps 
rather than hinders convection. 



109 



At the surface of the Sun, the enhanced convection results in a set of 
phenomena which involve all the layers of the atmosphere. In the photo- 
sphere convective heat transfer is increased, and the moving masses 
equalize the temperature difference between the upper and lower layers. There- 
fore in a region of activity the upper layers of the photosphere are hotter than 
in other places, and at the edge of the solar disk an active region appears 
as a large bright patch, known as a facula. The faster motions generate 
a strong flux of waves which travel from the photosphere into the chromo- 
sphere and the corona. Consequently in an active region the chromosphere 
heats up more, and layers of the same density have a higher temperature 
than they do in unperturbed regions of the Sun, 

The chromosphere emits radiation in distinct lines, the intensity of 
emission depending on the temperature and density. In the regions of 
activity the emission of the principal lines is intensified, and thus if the 
Sun is photographed through a light filter transmitting the ultraviolet line 
of ionized calcium or the red Ha hydrogen line, the active regions show up 
as brights spots (Figures 4 and 5). These spots are known respectively as 
calcium and hydrogen flocculi. In the corona active regions appear as 
condensations, since a strong wave flux heats up to coronal temperature 
denser gas than does a weak flux. The magnetic field emerging from active 
regions into the corona imparts to the coronal formations a distinctive 
structure, which is visible on photographs. 




FIGURE 4 



In the neighborhood of large groups of spots, chromospheric flares are 
sometimes observed, which are the most "active" formations on the Sun. 
They are most clearly seen in hydrogen spectroheliograms, where they 
appear as intensely bright fine details. A flare may last from several minutes 



no 



to some tens of minutes. During a flare large amounts of cosmic rays are 
produced, which are detectable after some time in the upper layers of the 
Earth's atmosphere. A high- velocity jet of gas shoots up from the flare, 
rising to a great height and then falling back again. This surge is apparently 
caused by cosmic-ray pressure. Part of the gas does not fall back to the 
Sun, but escapes with a velocity of more than 1000 km/sec and reaches the 
Earth after a day or two, where it gives rise to magnetic storms, aurorae, 
and other phenomena. As the stream moves through the corona it produces 
a burst of radio emission, whose intensity is sometimes millions of times 
greater than the thermal radio emission of the corona. 

The appearance of flares is apparently connected with magnetic forces 
which strongly compress the gas under certain field configurations. On 
being compressed the gas heats up, and then nuclear reactions involving 
deuterium possibly take place, producing fast particles which are further 
accelerated by impinging against the moving magnetic "walls". 




FIGURE 5 



Another phenomenon associated with magnetic forces is that of solar 
prominences. These are relatively dense gas clouds which rise to 
considerable heights within the corona. They are clearly visible on the 
limb in H„ light, and when projected against the solar disk they show up as 
long dark filaments (Figure 5). They sometimes hang almost motionless, 
and sometimes move at a high velocity. The prominences are mostly 
formed in the corona. The magnetic forces compress the coronal gas to 
such density that it starts radiating intensely and quickly cools down. The 
heavy condensations are supported by the field or they slide down the 
inclined force lines, as may be often observed in active prominences 
(Figure 6). 



Ill 



Let us sum up. The Sun draws 
its energy from the nuclear reactions 
occurring near its center. As it 
diffuses upward, this energy causes 
motions in the gas layers closer to 
the surface, i.e., it is converted 
from thermal into mechanical energy. 
The motions give rise to granulation 
of the Sun's surface and to a wave 
flux heating up the chromosphere 
and the corona. In the presence of 
magnetic fields convection is 
suppressed if the field is strong, 
and intensified if the field is weak. 
This explains the appearance of spots 
and active regions. The presence of 
magnetic forces also explains the 
formation of flares and prominences. 
Solar phenomena have an effect on 
the atmosphere and the magnetic 
field of the Earth. The ultraviolet 
radiation, which is especially intense 
FIGURE 6 in the regions of activity, ionizes 

the upper layers of the terrestrial 
atmosphere. The X-ray emission of the flares penetrates into the deeper 
layers and causes fading of short radio waves for half an hour after the 
occurrence of a flare. The cosmic rays due to solar outbursts reach the 
Earth, and may be responsible to some extent for the radiation belts of 
fast particles surrounding the Earth. The correlation between solar and 
terrestrial phenomena has been subjected in the last few years to an 
extensive research program by scientists all over the world. This joint 
project was known as the lntei~national Geophysical Year and the Year of 
International Cooperation, 




112 



V. V. Fedynskii 

SOME PROBLEMS INVOLVING BOTH THE EARTH 
SCIENCES AND SPACE SCIENCES 

New, complex problems concerning the Earth are at present being 
encountered more and more often in the fields of geology, geophysics, 
geochemistry, and astronomy. The solution of these problems is of basic 
importance with respect to the development of our ideas on the structure, 
the origin, and the future of the cradle of mankind, our native planet. 

In the present outline we wish to indicate the nature of these key 
problems in the Earth sciences, on the basis of some relevant examples 
(not necessarily the most important ones). The solution of these problems 
will require the collective efforts of scientists in various fields, and the 
results obtained will help us to develop an overall picture of our planet. 
The sample problems we have chosen are the following: 1) the accretion 
(accumulation) of meteoric matter and cosmic dust; 2) deep planetary 
faults in the Earth's crust; and 3) the geomagnetic field and its secular 
variations. Although these problems deal with very different subjects, 
they have the following factors in common: they are all key problems, 
they are all complex, and they all require a comprehensive approach and 
interpretation. 



I. THE ACCRETION OF METEORIC MATTER AND COSMIC DUST 

The interplanetary space beyond the Earth's atmosphere is by no means 
as empty as it was believed to be as recently as the beginning of the 20th 
century, when space data were still very meager. In actual fact, this 
space is saturated with rapidly moving high- energy elementary particles, 
known as cosmic rays, which come from the Sun and from distant stars 
and stellar systems (galaxies). Moreover, there are also a great number 
of larger material formations moving through the space outside the 
atmosphere, such as dust grains and splinters and lumps of rocky material 
and iron-nickel compounds. Although the density of the meteoric matter 
is very low in comparison with that of the closely packed matter on planets 
and on the Sun, still it is now clear that interplanetary space is far from 
empty. 

During its annual journey around the Sun, the Earth sweeps up the 
meteoric particles that it encounters along the way. This may be 
compared with what happens when an automobile moving along the road 



113 



■ ■■II ■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■ I ■^■■■■■■■■■■■i ■■■■■■ 



runs into a swarm of gnats and the bodies of the insects, crushed by 
collision with the vehicle, are deposited on the windshield. The accumula- 
tion (accretion) of meteoric matter takes place on the surface of the 
planet. When they strike the Earth's atmosphere at velocities of 12 to 
70 km/ sec (which is much higher than the speeds of artificial satellites 
launched from powerful rockets), the larger meteoric particles heat up, 
become melted, and then vaporize. As a result of this disintegration of 
meteoric bodies at heights of 70 to 120 km, a fine meteoric dust is 
produced in the atmosphere. This dust is composed of spheroidal particles 
with diameters ranging from several microns to a millimeter /I/. The 
dust settles in the Earth's atmosphere for about a naonth's time. In addi- 
tion, the Earth's atmosphere is invaded by large numbers of tiny meteoric 
particles which are unaffected by interaction with the air. Because of 
their small mass, these particles are slowed down in the very tenuous 
upper layers of the atmosphere and thus are not heated up in the relatively 
dense meteoric zone (70-120 km) the way the more massive meteoric 
bodies are. This is the so-called cosmic dust. 

The meteoric and cosmic dust settling onto the Earth's surface 
increases the mass of the planet and contributes to the material eomposition 
of the Earth's crust. At first sight, the part played by meteoric dust 
might seem to be negligible. However, if we take into account that the 
accretion of meteoric matter has been going on for at least 4 or 5 billion 
years, and also that the cloud of meteoric matter around the Sun during 
the initial stage of dust accumulation by the Earth and the other planets 
must have been incomparably denser, then of course the picture is 
different. The accumulation of the particles of a protoplanetary meteoric 
cloud forms the basis of Shmidt's well-known cosmogonic hypothesis /2/. 
It may not be possible to accept all the aspects of this hypothesis, but 
Shmidt's proposal that meteoric accretion played a larger part in the past 
seems to be quite plausible. 

New factual data on the rates of accumulation of meteoric matter by the 
Earth have been obtained via direct studies of this matter in interplanetary 
space by means of artificial satellites and space rockets. Previously, 
comparatively large meteoric particles (a millimeter or some tenths of a 
millimeter in size) were studied by visual means and by radar. The total 
mass of meteoric matter falling onto the Earth was then estimated at a few 
(2 to 5) tons per day /3/. However, the picture became quite different 
after new direct counts of meteoric particles in space were made using 
instruments mounted on satellites and rockets. Soviet and American 
investigators have used very different techniques for recording direct 
encounters between the surface of a space vehicle and the meteoric grains 
in interplanetary space. The pits produced on plates of soft metal or 
polished steel by collisions with dust grains have been counted; impacts 
of meteoric particles have been recorded using microphones with 
piezoelectric crystals or photomultipliers; finally, other ingenious and 
diverse observation methods have been used. The counts of the number 
of collisions were then telemetered back to Earth or else studied upon 
recovery of the satellite or rocket. In this way, we have been able to 
obtain information on grains of meteoric matter 4 or 5 microns in 
diameter with masses as low as one billionth of a gram [10-^ gram]. Such 
measurements are feasible both because of the extremely sensitive 
instruments used and because of the enormous energies of collisions with 
meteoric particles, the average collision velocity being about 40 km/sec. 

114 



■■■■■II 11 mill ■■■■ lllHlllll lllllll IIIIIIII nil I 



In addition, during recent years the techniques for collecting meteoric 
and cosnaic dust in the Earth's atmosphere have been refined considerably. 
Samples of this dust have been taken using jet aircraft flying at altitudes of 7 to 
16 km, and they have also been obtained from the snow covers of glaciers 
in high mountains and in the Antarctic. 

Consequently, the growth of the Earth as a result of the accretion of 
meteoric matter is now estimated as being from 13,000 to 80,000 tons 
daily, which gives a yearly average growth of about ten million tons! We 
might ask ourselves at this point why the discrepancy with the previous 
estimates is so great. The answer is obviously that the quantity of very 
fine meteoric dust in interplanetary space was previously underestimated. 
For example, it was assumed that the quantity of meteoric particles 
increases in inverse proportion to the mass of the individual particles, so 
that the total mass of particles of any given size remains constant. In 
reality, the total mass of meteoric matter increases with a decrease in 
the mass and size of the individual particles, as has been verified by recent, 
more careful, comparisons of the results of visual, radar, and rocket 
observations for a number of meteors. 

An amount of meteoric accretion to the tune of 10 million tons (10^^ grams) 
yearly certainly should be taken into account with respect to the life of our 
planet, the more so since (as we noted above) this factor was even more 
effective during previous stages in the evolution of the Earth. Even though 
the mass of the accumulated meteoric matter flO^^ grams) is infinitesimal 
in comparison with the total mass of the Earth (6 •10^'' grams), it is 
nevertheless significant in comparison with the mass of the Earth's crust. 
Deep seismic soundings have made it clear that the mean thickness of the 
Earth's crust is 40 km on the continents and 6 km in the oceans. If the 
density of the crust is taken as 2.8 g/cm , and if the percentage of the 
Earth's surface occupied by the continents and oceans is taken as 29 and 
71 % respectively, then the total mass of the Earth's crust is about 
2- 10'^ grams. Thus, even if the accretion rates throughout the geological 
past had been as insignificant as they are at present, the total amount of 
meteoric matter deposited on the Earth during the 4 billion years of its 
existence would still amount to 4-10^^ grams, or 1/500 of the present mass 
of the crust. However, this is only a lower limit for the "cosmic" 
contribution to the composition of the outer crust of the Earth. In reality, 
this contribution was considerably larger. Meteoric accretion played a 
very important part in the formation of deep-water deposits in the open 
sea, where other deposit-producing factors are less effective than they 
are at other places on the Earth's surface. Iron globules containing 
admixtures of nickel, which have been found in core samples of deep- 
water deposits, attest to the fact that meteoric matter has been falling 
onto the Earth at least throughout the entire Tertiary period. 

It should be noted at this point that the accumulation of cosmic matter 
on the Earth, the significance of which has been established by the studies 
of recent years, is accompanied by the opposite process of the escape of 
terrestrial matter into space. 

Gas molecules and atoms continually leave the Earth's atmosphere, 
provided that their velocities exceed, for some reason or other, the 
"escape velocity". The latter is the critical velocity required for a body 
to extract itself from the sphere of terrestrial gravity. An even greater 



115 



amount of matter is ejected into space as a result of volcanic eruptions, 
and also during the explosions caused when the Earth collides with 
gigantic meteorites. Moreover, the artificial explosions which have taken 
place since man discovered atomic energy also have been on a cosmic 
scale. Geologists are unanimous in the opinion that, during past epochs 
in the history of the Earth, volcanic activity was even more intense than 
it is at present. As yet it is impossible to evaluate the loss of matter by 
the Earth quantitatively, and it is not even known which exchange process 
predominates, the accumulation of matter on the Earth or the escape of it 
from the Earth. 

One thing is certain: an exchange of matter continually takes place 
between the Earth and space, and the scale of this exchange is such that it 
must be taken into account when considering the present state and the past 
history of the Earth. In the past this exchange was much more intensive, 
so that the struggle between the two opposing factors must have been more 
pronounced than it is now. The present example thus confirms the 
correctness of the remarkable ideas held by the prominent natural 
scientists Vernadskii and Fersman, the founders of Soviet geochemistry. 
The Earth and space were considered by Vernadskii (1863-1945) to be 
regions of transient physicochemical equilibrium, between which a 
continuous exchange of chemical elements takes place /4/. In his book 
"Geochemistry", Fersman (1883-1945) stressed the idea of the exchange 
of matter when he wrote: ". . . in general the force of dispersal and the 
force of attraction, . . . mutually compensating one another, equalize the 
chemical composition of the universe. There is no basis for assuming 
that a chemical equilibrium exists and that the present distribution of 
elements in space is stationary. On the contrary, everything goes to show 
that the chemical elements are shifted and regrouped according to definite 
laws, first combining into chemical compounds and then decomposing 
again" /5, p. 217/. 

Launchings of artificial satellites and space rockets have shed new 
light upon the problem of the exchange of matter between the Earth and 
space. They have provided the physical basis for a more profound treat- 
ment of this problem, which involves astronomy, geology, geochemistry, 
astronautics, and other fields as well. 



II. DEEP PLANETARY FAULTS IN THE EARTH'S CRUST 

Many books and articles have been written about the structure of the 
Earth's crust, but it is only recently that geophysical observations have 
made it possible to specify the basic subsurface features of this structure. 
The Earth's crust, which has a thickness varying from 5 to 75 km, is 
characterized by physical parameters which are quite different from 
those of the underlying intermediate layer, the outer parts of which are 
known as the upper mantle. An intensive exchange of matter and energy 
takes place between the mantle and the overlying Earth's crust, and the 
mantle constitutes a source of the movements and development of the 
crust. Different portions of the crust react in different ways to the 
influence of the upper mantle, and as a result the Earth's crust is now 



116 



made up of large blocks, differing from one another in structure and 
divided from one another by deep faults. Each of these blocks has its own 
characteristic depth cross section, with some combination of basaltic, 
granitic, and sedimentary layers. Moreover, each block has its own 
characteristic geological system of surface layers, its own particular 
type of geological structural forms, and its own evolutionary history. A 
block is usually framed by deep faults in the crust, and is often even cut up 
by such breaks and faults. 

Some typical indications of deep faults are: 1) a pronounced difference 
between the deep structure of the crust on the two sides of a fault; 
2) intensive uplift of the heavy, deep magmas along faults; 3) the appear- 
ance of sharp gravitational and geomagnetic anomalies over faults; and 
4) the formation of rich, sizable mineral deposits in the fault zones. It 
is interesting that, according to all these criteria, a formation in the 
Earth's crust such as the Urals should be considered as a deep fault. The 
Precambrian Russian Platform extends to the west of the Urals, and as 
early as the first part of the Paleozoic era sedimentary layers were 
gently deposited on it. To the east of the Urals, however, the intensive 
impregnation of the Earth's crust with deep magma only stopped prior to 
the Jurassic period, at which time the rigid Paleozoic fundament was 
able to become consolidated. In the Urals the deep greenstones rose up 
to the Earth's surface, and heavy-dunite massifs of basic composition 
were formed. The Urals are characterized by marked gravitational and 
magnetic anomalies. And finally, in the depths of the Urals, innumerable, 
really fabulous, resources of precious stones were stored up. 

The Urals represent a deep fault of ancient origin. There are, however, 
some deep faults in the world which are more recent. Let us consider 
the transition zone from the Pacific Ocean to the Asian continent, which 
was recently studied by Soviet scientists during the International 
Geophysical Year (1957-1958) /6/. The deep fault in the planet's surface 
located in this zone is known as the Kuril Island Arc. West of this arc 
the Earth's crust has an overall thickness of 30 to 35 km and is definitely 
of the continental type, while to the east it narrows down to 5 to 8 km and 
is oceanic. Even at present, along the Kuril-Kamchatka volcanic line 
products of deep-magma differentiation are brought up to the surface, and 
the depths of the region are shaken by powerful seismic jolts. The Kuril- 
Kamchatka tectonic line on the Earth's surface is associated with strong 
anomalies of gravity and of the magnetic field. 

Another deep fault, part of which extends under the ocean, was studied 
by the Dutch geophysicist Vening Meinesz /?/. This fault is the Indonesian 
island arc, together with its submarine framework. The Soviet 
geophysicist Lyustikh has shown very graphically that those oceanic zones 
which were described by Vening Meinesz as downfoldings of the crust are 
actually junctions between two different types of crustal blocks /8/. Vening 
Meinesz, Kuenen, and other investigators after them suspected that in the 
submarine region of the Indonesian arc we are dealing with the rudiments 
of a mountain chain on the Earth's crust, and the more explicit treatment 
of Lyustikh serves to bolster this idea. 

The Urals, washed out by secular erosion, the highly uplifted mountain 
summits of Kamchatka, the Kurils, and Japan, and finally the tectonic 
line hidden beneath the waters of the Indian Ocean, represent three stages 



117 



in the evolution of large mountainous structures on the Earth's crust. It 
is characteristic of deep faults in the Earth's crust that they form segments 
or systems of segments of small circles on the Earth's surface; from the 
geometrical point of view, these circles represent traces on a sphere 
along which the latter is intersected by surfaces. Thus, considered from 
outside, planetary deep faults appear to be regular geometric lines on the 
surface of the spherical Earth. This fact is evident from any careful 
study of a globe of the Earth. 

During the present period, which is a period of jet aviation and space 
flights, planetary faults in the crust can be observed clearly in nature as 
well as on a globe of the Earth. The faults show up as regular geometric 
contours on the Earth's surface. When a jet aircraft at an altitude of 
11 or 12 km passes the "roof of the world" (the Pamir highlands) and goes 
out into the aerial spaciousness over the Indian plain, it is clear to any 
geologist or geophysicist aboard that the Himalayas, the highest mountains 
in the world, also crown the boundary between two blocks of the Earth's 
crust: the high-mountain block of the Pamirs and Tibet, and the crystal 
massif of the Deccan. Like a wall, the Pamir-Tibetan highlands form a 
steep vertical barrier, and individual peaks, produced by intensive erosion 
of the high mountains, stand out upon the uplifting of the Earth's crust in 
this region. One of these peaks is the highest mountain on the Earth, 
Chomolungma [Mt. Everest]. 

Deep faults in the Earth's crust, which are an important characteristic 
of the crustal structure, are a consequence of the active internal life of 
our planet. Now let us see whether analogous faults exist on any of the 
other celestial bodies. We have only to consider carefully the surface of 
the Moon, in order to recognize upon it formations which are very 
reminiscent of the deep faults in the Earth's crust. The steep side of the 
lunar Apennines which overhangs the flat, rather dark, surface of the 
Mare Imbrium reminds one immediately of the terrestrial Himalayas 
rising above the Indian plain. An intersection between the spherical 
surface of the Moon and a sharply incident surface lying along the arc of 
a small circle, exactly as in the case of the island arcs of the Earth, is 
observed along the line of the lunar Apennines and the other mountain 
chains of our satellite. 

Consequently, deep planetary faults, together with their characteristic 
morphological features, apparently exist both on the Earth and on the 
Moon, and, in all probability, on the other terrestrial planets (Mercury, 
Venus, and Mars) as well. It is not impossible that on the strongly eroded 
surface of Mars the traces of deep planetary faults are observed by us in 
the form of the very puzzling "canals" of Mars, concerning the nature of 
which so many hypotheses have been made. Were we to observe from 
outer space the geometrically regular island arcs and mountain chains of 
our planet, or just the boundaries between two blocks of the Earth's crust, 
we might also be led to postulate an artificial origin for such quite natural 
planetary formations as deep faults. 

It was noted at the beginning of this section that deep faults in the crust 
are regions where mineral deposits are formed. Thus the study of these 
faults is of great practical value as well as being of theoretical interest. 
At present scientists are gradually exploring the possibility of investigating 
deep faults by comparative methods (by studying planetary cracks on the 
surfaces of other bodies in the solar system), in addition to penetrating 



118 



into the Earth's interior by geophysical and geological means, which has 
always been (and still is) the chief method of studying the faults. Geologists, 
geophysicists, astrophysicists, and astronauts are thus all confronted by a 
common problem of greater complexity, the solution of which requires the 
combined efforts of representatives of all fields. 



III. THE MAGNETIC FIELD AND EXOSPHERE OF THE EARTH 

The examples cited would very likely suffice to illustrate the relations 
which are now being found between the Earth sciences and the sciences 
describing the universe surrounding the Earth. These relations between 
the sciences became established as we began to use our increased 
opportunities for the study of outer space to solve individual important 
problems. We wish to present an additional example, however, one which 
will show particularly clearly that this convergence of the interests of the 
different sciences simply represents objectively the natural relations 
which exist between the Earth and the space surrounding it. 

Long ago navigators learned to guide their vessels according to a 
compass, the magnetic needle of which undeviatingly indicates the direction 
of the meridian. Moreover, it has been known for a long time that the 
Earth is a magnetized sphere and that the position of the magnetic pole is 
only slightly different from the position of the geographic pole. It was 
discovered just recently, however, that the Sun and the stars also possess 
magnetic fields, and that the stellar, solar, and geomagnetic fields vary 
continuously. Since paleomagnetism and its geological aspects were 
recently examined in an article by Kropotkin /9/, it will not be necessary 
to discuss the subject in any detail here. Let us just recall the following 
two well-established facts: 1) the polarity of the geomagnetic field 
changes approximately once during a period of several tens of thousands 
of years; 2) the magnetic poles drift over the surface of the Earth with 
the passage of geological time /lO/. The second of these facts is related 
to the shifting of the Earth's crust relative to the rotation axis and does 
not have any significant effects in the space around the Earth. The reversal 
of the polarity of the geomagnetic field, however, and the disappearance of 
the field at the time when the field strength passes through zero, bring 
about considerable changes in the exosphere of the Earth, as the very 
distant portion of the terrestrial gaseous envelope is now called. 

Studies made using artificial satellites and space rockets have shown 
that the atmosphere of our planet actually extends far out into space. In 
1950 the Soviet astronomer Astapovich noted the presence of a gaseous tail 
near the Earth, oriented in a direction away from the Sun, and he estimated 
its extension as being several thousand kilometers. Then, in 1958, on the 
basis of satellite and rocket observations of cosmic rays, the Soviet 
physicist Vernov and the American scientist Van Allen discovered an intense 
radiation belt around the Earth, located at an altitude of about 2000 or 
3000 km /ll/. This belt is saturated with high- energy elementary par- 
ticles. These charged nuclear particles, which are ejected by the Sun 
and the stars, fall into magnetic traps associated with the geomagnetic 
field. A cloud of very fine meteoric bodies is apparently picked up by 



119 



these magnetic traps around the Earth as well, the electrical charges on 
the surfaces of the particles being important for such small particle 
masses (see §1 of this article). 

Thus, the radiation belts, and very likely the cloud of cosmic dust 
around the Earth as well, owe their presence to the extent to which the 
geomagnetic field can hold their constituent particles in the traps created 
by it. As the polarity of the geomagnetic field goes through its gradual 
cycle of reversals, the magnetic traps of the Earth must become some- 
times stronger and sometimes weaker, and they will disappear periodically 
for short periods of time (perhaps for some decades or centuries). The 
disappearance of the magnetic traps, even for a short time, destroys the 
radiation belts and the meteoric cloud around the Earth during this period. 
Such a pulsation of the exosphere, and the periodically recurring disappear- 
ance of its basic elements, cannot take place without having some effect 
on the interaction between the Earth and other bodies in space. It is 
difficult to say at present just what effect these variations have on 
processes taking place in the Earth's atmosphere, but still it is possible 
to speculate on the nature of this effect. Most likely, when the barrier 
impeding the arrival of cosmic rays disappears, the ionization of the upper 
layers of the atmosphere will increase. At the same tinne, the reduction 
of the density of cosmic dust around the Earth will lead to a reduction of 
the absorption of solar radiation in interplanetary space. Atmospheric 
processes which are induced by ionization of the upper atmospheric layers 
will be intensified. For example, under these circumstances there will 
be a more intensive circulation of matter in the atmosphere, and climatic 
processes will become more pronounced. It is possible, therefore, that 
some long-period climatic variations depend on the variations in the geo- 
magnetic field. These climatic changes must affect the entire Earth 
simultaneously, and in the past they must have greatly influenced animal 
and plant life on our planet. 

In our brief account of the interdependence of terrestrial and space 
phenonnena associated with the geomagnetic field, we began with the 
compass and ended with the possibility of climatic and biological variations 
which are effected simultaneously with variations in the Earth's magnetic 
field. However, many scientists now believe that the source of the 
geomagnetic field and its variations is the Earth's core, with its system of 
ring currents. Consequently, variations taking place within the very depths 
of the Earth are able to bring about changes in the distant exosphere of our 
planet and thereby to influence conditions on the Earth's surface. 



The purpose of this article has been twofold. First of all, we have tried 
to emphasize that the individual Earth sciences and space sciences (such as 
geology, geophysics, geochemistry, astrophysics, and cosmogony) are now 
making more and more contact with one another. Secondly, we have tried 
to show that this trend toward a greater complexity and interrelation of 
fields which were previously relatively separate is a result of certain 
basic connections existing in nature, the recognition of which has now 
become imperative for miodern science. If the reader has become aware 
of this through the examples presented in this article, then our goal has 
been achieved. 



120 



REFERENCES 

1. KRINOV, E. L. Osnovy meteoritiki (The Fundamentals of Meteoritics).— 

Moskva, Gostekhizdat. 1955. 

2. SHMIDT, O.Yu. Chetyre lektsii o proiskhozhdenii Solnechnoi sistemy 

(Four Lectures on the Origin of the Solar System),— Moskva, 
Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1950. 

3. WATSON, F.G. Between the Planets. — The Blakiston Co. , 

Philadelphia. 1941. [Russian translation. 1947,] 

4. VERNADSKII, V. I. Ocherki geokhimii (Outlines of Geochemistry), 

4th Edition. — Moskva- Leningrad, Gosizdat. 1934. 

5. FERSMAN, A. E. Geokhimiya (Geochemistry), Vol. L — Leningrad, 

Goskhimtekhizdat. 1933. 

6. GAL'PERIN, E. I. , S. M. ZVEREV, I. P. KOSMINSKAYA, et al. 

Issledovaniya zemnoi kory v oblastyakh perekhoda ot aziatskogo 
kontinenta k Tikhomu okeanu. Raboty Tikhookeanskoi kompleksnoi 
geologo-geofizicheskoi ekspeditsii AN SSSR v 1957 g. (Studies of 
the Earth's Crust in Regions of Transition from the Asian Continent 
to the Pacific Ocean. Works of the Combined Geological-Geophysical 
Pacific-Ocean Expedition of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1957).— 
Moskva, Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1958. 

7. VENING-MEINESZ, F.A. Gravity Expeditions at Sea. — Netherlands 

Geodetic Comm. 1934. [Russian translation. 1940.] 

8. LYUSTIKH, E. N. Anomalii sily tyazhesti i glubinnaya tektonika 

Indonezii i drugikh ostrovnykh dug (Gravity Anomalies and the Deep 
Structure of Indonesia and Other Island Arcs).— Trudy Geofiziches- 
kogo instituta AN SSSR, No. 26, 156. 1955. 

9. KROPOTKIN, P.N. Paleomagnetizm i ego znachenie dlya stratigrafii 

i tektoniki. Doklad na sessii otd. geologo-geogr. nauk AN SSSR 
8 iyunya 1960 g. (Paleomagnetism and Its Significance in 
Stratigraphy and Tectonics. Report at a Session of the Division of 
Geological and Geographical Sciences of the USSR Academy of 
Sciences on 8 June I960).— Izvestiya AN SSSR, seriya geologiches- 
kaya. No. 12. 1960. 

10. KHRAMOV, A.N. , G. N. PETROVA, A. G. KOMAROV, and 

V. V. KOCHEGURA. Metodika paleomagnitnykh issledovanii 
(Methods of Paleomagnetic Research).— Leningrad, Gostoptekhizdat. 
1961. 

11. VERNOV, S. N. , A. B. CHUDAKOV, et al. Issledovanie izluchenii v 

kosmicheskona prostranstve. Sm. kn. "Radiatsionnye poyasy Zemli. 
Pervichnoe kosmicheskoe izluchenie, ego svoistva i proiskhozh- 
denie" (The Study of Radiations in Outer Space. Cf . the book "The 
Radiation Belts of the Earth. Primary Cosmic Radiation, Its 
Properties and Origin"),— Moskva, Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1961. 



121 



PART THREE 

STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH 



B.L. Lichkov 

SYMMETRY FEATURES OF THE EARTH ASSOCIATED WITH 
THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD, STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY, 
AND HYDROGEOLOGY 

(Interaction of the Terrestrial Envelopes. Regularities of the 
Motions in the Envelopes) 

In my recent book entitled "The Natural Water of the Karth and the 
Lithosphere" (1960), I formulated a new theory of orogenesis. According 
to this theory, orogenesis is part of a process of re-formation of the 
planetary figure of the Earth related to variations in the velocity of terres- 
trial rotation, which cause an increase or a decrease in the planetary or 
polar flattening of our planet. I called this re-formation of the Earth's 
figure spreading of the Earth. 

According to Shmidt's theory, spreading first took place during the 
period in which the spheroidal body of the Earth formed from an angular 
asteroid. The spreading which occurred at this time, during the increase 
in the dimensions of the asteroid and as a result of this increase, was the 
biggest spreading in the history of the planet. It may be assumed to have 
taken place when the Earth changed from a region of cohesive forces into 
a region of attractive (gravitational) forces. Spreadings recurred during 
each new orogenetic process. 

Such orogenesis, then, is the part of the re- formation of the figure of 
the planet which occurred in the solid envelopes of the Earth, and which 
manifested itself most distinctly in the lithosphere. It is this part of the 
re- formation of the figure which we have called the spreading of the solid 
body of the Earth. The spreading takes the form of large-scale subcrustal 
tangential displacements of mass at the poles, at the 62nd parallels, and 
at the equator. Such displacements do not take place at the 35th parallels. 

As a consequence of the tangential mass displacements over large 
distances, upheavals and subsidences of the topography take place at the 
35th and 62nd parallels, that is, at the two definite boundaries of the zones, 
and also at four definite antipodal meridians located 90° from one another. 
This situation may be assvmied to result from the existence of critical 
parallels and critical meridians which develop during rotation of the planet 
and which determine the structure of the Earth. The shape of the Earth, 
therefore, is not something which was handed down to it from a previous 
liquid phase (as was assumed, for instance, by Clairaut). Rather, it is 
an acquired characteristic which can be attributed to the loss by the planet 
of the angular form possessed by the asteroid. 

The empirically observable distribution of mountain chains over the 



122 



terrestrial ellipsoid can be substantiated mathematically. Stress-discharge 
zones must have appeared in the crustal layer, which also explains the 
existing distribution of mountain ridges. The most deformed zones should 
be: the equator, the critical parallels at ±35° and ±62°, and the poles, as 
the studies of Stovas over the last ten years have demonstrated. The 
maximum stress and maximum shifting of areas is at the 62nd parallel 
and at the equator, and minimum shifting takes place at the poles and at 
the 35th parallels. 

The equator and the 62nd parallel are conjugate parallels. By this we 
mean that an increase in the length of one of these results in a decrease 
in the length of the other. The length of the 35th parallel, however, 
remains constant for a change in the degree of flattening. The conjugate 
variation of the length of arc of the equator and the 62nd parallels should 
cause deformations (tangential latitudinal stresses) there. These stresses 
are a maximum at the equator and they decrease with the approach to the 
35th parallel, where they drop to zero. Further on, according to Stovas, 
the sign of the stress is reversed. It continues to increase toward the 
high latitudes, reaches a maximum at the 62nd parallel, and then decreases 
toward the pole, where it is once again zero. In general, as Stovas points 
out, a meridional warping of the surface of the Earth's figure should be 
produced. The meridional tangential stresses cause latitudinal deformations. 

This relationship between the parallels must be taken into account for 
all the envelopes of the Earth, and not just for the lithosphere. In other 
words, each of the terrestrial envelopes, solid, liquid, and gaseous, 
represents a definite structure (or rather a complex combination of 
several structures), produced under the conditions of terrestrial rotation 
and existing as a direct result of this rotation. Under the rotation condi- 
tions, in accordance with the effect of gravity, both the atmosphere and 
the hydrosphere, like the lithosphere, prove to be definite megastructures; 
they have a complex structural makeup, rather than being just air and 
water*. 

Actually, this follows from the last chapters of my aforementioned 
book, in which it was noted that the same critical parallels exist in the 
atmosphere and hydrosphere as on the solid surface of the Earth corres- 
ponding to the lithosphere. The meridional zonal slanting , whose 
existence for the solid envelope of the Earth was pointed out by Stovas, 
must also be observed for the air envelope and the water envelope of the 
Earth. Under the conditions of terrestrial rotation, water cannot travel 
freely from the pole to the equator and vice versa. Along the way, the 
water will be affected by the 35th parallel and in fact will be stopped at it. 
Up to the 35th parallel it will have one kind of motion, and after this 
parallel it will have another kind. It is no accident that the maximum 
water density in the oceans is along the 35th parallel. Nor is it an accident 
that regions of constant wind ("the roaring latitudes") exist in the atmos- 
phere on either side of the 35th parallel. 

Obviously, a definite figure of the Earth applies to the solid envelope 
of the planet as well as to the oceans. Moreover, the figure would be the 
same if there were no oceans, since then the dry land itself would 
compensate for the lack of the water and the oceanless Earth would still 
be ellipsoidal in shape. Since the oceans do exist, however, they are an 

* [The author later refers to this as the first- order regularity.] 



123 



inherent constituent part of the Earth's structure, and this is why the 
oceans complement the continents so exactly in the body of the Earth (and 
thus in the structure of the planet as well). On the basis of this, we may 
conclude that, in particular, the troposphere (the lower part of the 
atmosphere) must have a definite planetary figure. The troposphere 
contains a subtropical high-pressure zone, an equatorial region of low 
pressure, and finally the polar zones and anticyclone zones of the Arctic 
and Antarctic. Each of these tropospheric zones has an analogue in the 
lithosphere. 

Let us assume that each envelope of the Earth, solid, liquid, or gaseous, 
consists of masses of matter which are present in the different envelopes 
in different states. Then, invoking the previous important first- order 
regularity which states that the envelopes are made up of structures, we 
are justified in saying that: these structures are masses of 
matter in different states. Zonality of the structures 
is, therefore, a phenomenon which is inherent to the 
masses making up the envelope. If this is taken into account, it 
follows that the available heat must also exert an influence on the masses 
of the envelopes, apart from and in addition to (but only in addition tol ) 
the rotation. This heat m^ay be radioactive heat in the body of the planet 
and also heat transmitted to the planet by the Sun through the planetary 
rock mass (during subsidence of the silicates and carbonaceous rocks). It 
is very characteristic that the masses of the troposphere and the oceanic 
envelope have a definite structure, as do the masses of the solid lithosphere, 
and this fact must be taken into consideration. 

Not long ago (1956) Pariiskii contradicted Stovas by pointing out that it 
is impossible to assume a single rule of critical parallels for the solid 
Earth and the Sun, since matter on the Sun is in a fluid state. On the other 
hand, if the atmosphere and hydrosphere of the Earth are not simply large 
masses, but rather are law-abiding gaseous and liquid parts of structures, 
then the fluid matter on the Sun, with its regular latitudinal belts, must 
have a definite structure as well. Thus, there is a definite rule of latitudi- 
nal zonality which applies to all the heavenly bodies, planets and stars alike. 

All three outer envelopes of the Earth, atmosphere, 
lithosphere, and hydrosphere, have the same pattern of 
latitudinal zonality. This second-order regularity follows from the 
previously stated first- order regularity. It becomes obvious if we assume 
that the basic condition for the conformity of all three envelopes is the 
rotation of the Earth, a certain additional role being played by heat. 

Consequently, if the rotation of the planet leads to a common zonality 
of the envelopes, we can conclude that: the climatic and tectonic 
life of the planet is subject to this same latitudinal 
zonality. This third-order regularity is implied by the first two. 

The third regularity can be explained only in terms of an interaction 
between the terrestrial envelopes, under conditions where the masses of 
each envelope move at their own particular velocities, so that motions of 
different phase appear along the rotation axis of the Earth (that is, 
perpendicular to the latitudes). It is obvious that, if the veloci- 
ties of motion of the envelopes are different, the atmosphere 
and hydrosphere will affect them. Certain conclusions can be 



124 



drawn from this. The evolution of the Earth's solid crust can be explained 
most simply on the basis of the law of gravity, by assuming it to be a 
consequence of this law under the given conditions of planetary rotation, 
and orogenesis can be explained in the same way. Moreover, this same 
law of gravity and motion pf the gravitating masses explains the motion of 
the atmosphere. 

It is not possible, on the other hand, to explain the motion of the 
atmosphere purely in terms of the thermal conditions. Similarly, thermal 
conditions cannot account for the structure of the Earth (although hitherto 
it has been almost universally accepted that they could). However, both 
these phenomena can be explained by the combined effects of the rotation 
of the Earth and gravity. Phenomena originating in the atmosphere can 
be accounted for more by the structure of the atmosphere itself than by 
the radiant energy of the Sun and its influx; in any case, this atmospheric 
structure must not be ignored. 

How deeply into the Earth does this common zonality of the body of the 
planet extend? Apparently very deeply indeed, since it applies not only to 
the [outer] lithosphere but also to the barysphere [centrosphere] and the 
mantle as well. 

Earthquakes and seismic surveying tell us a great many things about the 
interior of the Earth. As pointed out by Morain (1927), the latitudinal 
distribution of earthquakes indicates an increase in seismicity at the 35th 
parallel and at the equator. According to Lichkov (1929), the zonality of 
earthquakes is associated with the rotation of the Earth and thus correlates 
well with the zonality of epeirogenic movements. This also pertains to 
the most ordinary shallow earthquakes with hypocenters at depths of around 
30 km. 

Stoyko (1952) states that deep-focus earthquakes with hypocenters at 
depths greater than 70 krn show their relation to the Earth's rotation most 
clearly. He confirmed the special seismicity of the regions around the 
35th parallel and the equator, and he found a definite correlation between 
deep- focus earthquakes and fluctuations in the angular velocity of the Earth's 
rotation. Stoyko explained this correlation in terms of the special state of 
the interior of the Earth in these regions, and he assumed that the frequent 
earthquakes appearing as a consequence of this special state indicate a 
variation in the velocity of terrestrial rotation. 

However, it may be more logical to take the point of view stated by us 
previously, according to which in this case we have to do with something 
other than a special critical state of the material of the Earth which causes 
changes in the volume of this material. As Eigenson (1954) has pointed 
out, the variation in rotational velocity is apparently a result of the action 
of external repulsive forces. Seismic phenomena, according to this 
interpretation, are a unique means of relieving the excess stresses which 
we referred to above when discussing the regions of the subcrustal layer. 
Deep faults in the Earth's crust are confined to the 35th parallel, and 
consequently the genesis of these planetary faults is related to the rotation 
of the Earth (Sel'skii, 1949). 

It is quite clear that deep-focus earthquakes in the Tethys region and in 
its continuation into Asia are confined to focus depths of the order of 
300 km. Obviously, in this case the effect of the Earth's rotation will reach 
to this depth, producing latitudinal structures. In Europe the results of 
this effect show up down to depths of no more than 100 to 120 km. Faults 
are in all probability related to deep-focus earthquakes. 

125 



All the foregoing is characteristic of the common latitudinal zonality 
of the body of the Earth. This zonality, moreover, applies to the depths 
of the planet, including the mantle, as well as to the surface regions. 
Finally, it also holds true in all of the circulating envelopes of the Earth, 
both gaseous and liquid. Thus, like the solid body of the Earth, the liquid 
and gaseous envelopes around it are also closely related to the structure 
of the Earth, which on the whole is determined by the terrestrial field. 
In other words, the establishment of critical parallels is important for the 
reorganization of meteorology as well as of geology. If explanations of 
transformation phenomena in terms of thermal causes are unsuitable in 
geology, then, as Usmanov has pointed out, they will be equally unsuitable 
in meteorology. 

New opinions on these subjects were developed in meteorology con- 
siderably earlier than in geology. The first to express views on them was 
Voeikov, who in 1882 noted the existence of two main parallels in the 
atmosphere. It was only later that Tillo referred to a critical 35th 
parallel for the lithosphere and demonstrated its existence. At present 
Usmanov is continuing to develop the assumptions of Voeikov and his 
successors, one of whom was Brounov (1924). 

In addition, we should definitely add the following. Stovas is quite 
correct when he says that mountain chains are for the most part located 
along the critical parallels. However, he analyzes only the processes 
taking place in the lithosphere, whereas all the envelopes of the Earth 
play a part in producing disturbances, the activity of the envelope apparent- 
ly decreasing from the troposphere down to the Earth's core. Therefore, 
the theory of Stovas will be incomplete if the roles of all the mutually 
interacting envelopes are not taken into account. This will be especially 
true if the atmosphere and hydrosphere are not considered, and probably 
the ionosphere and mantle of the Earth as well. All these envelopes have 
a structural makeup as well, and their active participation in the production 
of disturbances must by no means be underestimated. 

Consequently, on the basis of the aforementioned regularities of first, 
second, and third order, we can now formulate a fourth- order regularity. 
According to the new regularity: dislocations and deformations 
of the Earth originate in the interaction of the out-of- 
phase motions of all the terrestrial envelopes, these 
motions being produced by the rotation of the masses 
of these envelopes, heat (primarily solar heat) being 
at the same time transferred to the envelopes. 

I have especially reviewed all the studies of Stovas in order to ascertain 
definitely whether he refers to processes taking place in the hydrosphere 
and atmosphere, and I have become convinced that there are almost no 
such references in his works. I was the first to indicate to Stovas the 
part played by Tillo in discovering the [critical] 35th parallel, and I also 
pointed out Voeikov' s discovery of the critical parallels in the atmosphere 
in 1882. Later he himself showed mie the aforementioned work of Brounov 
C1924), in which the existence of [critical] parallels in the atmosphere is 
also indicated. 

However, nowhere in his works does Stovas refer to critical parallels 
in the atmosphere. It was only in 1960, in a short note in "The Theory of 
Critical Parallels" (1960), that Stovas mentioned in passing the ideas 



126 



expressed by Khromov, Usmanov, Trauberg, and others concerning 
critical parallels "in the general circulation of the atmosphere". On the 
basis of this I wish to point out that, in spite of the very great significance 
of his assumptions for the theory of the Earth, and in spite of his attempts 
to enlarge the problem of the formation of deformations and dislocations 
of the Earth's crust on the basis of the interaction of the envelopes, still 
Stovas has provided only a starting point for the solution of this problem. 
The first to refer to the interaction of the envelopes as a source of tectonic 
phenomena was Lichkov (1960). 

In one of his recent works (1960) Stovas introduced into his theory, to 
no purpose at all, the idea of gigantic continents. In this work (see Figure 
3 on page 59) he refers to Gondwanaland, Laurentia, etc., continents which 
probably never existed. Such ideas only spoil his otherwise quite correct, 
simple, and excellent analysis. Large continents are completely unneces- 
sary to his theory. Moreover, Stovas understood very well that, regard- 
less of the physical state of the mass of the envelope, the regularities of 
the behavior of zonal structures under the conditions of rotation of an 
ellipsoid with polar flattening, will be the same for any form of matter. 

So far we have said nothing about submeridional dislocations, a type 
which includes, in particular, the dislocations bordering upon the Pacific 
Ocean, which play a leading role. The distribution of these dislocations 
was described in my recent book (1960). In the Northern Hemisphere such 
dislocations are distributed symmetrically over the body of the planet, at 
90° intervals; they include the Cordilleran Ranges, the Mid- Atlantic 
the Ural-African Graben, and the Kuril- Japanese Range. 

As I see it, in the Southern Hemisphere this antipodal character of the 
critical meridians is disturbed somewhat, since the distribution Of the 
continents (in relation to their antipodal character relative to the ocean) 
is different; here the distribution is somewhat otherwise than in the north. 
Katterfel'd and Spitaler think that even here there is a symmetrical distri- 
bution of the dislocations along the meridians. According to Spitaler, 
the four meridians to which the mountainous belts are confined are the 
critical meridians. Like the critical parallels, they characterize the 
symmetry of the Earth, and their properties are determined by a distri- 
bution of stress zones which is nearly latitudinal. Obviously, if the 
critical parallels are associated with meridional stresses, in the present 
case we have to do with the effect of latitudinal stresses. The direction 
of these stresses, however, has been studied even less, and much remains 
to be done with respect to studying them. 

The critical meridians and parallels are significant for the water and 
air envelopes of the Earth as well as for the solid body of the planet. Their 
importance with respect to the water envelope has been recognized for a 
long time. The Pacific dislocations are obviously confined to the boundary 
between the continent and the ocean; they are displaced somewhat from 
the actual boundary, but they are strictly parallel to it. It is clear that 
these dislocations are closely related to those of the belt nearer the 
surface, as their parallelism indicates. In this case the role of the 
interaction of all the envelopes is perhaps even more obvious than for the 
latitudinal dislocations. This is not as clear for the Ural- African dis- 
location and for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, andthey still require further study. 
However, their origin was apparently of the same type. It may be that 



127 



the vagueness 'of the picture for these large dislocations is explained by 
the fact that they are of secondary importance, since they are only the 
gravimetric antipodes Of the main dislocations playing an active role in 
this case. 

In connection with the Pacific earthquake belt, corresponding to the 
regions of the Pacific deformations, I should like to note that they reach 
depths of more than 700 km, that is, they correspond to the deepest 
deformations (in particular, to deformations which are deeper than the 
deepest ones in the Tethys-Indian Ocean region). These earthquakes, 
and the deep faults in the Earth's crust associated with them, have the 
same distribution as the smaller earthquakes do (their lines are parallel 
to one another). Both are oriented along critical meridians, and this is 
also noticeable in the Asian-Australian belt of the Pacific. This fact is 
noteworthy, since these same features characterize the symmetry of the 
body of the Earth, once we assume critical meridians as well as critical 
parallels. It should be emphasized that the meridional symmetry extends 
even further into the depths of the Earth than the latitudinal symmetry 
does. However, this still must be verified by more thorough investigations. 
For us here it is significant that, in the terrestrial gravitational field, the 
Earth's symmetry is expressed both in its gaseous and liquid outer 
envelopes and in the interior of the planet, down to the core itself. 

We have mentioned that the theory of critical parallels proposed by 
Stovas makes no reference to the interaction of the envelopes or to the role 
of this interaction in carrying the effects of tectonic phenomena to great 
depths. The same applies to the theory of critical meridians of Katterfel'd 
and Spitaler, since they also ignore both the interaction of the envelopes 
and the interaction between oceanic tides and the continents. 

The theory that the waters of the ocean exert a tidal effect on the 
continents was introduced by W. Thomson [Lord Kelvin] and formulated 
between 1879 and 1890 by G. H. Darwin. A good statement of the theory 
is given by Ball (1909). The basic idea of this theory was expressed 
correctly by Engels in "The Dialectics of Nature", when he stated that in 
the tides the Earth-Moon system transfers energy to individual regions 
on the Earth's surface. However, since the theory of critical parallels 
and meridians was still unknown in their time, the three above-mentioned 
investigators had no possibility of accurately specifying the regularities of 
distribution of the regions that Engels referred to. Now it is quite 
possible to do this, on the other hand, since a theory of critical parallels 
and meridians exists. The latter theory makes it possible to go even 
further, provided we complement it and the theory of a tidal effect of the 
ocean upon the continents with a clearly formulated conception of the 
interaction of the terrestrial envelopes which go to make up the body of 
the Earth, from the surface regions of the planet to very great depths. 
This is precisely what we are arriving at in the present article. By 
virtue of the interaction of the envelopes, then, spreading of the body of 
the planet originates. 

The foregoing leads us to some general conclusions concerning 
deformations of the Earth's crust in the two main directions, latitudinal 
and meridional (that is, perpendicular to and parallel to the rotational 
axis of the Earth) . 

The data presented indicate that a single latitudinal zonality of the 
Earth exists, applying equally well to the outer gaseous and liquid 



128 



envelopes and also to the interior of the planet, almost down to the core. 
Analogously, series of meridional dislocations exist, also beginning from 
the outer gaseous and liquid envelopes and continuing almost to the Earth's 
core. Here we contrast the latitudinal zonality with the meridional 
division into series. 

Consequently, it may be assumed that the symmetry features of our 
planet which are related to its gravitational field will show up in the 
gaseous and liquid envelopes of the Earth as well in its solid body, and 
that these envelopes will definitely have the same symmetry. The atmos- 
phere and hydrosphere are not just air and water, but are 
aggregates of air and water which are symmetrically 
constructed in a definite way. Thus, in a way, they constitute 
liquid and gaseous crystals. In one of his earlier works (1907) Vul'f 
referred to the terrestrial spheroid as a body possessing a known sym- 
metry. The ocean and the troposphere, moreover, are characterized by 
this same symmetry. Such is the effect of the gravitational forces under 
the conditions of terrestrial rotation. That this is the case has already 
been noted by Usmanov in his reports and articles on meteorology and 
oceanography. 

The symmetry so characteristic of our entire planet is observed in the 
atmosphere and hydrosphere. Pierre Curie considered symmetry as "a 
state of the medium in which a given phenomenon takes place". Curie 
called upon scientists to account for not only the state of the medium but 
also the state of motion of the given object, as well as the physical factors 
acting upon it. In our case the motion of the object is its rotation, while 
the main factor acting upon it is gravity. "The symmetry of the surround- 
ing medium appears to leave an impression upon an object forming in it", 
states Shafranovskii (1960). For the Earth, the surrounding medium is 
its gravitational field. 

This article began by referring to the book "The Natural Water of the 
Earth and the Lithosphere", in which it is stated that orogenesis is part 
of a process of re-formation of the body of the planet. We have explained 
essentially what this re- formation is during the course of the article, and 
we have indicated the role played by subcrustal tangential movements in 
producing mountainous upheavals at the critical meridians and parallels. 
In the last chapter of the book (pp. 151 ff. ), the author states that erogenic 
processes are explained by the action of the oceans on the continents 
through the agency of the tidal waves of water. "The natural water of the 
Earth, therefore, provides a key which can be used to solve the problem 
of tectogenesis, a problem which cannot be separated from the rotation 
of the planet". The book goes on to say that "orogenesis is a result of the 
action of the oceanic tides upon the solid crust of the Earth, via their 
action upon the continents". 

It might be said at this point that we have been guilty of a direct contra- 
diction in our theory. In one place it was stated that dislocations and 
deformations of the Earth's crust result from the interaction of the 
terrestrial envelopes, whereas in another place these same deformations 
are ascribed to the effect of the oceans upon the continents. I shall try to 
show that no contradiction exists here, and that we have to do just with an 
approach toward a more specific definition of the concept during the course 
of its development. 



129 



The following must be kept in mind. The hydrosphere and lithosphere 
are arbitrarily considered to be two different envelopes of the Earth. In 
reality, however, taken together they constitute parts of a single envelope. 
The hydrosphere and lithosphere are completely indissoluble, since it is 
only together that they form the surface of a given level of the terrestrial 
ellipsoid. If we were to remove the water from this ellipsoid, the 
ellipsoid would cease to exist at the given level. Moreover, to remove the 
rock (that is, the lithosphere) instead of the water fthat is, the hydrosphere) 
is completely impossible. Obviously, here we are dealing essentially with 
parts of a single antipodal structure, and these parts are indivisible; 
between them an interaction is inevitable. Thus, in addition to what was 
expressed earlier on this subject, I should now add the following: the 
interaction of the hydrosphere and lithosphere within 
the limits of a given level of the ellipsoid is a deter- 
mining factor constituting a basis for the interaction 
relating all the envelopes. 

This can be illustrated roughly in the following way. The ellipsoid of 
the Earth is subdivided into the series of levels referred to above. The 
surface of the ionosphere forms one of the outermost levels. Below it, 
or deeper into the Earth, is the surface of the troposphere, and beneath 
the latter lies the combined surface of the hydrosphere and the lithosphere. 
Finally, the barysphere, the mantle, and the core lie even closer to the 
Earth's center. It must be taken into account that all these envelopes 
represent, as it were, levels of ellipsoids. The hydrosphere- lithosphere 
level, which was just discussed above, we assume to be the most important 
level and the one which most determines the interaction of the envelopes. 

Ocean currents have for a long time been explained as being a conse- 
quence of the winds which furrow the surface of the ocean. The currents 
follow the directions of the winds. In this case the contact between the 
troposphere and the hydrosphere produces currents. Exactly the same 
thing occurs at the contact boundaries of the other envelopes: lithosphere 
and barysphere, and barysphere and mantle. 

Other interactions exist between the hydrosphere and the lithosphere. 
Here there is a contact more intimate than just a contiguity of inner and 
outer surfaces. This contact, so it seems to us, extends into the depths 
of the Earth, gradually weakening from higher levels to lower ones, but 
even at great depths exerting an influence on the relation between the 
contacting envelopes. Consequently, the central element or link in the 
interaction of the envelopes is the action of the oceans on the continents, 
which determines the main features of the entire interaction (namely its 
direction and rate). Accordingly, the action of the oceans on the continents 
(the relationship between the two largest megastructures of the planet) is 
a central phenomenon which determines all the main aspects of the inter- 
action of the envelopes. In other words, the tide-producing processes 
must be counted as a basic manifestation of this interaction. 

In a report presented at the Geographical Society on 27 February 1961, 
T. D. Reznichenko made use of several examples to show very convincingly 
that during the warm phases of periods measured in millenia the estuary 
regions, and also the channels, of rivers flowing latitudinally become 
shifted toward the north. During periods of cold, on the other hand, the 
mouths and channels of such rivers shift to the south. 



130 



In relation to this, we should also keep in mind Gerenchuk's recent 
observation that "tectonic disturbances are the primary means for the 
natural discharge of ground water which ensures the constancy of runoffs 
required for river formation" (Gerenchuk, 1960, p. 172). 

As Gerenchuk has pointed out, rivers do not appear just anywhere. 
Rather, they always come into being in places where the structure of the 
land permits their creation. It is not possible to make a river out of any 
given gully, but only out of gullies which occupy definite places in 
ancient synclines. Large river systems are always associated with 
artesian basins and are in fact inseparable from them. This means that 
tectonic structures determine where river valleys will be located, and 
that the evolution of the valleys must be affected by the evolution of the 
structures enclosing them. As Davydov (1955), L'vovich (1938), and 
others have pointed out, ground water is a very important supply source 
for rivers. For example, on the Russian plain, ground water supplies on 
the average over 30% of the total amount of water fed into the rivers. There 
is some basis for assuming that a shifting of the channels takes place not 
only for the river and ground water of the alluvium but also for the actual 
ground water as well. 

Gerenchuk notes that "the presence of tectonic structures, as indicated 
by synclines, faults, upheavals, and folds, with a prevalence of jointing, 
is a necessary condition for the formation of river valleys" on the Russian 
Platform (p. 177). 

Structural disturbances, together with the outflows of ground water 
accompanying them, are a prerequisite for rearrangement of the river- 
system plan. In general, the tectonic forces which appear under the 
conditions of river erosion are the prime cause of the rearrangement of 
river systems. River valleys usually form along lines of tectonic 
disturbances (Gerenchuk, 1960). Consequently, it is quite likely that the 
shifting of these valleys to new places is also related to the appearance of 
such disturbances. 

On the basis of the foregoing we may state that, when during the course 
of the Earth's rotation the water of the oceans is shifted first in one 
direction and then in another, both latitudinally and longitudinally, analogous 
shiftings of the ground water and the water in rivers take place simultaneous- 
ly on the continents. Tectonic phenomena contributing to this change also 
appear. This is a cogent example of the unity and inseparability of the 
waters of our planet. 

Now let us consider the subject from the point of view of surface alluvial 
plains. In a series of works published between 1930 and 1933, I presented 
an analysis of this problem. I described two belts of alluvial plains in the 
Northern Hemisphere: one at the boundaries of the Old World, near the 
edge of the continental glaciation, ajid the other around the latitudinal 
mountain belt at the 35th parallel. The plain belt associated with the 
mountain glaciations coincides generally with the part of Asia in which are 
located the rivers described by T. D. Reznichenko as having shifted channels 
and estuaries. 

It was clear to me as early as the thirties that the formation of the 
alluvial plains in this belt was related to the rotation of the Earth. At that 
time I studied the Dnieper plain and certain other alluvial plains from the 
point of view of terrestrial rotation, and I related their genesis to von Baer's 
law. It appeared quite natural to me that, during the systematic shifting 



131 



of the channel toward the right, enormous floodplains must have remained 
to the left of the channel, which during the evolution of the river system 
turned into terraced plains (that is, floodplains with different levels). 

For some plains this is a valid explanation. However, according to von 
Baer, who worked out a complete formulation of his law during the course 
of some decades, there are actually two kinds of alluvial plains, which he 
called flussbetts and flusstals. The Dnieper Valley is a flusstal, and 
flusstals can be explained satisfactorily as shiftings to the right according 
to von Baer's law. Flussbetts, on the other hand, do not have a relation to von 
Baer's law. Most alluvial plains are of the flussbett type, and since they 
do not just develop to the right, but rather to both the left and the right of 
some basic position, there is reason to assume that they do not form ac- 
cordint to von Baer's law. Von Baer did not discuss this, nor did I discuss it in 
my articles either. Now, however, after the observations of Reznichenko, 
I have definitely concluded that plains of this type could not have developed 
accordingtovon Baer's law; they were also formed in relation to the rotation 
of the Earth, but by some other means. I advocate the above-mentioned 
idea of an "intermediate" tectonics which manifests itself in the north of the 
alluvial plains during warm periods and toward the south during cold 
periods. Tectonic phenomena of this type ensured an outflow for the water 
supplying rivers, sometimes from one side of the flussbett and sometimes 
from the other side, as is the case from the Pripet Polessie, and for the 
valleys of the Mississippi, the Hwang Ho, and the Amu Dar'ya. This is 
how I would explain the hydrology of channels of the flussbett type, since 
von Baer's law does not apply to them, although von Baer thought otherwise. 

The positions of ancient latitudinal alluvial flussbetts are determined by 
the three zones of epeirogenic regions first designated by myself in 1927 
and then definitely specified in 1934 (see the figure on p. 3 of Gerenchuk, 
1958, and also my chart of epeirogenic movements in the European part 
of the USSR in Lichkov, 1927 and 1934). On the other hand, Gerenchuk 
found fault with my scheme (see pp. 17-18 of his work), and he stated that 
my explanation of "the most recent tectonic movements" for the Russian 
plain was given without a sufficient tectonic basis. He opposed my scheme 
on the basis of the ideas expressed by Mirchink (1933, 1936), according to 
which it is not the zonality of the movements which have taken place during 
a given epoch that determines their distribution, but rather all of the 
previous tectonic history of these movements. 

However, it is not difficult to show that, in the western part of the 
territory shown on my chart (on the Volyn-Podol'sk plateau or the L'vov 
syncline), there is a large area where a new uplift has appeared, rather 
than something inherited from earlier periods, as in the other parts of 
the region. This uplift definitely verifies the indicated epeirogenic 
z6nality in just the form indicated by me, and it enables us to indicate the 
consecutive distribution of artesian basins in this region. In particular, 
the flusstals described by Reznichenko coincide territorially with the 
artesian basins around the mountains, as is evident from my 1958 article. 

The movements referred to here, it seems to me, were tectonic 
movements which appeared sometimes at the northern, and sometimes at 
the southern, edges of the artesian basins around the mountains. Such an 
interpretation gives the most accurate localization of these movements 
and assigns them a place in the pattern of symmetry of our planet. 



132 



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137 



T.D. Reznichenko and S.D. Reznichenko 

SOME REGULARITIES IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH 

I. GENERAL THEORETICAL CONSmERATIONS 

Two more or less "universal" factors are usually cited as being 
responsible for many phenomena and facts related to the evolution of the 
Earth during the course of geological history. These two factors are 
climatic changes and tectonic movements. However, no really satisfactory 
theory has as yet been worked out which enables us to understand these 
factors, the result being that the corresponding phenomena and facts are 
very often explained vaguely, unconvincingly, or simply falsely. 

In the present article we shall consider a third, very important, factor 
influencing the evolution of the Earth: the long- period fluctuations in the 
regime of its diurnal rotation. Essentially, the problem can be formulated 
as follows: the three factors (climate, diurnal- rotation regime, and 
tectonics) are mutually related and influence one another in a complex way. 
A variation in any one of these factors, whatever its cause may be, 
inevitably entails corresponding variations in each of the others, and many 
important characteristics of the Earth's evolution are determined by the 
interaction of these three main determining factors. 

How is this relation between climate, diurnal- rotation regime, and 
tectonics actually effected? What is the mechanism of the interaction 
between these three factors? Finally, how are these factors related to 
the many other factors affecting the evolution of the Earth? 

First of all, let us discuss briefly the climate of our planet. Theory, 
observation, and the results of various studies all show convincingly that 
the continual recurrence of warm and cold periods is a general character- 
istic of the Earth's evolution. This recurrence is apparently due to both 
terrestrial and extraterrestrial causes. An entire spectrum of cyclical 
fluctuations with smaller periods and amplitudes is superimposed onto the 
cyclical fluctuations whose periods and amplitudes are comparatively 
large. Observations also indicate that fluctuations in climate, long-term 
as well as short-term, have the same phase in both the Northern and 
Southern Hemispheres. 

From the point of view of philosophy, "it is impossible to assume that 
the climate does not change, since everything in nature evolves and 
passes from one qualitative state to another" (Kalesnik, 1957). The 
following factors all vary during the course of time: the amount of heat 
transferred from the interior of the Earth to its surface; the energy- 
radiating capacities of extraterrestrial bodies; the physical properties 
of the medium occupying the space between the Earth's surface and 



138 



energy- radiating extraterrestrial bodies; the albedo of the Earth; the 
general planetary shape of the Earth; and the vertical- horizontal ratio 
between water and dry land, which determines the nature of the hydro- 
atmospheric circulation. Consequently, the climate, which is affected by 
all these factors, must vary with time as well. The variations in some 
climatogenic factors (or even in all the factors taken together) may appear 
to be irreversible at the end of a quite long period of time, but within the 
period itself these variations will have the nature of fluctuations. 

As a direct result of the climatic changes, the water mass on the 
surface of the Earth undergoes periodic redistributions relative to the 
poles and the equator (that is, relative to the rotation axis). Thus, once 
a shoreline appeared (or, in other words, once the separation of the 
Earth's surface into dry land and water was completed), the presence of 
water in the solid state became possible. Accordingly, in many instances 
the natural conditions were such that snow, firn, and ice accumiulated (or 
melted) to some extent or other, mostly in the high latitudes (around the 
poles) but also in the low latitudes (around the equator). 

Such redistributions of the mass of the Earth alter the moment of 
inertia of the planet, and thus (since the product JW remains constant) its 
angular velocity as well. For example, if 3.2 cm of the ice cover of 
Antarctica melts during the summer, part of the water which is formed 
thereby will flow toward the equator. If this water were distributed 
uniformly over the surface of the sea, it would form a layer 0.12 cm thick. 
Such a small elevation of the water surface at the equator would naturally 
be difficult to observe directly, but even this minute change in the level 
of the sea would affect the velocity of rotation of the Earth. If this same 
change took place during 100 successive years, the rotation of the Earth 
would slow down by 18 seconds. A cold winter, on the other hand, causing 
accumulation of ice at the poles, has just the opposite effect: it makes 
the Earth rotate faster. 

Accordingly, we can inriagine the magnitude of the fluctuations in the 
rotational regime of the Earth caused in the past by redistributions of the 
water masses on the Earth's surface. For example, during the Quaternary 
period, at the time of maximum glaciation, the level of the World Ocean 
may have been more than 130 to 150 meters lower than it is at present. 
Thus the diurnal- rotation regime of the Earth is largely a function of the 
climate. 

The correctness of this conclusion is confirmed by certain factual 
data. Observations indicate that the secular accelerations of the average 
motions of the Siin and the Moon (and thus the secular changes in the 
rotational regime of the Earth) cannot be explained in terms of a single 
tidal mechanism. For the present epoch (the last 2000 to 2 500 years), for 
example, a secular acceleration of the Earth's rotation must be assumed 
in addition to the secular tidal slowing down which is known to have taken 
place. This acceleration component of the change in the diurnal rotation 
can be assumed to be climatic in origin. 

The following conclusions of Maksimov are noteworthy with respect to 
the relation between climate and the rotation of the Earth: ". . . the 
simultaneity of the changes in the rotational speed of the Earth which took 
place during the last centuries, on the one hand, and the changes in the 
main climatic characteristics of the polar regions, on the other, is an 



139 



indubitable and very interesting fact. For the Arctic Ocean, in particular, 
it is especially significant that the changes in the Earth's rotational 
velocity were simultaneous with large-scale variations in the overall 
iciness of the polar seas. This fact in itself deserves a detailed study" 
(Maksimov, 1960, p. 14). "A simple comparison of the long-term 
variations in the Earth's rotational velocity with the index of atmospheric 
circulation and the circulation of the ocean in the Northern Hemisphere 
shows a definite relation between large-scale climatic changes and 
variations in the rotational velocity. The following two relations are 
important with respect to marine phenomena: the correlation between 
variations in the rotational velocity of the Earth and changes in the 
overall iciness of the Arctic Ocean; and the correlation between variations 
in the rotational velocity and long-term changes in the height of mean sea 
level in the northern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans" (Maksimov, 
1960, p. 12). "The secular fluctuations (periods of 200 or 300 years) in 
the iciness of the northern part of the Atlantic, in the continental quality 
of the climate of western Europe, and in the mean sea- level height of the 
Caspian Sea, during the last three centuries, were in phase with the 
variations in the rotational velocity of the Earth" (Maksimov, 1954, p. 75). 

Now let us consider how tectonics depends on the diurnal- rotation 
regime. Any variation in the rotational velocity of the Earth will cause a 
regular change in the shape of the planet, so as to make it conform 
completely to the new rotational regime; as a result, gravitational 
equilibrium will be re-established. In other words, the world will 
pulsate along its diurnal- rotation axis, sometimes becoming more ellip- 
soidal and sometimes becoming less ellipsoidal. As a result of these 
transformations of the planetary figure, various tectonic phenomena are 
produced, which serve as a unique means of relieving the excess physico- 
mechanical stresses. These phenomena take place at the expense of the 
weakest crustal and subcrustal regions of the Earth*. 

The Earth's crust, and perhaps part of the mantle as well, has a non- 
uniform horizontal structure and consists of a great number of more or 
less rigid blocks which are joined together at comparatively weak regions 
[contacts]. Because of this, the localization and direction of dislocations 
will in general be determined by the dimensions, configurations, and 
strengths of the blocks, and also by the relative weakness of the regions 
of the Earth's crust located at the contacts between the blocks. 

When the rotation of the Earth slows down, the shape of the planet 
becomes less ellipsoidal, because the centrifugal forces are smaller. 
Since for a body of given volume the sphere has the least surface area, 
the Earth will then appear to be in a contraction phase. Areas of the 
crustal layer will become redistributed, and there will be an efflux of 
subcrustal material from the equatorial bulge of the Earth toward the 
polar regions. Tectonic movements characteristic of a contracting 
surface of the Earth will take place in the crust, the movements being 
attenuated gradually with depth. 

When the diurnal rotation of the Earth is accelerated, on the other 
hand, the increase in the centrifugal forces makes the planet more 

* During the present "quiet" geologic epoch, more than 100,000 earthquakes take place in the world each 
year, and about 100 of these can be considered large. 



140 



elliptical in shape. At this time the Earth appears to be in a phase of 
expansion, and material is transferred from high latitudes to low latitudes. 
Tectonic movements characteristic of an expanding planetary surface then 
take place in the Earth's crust*. During the expansion stage the area of 
the crust will increase, as a result of the outpouring of subcrustal material 
into faults and cracks which have been formed. It may be that these newly 
appearing parts of the Earth's crust subsequently become stronger than 
some of the "old" parts. 

If this is indeed the case, then it implies the following interesting 
regularity in the evolution of the Earth's crust: as time goes by, the crust 
is apparently renewed during the expansion stages, as a result of the 
appearance of "new" regions, which later become the ocean floor. During 
the contraction stages, on the other hand, the crust becomes thicker 
because of the "old" regions. Could this not have been the means by which 
the Earth's surface became differentiated into continents and ocean basins? 

In general, the fluctuating inertial-gravitational forces which cause the 
world to pulsate along its diurnal- rotation axis give rise to mainly horizon- 
tal tectonic stresses. However, it must be remembered that climatic 
changes and oscillations of the Earth's angular velocity also produce forces 
which give rise to tectonic movements which are mainly vertical. These 
forces are isostatic in nature, and they appear as a result of the redistri- 
bution of the water masses on the Earth's surface in the meridional 
direction (the appearance or disappearance of solid-phase water, and 
shifting of the hydrosphere under the influence of the centrifugal diurnal- 
rotation forces). Consequently, the general planetary hypsometric curve 
varies with time, since the relative elevations of the ocean floor and the 
continents vary periodically, being different in different regions. 

Thus, geotectonic movements are mainly the results of two phenomena 
involving the entire planet: the axial pulsation of the world caused by 
variations in its angular velocity; and the isostatic equalization associated 
with an increase or decrease in the water stress on different segments of 
the Earth's surface. 

The various tectonic movements will result in a rearrangement of the 
structure of the Earth, a transformation of its surface topography, and a 
consequent variation in the vertical- horizontal ratios between water and 
dry land. In addition (and this should be emphasized), the ratio between 
water and dry land will not only be determined by the dislocation move- 
ments but also by the shift of the hydrosphere relative to the lithosphere, 
resulting from variations in the centrifugal diurnal- rotation forces. Thus, 
this ratio is determined directly by the tectonics, and also by the diurnal- 
rotation regime. However, the variations in the vertical- horizon- 
tal ratio between dry land and water are still the main factor leading to a 
planet- wide rearrangement of the hydroatmospheric circulation, and thus 
giving rise to new climatic conditions. 

On the basis of all the foregoing, we can draw the following conclusion: 
a definite cause- effect relationship exists between the three main factors 
influencing the evolution of the Earth (climate, diurnal- rotation regime, 
and tectonics). Periodic redistributions of the water mass relative to the 
diurnal- rotation axis (as a result of hydroatmospheric processes driven 
by the solar thermal energy) are the chief cause of the relation- interaction 
between these factors. The main elements of the mechanism responsible 

• Of course, variations in the Earth's rotational regime are not the only cause of tectonic movements. 

141 



for redistribution of the water mass on the Earth's surface are: the 
ellipsoidal shape of the Earth (the curvature of its surface); the presence 
of an atmosphere; the arrival of thermal energy from the Sun; and the 
presence of cold in interplanetary space. This mechanism can be 
represented as a kind of heat engine, with a planetary boiler in the low 
latitudes and a refrigerator in the high latitudes. 

Let us denote the cause- effect relationship between climate, diurnal- 
rotation regime, and tectonics as the first-order regularity in 
the evolution of our planet. 

The three envelopes of the Earth (atmosphere, hydrosphere, and 
lithosphere) will obviously react in different ways to changes in the rota- 
tional reginne of the Earth. The hydrosphere, which is more mobile, will 
assume its new shape quickly. The lithosphere, on the other hand, will 
change shape only after some lag period, as determined by the physico- 
mechanical properties which govern the relaxation time. The atmosphere, 
whose rotational regime is also modified fby friction), changes shape as 
well, but not at the same time as the hydrosphere and the lithosphere. 
Thus, by virtue of the differences in the physicomechanical properties of 
the geospheres, the figure of the Earth will at any given moment have a 
kind of triple nature, as a result of fluctuations in the length of the 
terrestrial day. 

The degrees of flattening of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmos- 
phere corresponding to their new rotational regimes will not be the same. 
The oblatenesses of all three geospheres would be identical only if the 
rotational velocity of the Earth remained constant for a quite long period. 
With respect to the dynamics of the Earth, this means that any fluctuation 
in the diurnal velocity gives rise to a corresponding "triple pulsation" in 
the shape of the planet along its rotation axis. The theoretical considera- 
tions presented above, and also observational data, indicate that the length 
of the day varies. Consequently, there is no reason to doubt the existence 
of out-of-phase pulsations of the geospheres along the axis of diurnal 
rotation. Obviously, these pulsations are effected as a result of the 
arrival at the Earth of solar thermal energy. 

Let us denote this out-of-phase pulsation of the geospheres (lithosphere, 
hydrosphere, and atmosphere) along their diurnal- rotation axis as the 
second-order regularity in the evolution of the Earth. 

". . . the water of the Earth constitutes a single entity, all parts of which 
are inseparable from one another in nature, because of the close relation 
between them. . . It is just because water possesses such special properties 
(unusual mobility, enormous molecular and gravitational forces) that it may 
be thought of as a single entity. This characteristic has determined the 
exceptional role of water in the history of our planet and also determines 
its role at present, a role which is (and was in the past) a very active one" 
(Lichkov, 1959, pp. 107-108). 

In accordance with this, the hydrosphere may be assumed to react to 
variations in the rotational regime of the Earth as a single entity. 
Fluctuations in the length of the day cause the hydrosphere to shift relative 
to the lithosphere, sometimes equatorward and sometimes poleward, and 
the coastline will everywhere be changed correspondingly. 

Let us imagine that the rectilinear coast of a continent lies exactly 
parallel to one of the meridians, from the equator to the pole, and that 



142 



tide gauges are placed uniformly along the entire coast. Let us also 
assume that the degree of flattening of the lithosphere remains constant 
even though there is a change in the length of the day. Then, if the angular 
velocity of the Earth increases, the tide gauges will show, beginning at 
some specific latitude, a regular lowering of sea level toward the pole and 
a corresponding elevation of sea level in the direction of the equator. If 
the diurnal rotation of the Earth slows down, on the other hand, the tide- 
gauge readings will be just the opposite, so that any variations in the 
rotational regime of the planet will be clearly indicated. Next let us 
assume that the land extends in a rather narrow, long strip along one of 
the parallels in the middle latitudes. In this case, an increase in the 
rotational velocity of the Earth will bring about an ingression of the sea 
along the north coast, since a water "overflow" will occur as a result of 
the increased centrifugal forces (for example, along the north coast of 
the Soviet Union, along the Mediterranean coast of Africa, etc.). For a 
slowing down of the diurnal rotation, on the other hand, this effect will 
be observed at the south coast, due to the decrease in the centrifugal 
forces (for example, along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, along the north 
coast of the Mediterranean, etc.). The sea- level variations occasioned 
by the "overflow" of the water will be a minimum (zero) at the pole and 
the equator and a maximum in the middle latitudes. 

Existing hypotheses give different explanations for the fluctuations in 
the levels of the oceans and seas (that is, for the changes in the mutual 
positions of the land and the water areas), but they do not offer any definitive 
answer to this complex question. In oceanography the observation system 
is set up in such a way that the instruments are based on immobile seg- 
ments of the Earth's crust, and the level of the sea is taken as the moving 
object. In geology, on the other hand, sea level is taken as the constant 
element, and displacenaents of the Earth's crust are observed relative to 
it by means of a system of depth gauges. Since neither of these two 
observation systems is actually at rest, a solution can be found only by 
means of combined methods. To do this, in addition to the factors which 
are known to influence the sea level (such as tectonic phenomena, tides, 
winds, atmospheric pressure, temperature, precipitation, erosion, river 
runoff, etc.), certain other no less significant factors must be taken into 
account (for instance, the shifting of the hydrosphere relative to the 
lithosphere and the "overflow" of water as a result of changes in the 
magnitude of the Earth's centrifugal forces). All these factors can 
operate in different directions, and we are only able to observe their 
resultant effect. 

The effect which fluctuations in the rotational regime have on the 
shifting of the coastline must be universal and must extend over the entire 
surface of the spheroid. Other effects, on the contrary, are usually 
localized within definite regions or else are minor. In addition, the 
division of the Earth's surface into regions of regression and transgression 
of the oceans must manifest itself as a preponderance of either inward or 
outward shifts of the coast in different latitudes of the spheroid. In spite 
of this, so far it has not been possible to draw any important conclusions 
concerning the rotational regime of the Earth just on the basis of coastline 
shifts; there are too many masking factors which influence these shifts. 

There is one hydrospheric phenomenon, however, which clearly and 
unambiguously indicates the existence of long-period variations in the 



143 



length of the day; this is the planet-wide rearrangement of the drainage 
system. 

The rotational forces which affect the entire hydrosphere as a whole 
(and shift it relative to the lithosphere) will naturally have a corresponding 
effect on parts of the hydrosphere considered separately (for instance, on 
the ground water and surface water of the continents). Thus, the whole 
hydrographic system of the Earth must periodically undergo a more or 
less thorough rearrangement. Such a rearrangement will naturally take 
place under the influence of other factors as well, for example, as a 
result of tectonic movements, fluctuations of the base level, filling 
in of individual parts of channels and basins with river sediment, 
human intervention, etc. However, there is an important fundamental 
difference between the effects of all these other factors and the effect of 
the rotational forces. The rearrangement of the drainage system caused 
by variations in the rotational regime of the Earth takes place regularly 
and on a world-wide scale, its intensity being the greatest in the middle 
latitudes. The effects of the various other factors, on the other hand, 
are neither regular nor universal. 

When the Earth's rotation on its axis slows down, the whole hydrosphere 
(oceans and seas, lakes and rivers, ground and surface water) has a 
tendency to shift toward the poles, due to the decrease in the centrifugal 
forces. The water divides of all basins are shifted in the direction of the 
equator, and the poleward liquid and solid runoff increases. For all 
rivers the erosion of the northern banks will increase in the Northern 
Hemisphere and that of the southern banks will increase in the Southern 
Hemisphere. In individual parts of rivers, especially in their lower 
reaches, there is an increased tendency toward breaking through the banks, 
leading to changes in the direction of the flow, and consequently to Shifts 
(generally poleward) in the locations of the deltas and mouths. As a result, 
the so-called "wandering" rivers and lakes are formed. 

For rivers flowing toward the equator, the following takes place: the 
stream velocity is reduced; the accumulation of sediments and the filling 
in of river valleys with them increases; the bed becomes more sinuous 
and unsteady; the mouth becomes more branched, with shallows; and the 
rate of advance of the delta into the standing- water body decreases. 
Consequently, rivers of this type will appear to be senile. 

Rivers flowing poleward, however, will cut their way into the bed more 
strongly, making it deeper and cutting out stream terraces; the stream 
velocity will increase; the bed will become more rectilinear and more 
stable; and the rate of advance of the delta will increase. Rivers of this 
type will in general appear to be in a state of rejuvenation. When the 
diurnal rotation of the Earth speeds up, on the other hand, the centrifugal 
forces become greater and all the aging phenomena described previously 
will be observed for these rivers. 

Let us now illustrate how a change in the direction of a river takes 
place, and how river mouths and deltas become modified. We shall also 
indicate how in some cases bodies of standing water disappear and are replaced 
by new ones. Consider a river flowing in a latitudinal direction. In the 
plain portion of its lower reaches the river divides into two branches, one 
northern and one southern. When the diurnal- rotation velocity of the 
Earth increases, the "base supply" of the river (the ground water of the 
alluvial valley-depression through which the river flows) becomes shifted 



144 



toward the equator. Consequently, the water table in the part of the 
valley through which the northern branch flows is lowered. The discharge 
of water and the stream velocity are reduced, as a result of the increase 
in infiltration losses; thus there is a progressive increase in sediment 
accumulation along the river. Drainage to a body of standing water becomes 
more difficult, and the branch enters into a stage of natural drying up. This 
cannot but have a direct effect on the regime (and on the general fate) of the 
body of water into which the river discharges, especially if it is landlocked. 

Depending on the role played in the overall water balance of the 
water body by the water influx in the given branch (river), the level of this 
body will either be reduced accordingly and the water will become 
brackish, or else it will dry up completely, leaving a salt depression. The 
water table in the part of the valley through which the southern branch 
flows, on the other hand, will be raised, since the infiltration losses there 
will be diminished. Accordingly, the amount of water and the stream 
velocity in this branch will increase, and downcutting of the channel bed will 
begin. Thus, the direction of the river will have a tendency to shift toward 
the equator. Obviously, if the diurnal rotation of the Earth slows down, 
the northern and southern branches of the river will exchange roles, and 
the direction of the river will be shifted poleward. 

At this point we should note the following. Fluctuations in the amount 
of solid suspended matter carried out by the continental water in the 
directions of the pole and the equator are caused by the irregularity of the 
Earth's rotation. However, just as in the case of the shifting of water 
masses in these directions, there will be a reverse effect on the diurnal- 
rotation velocity as well. Thus, when the rotation slows down, the pole- 
ward transfer of masses of sedimentary rock will increase, causing a 
decrease in the moment of inertia and a corresponding rise in the diurnal- 
rotation velocity. An increase in the diurnal velocity, on the other hand, 
leads to a greater transfer of sedimentary masses toward the equator; 
thus, the moment of inertia increases and the velocity is reduced 
accordingly. The effect (on the diurnal- rotation velocity) of a fluctuation 
in the amount of sedimentary rock transported meridionally by the 
continental water, as a result of irregularity of the diurnal rotation, can 
thus be summed up as follows: it is as if a gigantic inertial flywheel were 
operating, which tends to reduce the angular velocity of the Earth when it 
increases and to accelerate the rotation when it slows down. 

Inconstancy of the magnitude of the centrifugal diurnal- rotation forces 
is one of the main factors responsible for the formation of vast alluvial 
plains on the Earth's surface. During epochs in which the climate is 
cooler, the angular velocity of the Earth increases as a result of the 
formation, predominantly in the high latitudes, of ice; consequently, 
during these epochs the directions of surface-water flows have a tendency 
to shift toward the equator. The southern parts of plains will become 
wetter, and depressions in them will be filled in more intensively with 
solid deposits than is the case for the northern parts. During these 
periods aeolian processes develop extensively in the northern parts of 
plains, particularly under arid conditions. 

During epochs of warmer climate, the diurnal- rotation velocity 
decreases as a result of the transformation of ice into liquid water and 
the transference of much of the water to the low latitudes. The processes 



145 



taking place in the southern and northern parts of plains will then be the 
opposite of those described above. Consequently, the centrifugal forces 
of the Earth, which vary periodically in magnitude, alter the directions of 
the water flows, shifting them from the southern parts of plains to the 
northern parts and vice versa. Operating in conjunction with wind forces, 
they level off plains and make them more or less horizontal, producing 
the corresponding microrelief. 

Periodic rearrangements of the drainage system on a planet- wide scale 
are thus caused by axial pulsations of the entire hydrosphere relative to 
the lithosphere, as a result of variations in the rotational regime of the 
Earth. Let us call these rearrangements the third-order regula- 
rity in the evolution of the Earth.* 

In addition to the three main factors (climate, diurnal- rotation regime, 
and tectonics), there are many other things which affect the evolution of 
the Earth, and they may be either terrestrial or extraterrestrial in origin. 
Table 1 shows the general scheme of the interactions between the main 
factors. The large circle in the middle (1), with the three smaller circles 
(2, 3, and 4) around it, represents the first-order regularity in the 
evolution of the Earth (the relation- interaction between the three main 
factors: climate, diurnal- rotation regime, and tectonics). The three 
main factors interact in such a way that any change in one of the factors, 
no matter what its cause (see squares 5, 6, 7, and 8), must give rise to 
corresponding changes in each of the others. 

The interaction between the three main factors is effected by means of 
periodic redistributions of the water masses on the Earth's surface, the 
ultimate cause of the interaction being the thermal energy of the Sun (see 
square 9). Periodic variations in the diurnal- rotation regime of the Earth 
give rise to out- of- phase pulsations of the geospheres (atmosphere, 
hydrosphere, and lithosphere). We have called this "triple pulsation" of 
the geospheres the second- order regularity in the evolution of the Earth 
(see circle 10). The out-of-phase pulsation of the hydrosphere and lithos- 
phere leads to periodic rearrangements of the drainage system on a planet- 
wide scale, a phenomenon which we have designated as the third- order 
regularity in the evolution of the Earth (see circle 11). Local factors may 
also influence the rearrangement of the drainage system (see square 12). 



n. SOME PHYSICOGEOGRAPHIC FACTS 

Our third- order regularity in the evolution of the Earth was formulated 
on a purely theoretical basis. Does the long-term development of the 
Earth's drainage system really obey this regularity? In order to answer 

* The inertial force is perpendicular to the axis of the Earth. The magnitude of this force is given by the 
formula: f=mw^H cos f , where m is the mass of the body, w is the angular velocity of diurnal rotation, 
R is the radius of the Earth, and f is the geographic latitude of the body. 

The force f can be divided into two components: fi=mw^R cos y , directed vertically outward and 
changing the gravitational force in magnitude only: and f2=Jnw^R cos y , sin <j) , directed horizontally and 
changing the force of gravity in direction only. 

Clearly, variations in the horizontal component of the inertial force will also affect the rearrangement of 
the drainage system. Actually, this force and its variations are relatively small, but if it acts in the same 
direction for a long time it may bring about channel processes and other hydrological processes involving 
progressive changes, which can have considerable effects on the rearrangement of the drainage system. 



146 



Terrestrial and 
extraterrestrial 
factors influen- 
cing climate 



Solar thermal energy, 

causing interaction 

between the three 

factors 



Local heating, physi- 
cochemical transfor- 
mations, and other 
intraterrestrial causes 
of tectonic phenomena 



Tectonic processes, 
silting up, human ac- 
tivity, and other phe- 
nomena directly caus- 
ing rearrangement of 
the drainage system 



_ 




TABLE 1. The interrelation between the main factors influencing the evolution of the Earth. 



this question, let us consider what different authors have said about the 
evolutionary history of certain rivers and water bodies during the last 
4500 years or so. For the time being let us look only at this time interval, 
for the following reasons; first, this is a long enough time to verify the 
correctness of the corresponding generalizations; second, we have a more 
or less reliable history of climatic fluctuations for this period. 

"A direct analysis of numerous physicogeographic phenomena has made 
it possible to establish the absolute chronology of the last three periods 
of changing wetness of the continents of the Northern Hemisphere ... It 
turns out that the period of greatest wetness of the territories and 
worsening of the climatic conditions (according to the 1850-year cycle) is 
followed, after a lag of about 100 years, by a phase of general advance- 
ment of mountain glaciers, in the wake of their previous general large- 
scale retreat" (Shnitnikov, 1953). Moreover, studies in Antarctica have 
shown that during the present period of warm climate the Antarctic glacial 
cover is retreating synchronously with the retreat of the great majority of 
glaciers in the world. Apparently, during other epochs as well, climatic 
warming and cooling took place simultaneously in the two hemispheres. 

During the last 4500 years three periods of quite cool climate alternated 
with three periods of quite warm climate: 

the first cool period had a maximum at about the middle of the 
third millenium B.C. (end of Neolithic and beginning of Eneolithic), and 
corresponded to mountain glaciation in the Daunian stage; 

the second cool period had a maximum about the middle of 
the first millenium B.C. (antiquity), and corresponded to mountain 
glaciation in the Egesen stage; 

the third cool period had a maximum about the middle of the 
present millenium (the late Middle Ages), and corresponded to mountain 
glaciation in the Fernau stage; 

the first warm period had a maximum about the middle of the 
second millenium B.C. (Bronze Age), and corresponded to a subboreal- 
xerothermic period of optimum climate; 

the second warm period had a maximum at the beginning of the 
second half of the first millenium A.D. (the early Middle Ages), and 
corresponded to a minor climatic optimum (as this period is called by 
certain authors); 

the third warm period is now in progress, and the maximum 
has apparently not yet occurred. 

It was pointed out above that the water mass of the Earth becomes 
redistributed (to some degree) relative to the polar and equatorial regions, 
as a result of climatic fluctuation. The vertical- horizontal ratio between 
dry land and water in the present geologic epoch is such that an increase 
in the water mass takes place during periods of climatic cooling, because 
of the solid water formed, predominantly in high- latitude continental 
areas; this leads to an increase in the diurnal velocity of the Earth. 
Climatic warming, on the other hand, will result in an increased mass of 
water in the low latitudes (since solid water is converted into liquid water), 
and the rotational velocity of the Earth will decrease. 

Thus, to sum up, during the cold periods of the last 4500 years 
(maximum cooling took place about half way through the third and first 
millenia B. C. and the second millenium A. D. ), the diurnal- rotation 
velocity of the Earth was relatively high. During the warm periods. 



148 



I ■■ II II 



accordingly (maximum warming took place at about the middle of the 
second millenium B. C. and at the beginning of the second half of the first 
millenium A. D. ), this velocity was relatively low. The maximum warming 
of the present warm period has apparently not yet been attained. If the 
1850-year period of climatic fluctuations established by Shnitnikov actually 
exists (that is, if the periodic time intervals are equal), then this maximum 
should occur around the middle of the third millenium A. D. , closer to the 
beginning of the millenium. Consequently, until approximately this time, 
the general, spasmodic, progressive slowing down of the Earth's diurnal 
rotation should continue. 

Factual data on the evolutionary histories of ntimerous rivers and 
water bodies show convincingly that during the last 4500 years the drainage 
system of the Earth has gone through stages of more or less considerable 
rearrangement. These rearrangements took place simultaneously with 
the fluctuations in climate, and thus simultaneously with the fluctuations 
in the diurnal- rotation regime of the Earth. With the onset of a period of 
climatic cooling, the rotational velocity of the Earth began to increase, 
and due to the greater centrifugal forces the drainage system became 
rearranged in conjunction with the general equatorward shift of all the water. 
This sort of rearrangement of the drainage system took place during each 
of the three cold periods. With the onset of a period of climatic warming, 
the diurnal velocity of the Earth began to decrease, and by virtue of the 
diminished centrifugal forces the drainage system was rearranged in 
conjunction with the general shift of water toward the poles. This sort of 
rearrangement of the drainage system took place during each of the three 
warm periods (present period included). 

In our choice of the rivers and water bodies to be studied, we were 
guided by certain considerations. First of all, the chronological evolutionary 
histories of the latter had to be specified somehow or other, by 
means of data for as long a period as possible. Second, the rivers and 
water bodies had to be located in the middle latitudes, where the effect of 
the centrifugal forces is a maximum and where the effect of glaciological 
loading and unloading is in practice very small. Third, the rivers 
selected had to flow latitudinally, since in this case their migration shows 
up the most clearly. 

Of all the objects studied by us, the following best satisfied the 
above conditions: the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, and the Hwang Ho, 
Amu Dar'ya, Syr Dar'ya, Kura, Kuban', and Don rivers. The effect on 
the rearrangement of the drainage system of such well-known factors as 
the quantity and rate of moisture arrival at the surface of the land, the 
conditions of runoff of this water, the resistance of the land surface, 
tectonic movements, human intervention, etc. will not be considered at 
all here. The effects of all these factors will be superimposed onto the 
periodic rearrangements of the drainage system established by us, but 
they will not change the general trend of the rearrangements. 

Some data on the level fluctuations in individual water bodies and the 
migrations of certain rivers in their lower reaches are given in Table 2. 
These variations are compared in the table with the climiatic changes 
(and thus with the fluctuations in the diurnal rotation of the Earth) during 
the last 4500 years. The water-level variations and river migrations 
are compared with a combined graph showing the wetness in the Northern 
Hemisphere (according to Shnitnikov) and the fluctuations in the level of 



149 



2400 2200 20001800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 . ^^ 
B.C. •« — ,. — 1^11 — n- 1 1 ' » ■ 1 ■'^- ■ < II -<i "^ I ■. ,,. . . ^. - |i -.1 ■^i-.-.i-.^ ■ , - . ■■ l y ^ , I ■ I I ■ I ^ A, D. 



=1889 



First cold period 

Maximum cooling 
about middle of 
III milleniumB.C. 
Corresponds to 
mountain glacia- 
tion in Daunian 
stage. Day short- 
ened. 

Rivers which de- 
viated equatorward: 
counterclockwise: 
Amu Dar'ya. 

Reservoirs with 
lower levels; 
Azov— BlackSea 
Basin. 

Reservoirs with 
higher levels: 
Caspian Sea 




Fiist waim peiiod 
Maximum warming 
in second half of 11 
milleniumB.C. 
Corresponds to cli- 
matic optimum 
(subboreal period). 
Day lower levels; 

Rivers which de- 
viated poleward; 
clockwise: Zerav- 
shan, Amu Dar'ya, 
Atrek, counter- 
clockwise: Hwang 
Ho. 

Reservoirs with 
higher levels: 
Azov— Black Sea 
Basin 

Reservoirs with 
lower levels: 
Caspian Sea 



Second cold peiiod 
Maximum cooling 
about middle of I 
millenium B.C. 
Corresponds to moun- 
tain glaciation In 
Egesen stage. Day 
shortened. 

Rivers which de- 
viated equatorward: 
counterclockwise: 
Zeravshan, Syr Dar'ya, 
Amu Dar'ya, Atrek, 
Kuban', Don, clock- 
wise; Hwang Ho. 

Reservoirs with lower 
levels: Northern Lop 
Nor, Azov— BlackSea 
Basin, northern part of 
Mediterranean. 

Reservoirs with higher 
levels: Southern Lop 
Nor, Caspian Sea 



Second warm period 
Maximum warming at 
beginning of second half 
of I millenium A. D. 
Corresponds to minor 
climatic optimum. Day 
lengthened. 

Rivers which deviated 
poleward: clockwise: 
Zeravshan, Syr Dar'ya, 
Amu Dar'ya, Atrek, 
Kuban', Don; counter- 
clockwise; Hwang Ho. 

Reservoirs with higher 



Third cold period 
Maximum cooling about middle 
of II millenium A. D, Corresponds 
to mountain glaciation in Fernau 
stage. Day shortened. 

Rivers which deviated equator- 
ward; counterclockwise: Halhain 
Gol, Manass, Hi, Nura, Indus, 



Third warm period 

Maximum warming probably somewhere in 
first half of III millenium A.D. Corresponds 
in its beginning to present warming up. 
Day lengthened. 

Rivets which deviated poleward; clock:- 
wise: Halhain Gol, Manhass, Hi, Nura, 
Indus, Zeravshan, Syr Dar'ya, Amu Dar'ya, 
Zeravshan, Syr Dar'ya, Amu Dar'ya, Rioni; Kuban', Don, Neman; ccunterclock- 
Rioni, Kuban', Don, Neman, clock- wise: Hwang Ho, Edsin Gol, Tarim, 
wise; Hwang Ho, Edsin Gol, Tarim, Konche Dar'ya, Khaldik Gol, Kura, 
Konche Dar'ya, Khaidik Gol, Kura, Dniester, Danube. 
Dniester, Danube. Reservoirs with higher levels; north- 

Reservoirs with lower levels: eastern part of Lake Baikal, Northern Lop 

levels: Northern Lop Not, northeastern part of lake Baikal, Nor, Baghrash Kol, Ikhe Khak, northeastern 

Azov- BlackSeaBasin, Northern Lop Nor, Baghrash Kol, part of Lake Balkash, Aral Sea, Azov-Black 

Ikhe Khak, northeastern part of Lake Sea Basin, northern part of Mediterranean. 

Reservoirs with lower levels: southern 
Lop Nor, Ayran Kol, southwestern part of 
Lake Balkhash, Lakes Tengiz and 
Kurgal'dzhin, Caspian Sea 



northern part of Medi- 
terranean. 

Reservoirs with lower 
levels: Southern Lop 
Nor, Caspian Sea 



Balkhash, Azov- Black Sea Basin, 

northern part of Mediterranean. 
Reservoirs with higher levels; 

Southern Lop Nor, Ayran Kol, 

southwestern part of Lake Balkhash, 

Lakes Tengiz and Kurgal'dzhin, 

Caspian Sea 
Table 2. Synchronicity of the millenial climatic fluctuations (and thus of the millenial fluctuations in the Earth's diurnal-rotation velocity) and the periodic rearrange- 
ments of the drainage system during the last 4500 years. Combined graph from Tsekhanskii, 1959: solid curve shows wetness fluctuations in Northern Hemisphere 
(according to Shnitnikov); dashed curve shows fluctuations in level of Caspian Sea (according to ApoUov); fine line with dots at end shows flucKiations in diurnal- rotation 
velocity (constructed schematically from observational data beginning with 1640). 



the Caspian (according to Apollov). The combined graph was taken from 
Tsekhanskii, 1959, p. 199. The probable climatically induced fluctuations 
in the Earth's angular velocity are also shown on the graph. Finally, by 
means of a very schematic curve for the variations in the rotational 
regime of the Earth, we have endeavored to represent the observational 
data for the last 300 years (Martynov, 1961). 

Unfortunately, the size of the present article does not permit a complete, 
detailed presentation of the results of our studies concerning the histories 
of rivers and water bodies (see table). Therefore, we shall limit ourselves 
to a few general observations about each object, and in certain cases 
we shall present extracts and diagrams taken from the works of other 
authors, together with an indication of the main references on the subject. 
For the sake of brevity, it will not be repeated in each instance that the long- 
period fluctuations in the diurnal- rotation regime, caused by the correspond- 
ing climatic changes, are the direct cause of the river migration and the 
variations in water level. It will simply be stated that the latter 
variations are the result of the change in climate (the onset of a warm or 
cold period). The rivers and water bodies will be considered successively, 
beginning with those in the east and passing to those in the west. 

The Hwang Ho. The periodic migration of the Hwang Ho is depicted 
graphically in Figure 1. During each of the three warm periods, including 
the present one, the river deviated toward its left (poleward), passing to 
the north of the Shantung Peninsula and discharging into the Po Hai Gulf. 
In the first warm period (Bronze Age) the river turned almost due north at 
its outflow from the mountains. It then picked up the Peh Ho and Lwan Ho 
tributaries, flowed to the northern part of the Great China Plain, east of 
Peking, and discharged into the Liaotung Gulf at 39°30'N. This course of 
the river was the closest to a north- meridional one, if we take into account 
the conditions in the locality through which the channel passed at this time. 
It should be noted that from that time up to the present the course of the 
river did not ever become as meridional as this again. 

Interestingly enough, during this same warm period, the Amu Dar'ya, 
which is located at almost the other end of Asia, also attained its maximum 
poleward deviation (in this case the shift was to the right), the course of 
the river then being the most north- meridional. At this time the Amu 
Dar'ya waters flowed along the Akcha Dar'ya branch and discharged into 
the southeastern part of the Aral Sea. This similarity in the behavior of 
the two rivers is apparently not fortuitous, since it is in complete 
agreement with several other facts verifying that in the Bronze Age the 
climate was very warm, and thus that the Earth's angular velocity at that 
time was the lowest during the last 4500 years. 

The Hwang Ho deviated to the right (equatorward) during both of the last 
two cold periods, and it flowed to the south of the Shantung heights until it 
emptied into the Yellow Sea. Thus, this river periodically shifted its 
mouth from south to north and vice versa, over a region more than 600 km 
in length. 

The Halhain Gol. In its lower reaches this river flows northwest and 
discharges into Lake Buyr Niir, which is joined by the Orchun Gol (Orshun') 
River to Lake Dalai Nor, situated somewhat to the north. The latter lake 
in turn is connected via the Mutnaya channel to the Argun' River. In 
general, this entire system has a northward discharge (Figure 2). 



!51 




FIGURE 1. Shifts of the Hwang Ho. 



152 



Previously, during the third cold period, the Halhain Go! deviated toward 
the left (equatorward), and flowed entirely into the Buyr Nur, while its 
excess water flowed along the Orchun Gol to Dalai Nor. With the onset of 

the present warm period, the 
river began to deviate to the right 
(poleward); as a consequence, the 
Sharogolchin branch was formed, 
connecting the Halhain Gol 
directly to the Orchun Gol. A 
considerable part of the Halhain 
Gol then began to flow into Dalai 
Nor, bypassing Buyr Niir, and the 
level of the latter was sharply 
reduced. 

"If as time goes by the new 
Sharogolchin channel becomes 
scoured out, so that its bed is 
deeper and its section is greater, 
the Halhain Gol may flow directly 
into the Orshun', bypassing Buyr 
Nur completely. The latter will 
then dry up and disappear, and its 
flat basin will become covered 
with vegetation (it will become a 
steppe). . . The Orshun' will 
become the lower reaches of 
the Halhain Gol, and the two 
rivers will combine into one. 
Thus, in front of our very 
eyes, lakes and rivers are 
changing, and neither millions nor thousands of years are necessary 
for it" (Murzaev, 1954, p. 288). 

Lake Baikal. Data are available which confirm that the banks of the 
entire northeastern shore of Lake Baikal are sinking. According to the 
theory developed in this article, however, a raising of the water level is 
taking place in the northeastern part of the lake, rather than a sinking of 
the banks. The level is rising as a result of the poleward shifting of the 
lake accompanying the decrease in the Earth's centrifugal forces 
occasioned by the present warming up of the climate. Consequently, it 
follows that the level of the lake in this region was lower during the 
previous cold period, and that the lake shifted southward under the effect 
of the increased centrifugal forces which existed at that time. The dis- 
charge from Baikal now takes place in the southern part of the lake. Thus 
we can assume that the volume of water in the lake during cold periods 
was less than during warm periods (and that the discharge via the Angara 
was correspondingly greater or less during these periods). 

The Rivers of the Tien Shan. During the present climatic period the 
channel and delta processes of rivers in the northern and southern Tien 
Shan Mountains differ greatly from one another. The rivers flowing 
down the northern slope appear to be in a stage of rejuvenation; they are 
cutting into their beds and forming deltas which are relatively far away 




FIGURE 2. Shifts of the Halhain Gol. 



153 



from the foothills. Rivers on the southern slope, on the other hand, 
appear to be in a senile stage; their channels are filling up with debris 
and their deltas are forming close to the foothills. "The indicated 
differences determine the fundamental, and practically very real, contrast 
between the structure and regime of the debris cones of the northern and 
southern slopes of the Tien Shan. The rivers of the northern slope have 
a more regulated natural regime of discharge ..." (Kunin, 1960, pp. 142- 
143). This phenomenon can be explained as a consequence of the decrease 
in the diurnal- rotation velocity of the Earth during the present warm 
period. 

The Edsin Gol. In its lower reaches this river follows a general 
northerly course. At its delta it divides into several channels, scattered 
over a territory as much as 80 km in width. Lakes Gashun Niir and Sogo 
Nur are the bodies of standing water into which the present-day distributaries 
of this river flow (Figure 3), 



Sogo Nur 




FIGURE 3. Shifts of the Edsin Gol. 



During the third cold period (late Middle Ages) the Edsin Gol deviated 
to the right (equatorward). Consequently, the main discharge was along 
its right-hand branch, the Kara-Baishingen Gol, following a northeasterly 
course to the vast Khadan-Khoshu depression. It was at this time that the 
large medieval city of Kara Khoto existed on the banks of this branch of 
the river. Lakes Gashun Nur and Sogo Nur must presumably have had low 
levels during this period, if indeed they were supplied with water to any 
extent at all. 



H9 



154 



During the third (present) warm period, this river has tended to 
deviate to the left (poleward). Thus, the discharge of the Edsin Gol 
gradually became transferred to its left-hand distributaries, the Ikhe 
Gol and the Morin Gol. 

The Morin Gol branch, which has a north- meridional course, and also 
its standing- water bodies Gashun Nur, thus now have more water in them. The 
Ikhe Gol branch, and its standing- water body Sogo Niir, on the other hand, which 
are situated more to the south, have gradually become shallower. Finally, 
the southernmost branch, the Kara-Baishingen Gol, has dried up. 

These changes in the river were the main reason for the downfall of the 
city of Kara Khoto. As pointed out by Murzaev (1956), Kara Khoto and 
the towns of the Takla Makan clearly went to ruin because the river 
branches or the main channel of the river changed course, due to natural 
causes. Uzin (1958) writes that the Edsin Gol previously flowed quite close 
to Kara Khoto, rather than tens of kilometers away from it as it does now, 
and that the branches of the river flowed on both sides of the city, giving 
life to it. However, certain changes took place, causing the river to turn 
toward the northwest and producing the Sogo Nur and Gashun Nur lakes. 

The Tarim and Konche Dar'ya Rivers and Lake Lop Nor. In their lower 
reaches the Tarim and the Konche Dar'ya have a general easterly course 
and they flow down into the Tarim Basin, to the Lop Nor depression con- 
taining Lake Lop Nor (Figure 4). Murzaev (1947, p. 17) considers that the 
changes in the hydrographic system of the Tarim and the Konche Dar'ya 
provide a key to the solution of the mystery of Lop Nor, the solution being 
suggested by nature itself. 




FIGURE 4. Shifts of the Tarim, Konche Dar'ya, and Khaidik Gol. 

During the second warm period (early Middle Ages) the Tarim and the 
Konche Dar'ya deviated to the left (poleward); the two rivers combined to 



155 



some extent and discharged along the southern foothills of the Kuruk Tagh 
range, forming Lake Lop Nor in the northeastern part of the Lop Nor 
depression. At this time the northern edge of the Takla Makan Desert 
was more abundantly watered than the southern edge. Apparently this 
explains the decreased number of settlements in the southern part of the 
Tarim plain, for example In the vicinity of the Keriya River (Sinitsyn, 
1959). It also explains why the east-west trade route went through the 
northern part of the plain during the early Middle Ages. 

In the third cold period (late Middle Ages) the rivers deviated to the 
right (equatorward). Accordingly, Lake Lop Nor was shifted to the 
southwest (by about 150 to 200 km), to the foot of the Astin Tagh. The 
east-west trade route also moved from the northern part of the Tarim 
plain to the southern part, since conditions there were better at that time. 

During the third (present) warm period the Tarim and the Konche 
Dar'ya show a definite tendency toward leftward (poleward) deviations. 
The present-day Lake Lop Nor has neither a constant position nor a definite 
size. Sinitsyn (1959) reports that in the seventh century B.C., according 
to Chinese sources. Lop Nor was situated in the northern part of the 
ancient lake basin, at the mouth of the Konche Dar'ya. Then, for a 
thousand years (or perhaps somewhat less), the lake was located to the 
south, in the Kara Hoshun region, at the mouth of the Tarim. At the 
beginning of the present century the southern lake dried up. 

Thus, the change in position of the lake in the Lop Nor depression, and 
also the periodic drying up of this lake, are caused by redistributions of 
the water along the channels of the Tarim and the Konche Dar'ya. Present- 
day observations (see "Zarubezhnaya Azia" [Non-Soviet Asia], edited by 
B. F. Dobrynin and E. M. Murzaev, 1956, p. 269) indicate that now one 
branch of the Tarim joins with the Konche Dar'ya to flow along the ancient 
Kum Dar'ya channel; after 250 km this water flows into Lop Nor, and as 
a result of this the lake has moved northward. The studies of Chao and 
Chao (1961, p. 88) also show that at present the channels of the Tarim 
have a tendency to migrate toward the north. 

The Khaidik Gol and Lake Baghrash K61. In its lower reaches the 
Khaidik Gol follows a southeasterly course. It discharges into Lake 
Baghrash K61, which is located in the Karashahr basin (see Figure 4). The 
surplus water from Baghrash K61 flows into the Tarim basin via the Konche 
Dar'ya, which exits from the southwestern part of the lake. Thus, 
Baghrash K61 is part of a circulating system: it is fed by a surface and 
subsurface flow coming in general from the north, and its surplus flows out 
southward via the Konche Dar'ya. Somewhat downstream from the city of 
Karashahr, the present-day delta of the Khaidik Gol begins. Here the 
river divides into two branches, the left one flowing directly into Baghrash 
K61, and the right one, which actually bypasses the lake, flowing through a 
system of small overflow lakes to the Konche Dar'ya. 

During the third cold period (late Middle Ages), the Khaidik Gol 
deviated to the right (equatorward) and flowed southward, bypassing what 
is now Baghrash Kol, directly to the Konche Dar'ya. The lake then had 
little water in it, since it was fed principally by the subsurface flow and 
by the small rivers to the north of it. The total discharge in the direction 
of the Tarim basin was relatively large. 

During the third (present) warm period, the river tends to deviate to 
the left (poleward). The left branch has developed and now carries the 



156 



main bulk of the Khaidik Gol to Lake Baghrash K61, after which the flow 
is along the Konche Dar'ya to the Tarim basin. The level of Baghrash 
K61 is at present rising. 

As Kuznetsov and Murzaev (1960) have pointed out, Roborovskii and 
Kozlov (1896) made no mention of the presence of the left branch of the 
Khaidik Gol, and they did not indicate it on their map. Apparently, this 
branch formed after these travelers visited the lake. The observations of 
Kozlov, Kuznetsov, and Murzaev make it clear that during the last 70 or 
80 years the channel of the Khaidik Gol has been shifting toward the 
northeast in the vicinity of its mouth. The same tendency is observed 
further upstream, after the river has debouched from the mountains and 
entered the plain. 

The Manass River and Lakes Ayran K61 and Ikhe Kh&k. In its lower 
reaches the Manass follows a northwesterly course. It discharges into 
an inland basin located in the western part of the Dzhungarian plain, near 
the southeastern foothills of the Chingiz Mountains. The basin extends 
toward the northeast and is divided into two parts, a southwestern part 
containing the Ayran K61 solonchak [salt marsh] and a northeastern part 
containing the Ikhe Khak solonchak. 

"The Manass River, which supplies the present-day lake, divides 
into a number of distributaries when it enters the basin. Some of these 
flow into the western half, to the Ayran Kol solonchak, while the others 
go eastward, to the Ikhe Khak solonchak. Therefore, the lake actually 
does not have a definite location, and it may be in either the Ayran Kol 
region or the Ikhe Khak region, depending on the distribution of water in 
its distributary channels ..." (Sinitsyn, 1959). 

During the third cold period (late Middle Ages), the Manass deviated to 
the left (equatorward). At this time it discharged into the Ayran Kol 
solonchak, the present site of the lake. The right-hand distributaries 
were then insufficiently supplied with water and the Ikhe Khak 
depression became a solonchak. 

During the third (present) warm period, the river has a tendency to 
deviate to the right (poleward). Consequently, the Ikhe Khak depression 
has become supplied with water and Lake Ayran Kol has dried up. 

Murzaev (1939) cites the Manass River as an example of a recent 
migration of distributary channels. This river used to discharge into 
Lake Ayran Kol, which is now dry. The main channel of the present 
Manass delta shifted to the northeast and formed the large but shallow 
and salty Lake Ikhe Khak, in the ancient lake- solonchak basin. Certain 
facts make it clear that this is not the first time that the Manass has 
migrated toward the northeast. 

The 111 River and Lake Balkhash. In its lower reaches the Hi flows 
northwest, until finally it discharges into Lake Balkhash. At the beginning 
of its delta the river divides into two large distributary systems: the Hi 
system proper on the left, and the Bakanas system on the right. At 
present the flow is along the Hi systena of distributaries, the largest of 
which are the Topar (left), the Hi (middle), and the Dzhideli (right). 

During the third cold period (late Middle Ages) the Hi deviated to the 
left (equatorward). At this time Lake Balkhash also moved toward the 
south. The main flow of the Hi was then along the left branch, the Topar, 
while part of the flow was along the middle branch, the Hi. The level of 



157 



Balkhash was relatively low in the northeastern part of the lake and 
relatively high in the southwestern part. During the third (present) warm 
period the river tends to deviate to the right (poleward). Therefore the 
right distributary, the Dzhideli, is now quite developed and well supplied 
with water, whereas in the left distributary, the Topar, the flow has 
practically stopped. The level of Balkhash has become higher in the 
northeastern part of the lake and lower in the southwestern part. 

"For 4 or 5 km of their upper reaches, the Topars traverse the flood- 
plain of the Hi, a plain which was formed when the river channel shifted 
to the right. In the forties of this century, there was already more water 
in the Dzhideli system than in the Hi channel, and at present the main part 
of the flow of the Hi River is along this system. Moreover, the stream 
velocity in the upper part of the Dzhideli branch is now considerably 
greater than that in the Hi. Consequently, the Dzhideli branch is able to 
transfer efficiently the sediment entering it, and in addition it is able to 
develop its channel. At the same time, some of the sediment is being 
deposited in the regions where the Topar and Hi branches flow into the lake, 
due to the sharply reduced stream velocity there; thus, conditions for the 
intake of water into these systems are becoming less favorable" (Khaidarov, 
1960, pp. 269-270). 

It should be noted that the Bakanas branches were formerly the channels 
of the Hi River. As early as 1902, L. S. Berg pointed out that a number of 
large and small irrigation ditches (at present dry) branch out from the 
banks of the Bakanas branches, and that traces of ancient plowed fields 
are evident everywhere, providing definite evidence that an agricultural 
settlement existed there at some time. 

Unfortunately, however, these traces cannot be dated accurately. Thus, 
the regular correlation between climatic changes and river migrations 
established above by us is the only real basis for assuming that the Bakanas 
channels were "active" during the warm periods (Bronze Age and early 
Middle Ages). 

"... a study of the banks reveals that the southern shores of Lake 
Balkhash are gradually but continually being filled in with fluvial deposits, 
and that at the same time the northern shores of the lake are being inundated. 
Places where there were inlets along the south shore 30 or 50 years ago 
have become dry, whereas the northern banks have an appearance typical 
of places where the land is being washed away and the water level is rising. 
On a 1903 map the Boichabyl area was shown as an island, whereas now 
it has become a peninsula. The inlets at the southwestern end of the lake 
have dried up completely during the last 15 or 20 years. Thus we see that 
Lake Balkhash is actually a wandering lake, and is very similar in this 
respect to Lake Lop Nor in Central Asia" (Fedorovich, 1954). 

The Nura River and Lakes Tengiz and Kurgal'dzhin. In its middle 
reaches the Nura flows northward. Not far from Akmolinsk the river 
makes a sharp bend toward the southwest and forms Lakes Tengiz and 
Kurgal'dzhin, which are situated in the desert- steppe region of central 
Kazakhstan (Figure 5), 

During the third cold period (late Middle Ages) the Nura deviated 
toward the left (equatorward), and its entire flow went through Lakes 
Tengiz and Kurgal'dzhin; at this time the level of the lakes was high. As 
Popolzin (1960) has pointed out, even in comparatively recent times Lake 
Kurgal'dzhin was a vast body of water with a large open- water surface. 



158 




FIGURE 5. Migrations of the Nuta. 



During the third (present) warm period, on the other hand, the river 
tends to deviate to the right (poleward). Consequently, at the northernmost 
point of the large bend, some of the water of the Nura breaks through and 
flows, along the shallow depression between the Ishim and the Nura, into 
the Ishim basin. This has led to a reduced supply of water to Lakes 
Tengiz and Kurgal'dzhin, and the latter are rapidly drying up. 

"The lakes in the Tengiz-Kurgal'dzhin group are water bodies which are 
in a state of gradual drying up. This drying-up process became especially 
intensified after some of the water of the Nura broke through to flow into 
the Ishim River, causing a certain reduction of the level of the lakes" 
(Popolzin, 1960, p. 84). 

The Indus. This river has a southwesterly course in its lower reaches 
and discharges into the Arabian Sea. During the third cold period (late 

Middle Ages) the Indus deviated to 
the left (equatorward), and its course 
was nearly south-meridional. 
During the present period of clima- 
tic warming the Indus tends to 
deviate to the right (poleward). This 
conclusion is corroborated by the 
findings of Machacek (1961), who 
decided that the Indus channel is 
shifting westward during the present 
epoch. 

The Zeravshan. In its lower 
reaches this river follows a south- 
westerly course. After irrigating 
the vast Bukhara oasis, the Zerav- 
shan goes dry, coming to within 
about 20 km of the Amu Dar'ya 
(Figure 6). 

During the first warm period 
FIGURE 6. Migrations of the Zeravshan. (Bronze Age) the river deviated 




159 



to the right (poleward). The flow was then along the right branch, the 
Makhan Dar'ya, which flowed toward the northwest, as far as the Uch Bash 
hills. At that time a large delta existed there, and a huge strip of land 
was under water. Primitive settlements grew up along the Makhan Dar'ya 
and in the region of its delta, the settlers being cattle breeders and farmers. 

During the second cold period (antiquity), the Zeravshan deviated to the 
left (equatorward). The flow along the Makhan Dar'ya then ceased and the 
settlements which depended upon this water became deserted. The whole 
Makhan Dar'ya delta became uninhabitable at this time. 

During the second warm period (early Middle Ages), the river once 
again deviated to the right (northward). Accordingly, the territory to the 
west of Bukhara became watered again. One of the many remains dating 
from this time is the Varakhsha fortress (Shishkin, 1940, 1950). 

Dzens-Litovskii (1936, p. 22) assumes that in the sixth century A.D. the 
northern part of what is now the cultivated strip of the Bukhara oasis was 
a swampy plain, the so-called Sufioni marshes. 

During the third cold period (late Middle Ages), the Zeravshan deviated 
to the left (southward). Accordingly, the land in the vicinity of the 
Varakhsha fortress became deserted, while the left bank of the Zeravshan 
became well watered. Here, beginning at Pendzhikent and continuing 
further downstream, an effective irrigation system was constructed and 
continued to function for a long time (particularly noteworthy were the 
Dargan canal and, to the south of it, the Manas canal). 

The whole left bank of the river was densely populated at this time, and 
these medieval settlers left behind a great many monuments of various 
kinds. The southern part of the delta itself (the Karakul' oasis) was also 
well watered. In the time of Genghis Khan, this district was a vast stretch 
of lakes and swamps. 

During the third (present) warm period, the Zeravshan tends to deviate 
to the right (poleward). The irrigation system based on the left- bank 
canals is thus now being disrupted. According to the data of Arandarenko 
(1889), the Manas irrigation ditch ceased operating sometime after the 
Timurid period. The Tyue-Tartar, Mirza-Aryk, and Polvan canals, 
which branch out from the right bank of the river, were maintained at a 
constant water level with almost no effort at all. The operation of dams 
Eind maintenance of the water level in the left-bank canals (the Sarazm-Any- 
Kazan and Ayaz-Abat canals), on the other hand, turned out to be quite 
difficult for the agricultural population. The southern part of the delta 
became dry, the irrigated farmlands went into disuse, and the region 
became deserted. For example, along the Taikyr River, the last terminal 
channel of the Zeravshan, there are enormous areas of cultivated land 
which stand neglected, and abandoned mazars [a kind of holy grave] and 
the ruins of adobe kibitkas [rude huts] are to be seen (Dzens-Litovskii, 
1936, p. 23). 

The Syr Dar'ya. In its lower reaches this river follows a northwesterly 
course, after which it empties into the northeastern part of the Aral Sea 
(Figure 7). During each of the last two cold periods (antiquity and the late 
Middle Ages), the Syr Dar'ya deviated to the left (equatorward) and followed 
the Kuvan Dar'ya and Zhana Dar'ya channels to the southeastern bays of 
the Aral Sea; at these times it inundated the Akcha Dar'ya delta of the 
Amu Dar'ya intermittently. Tolstov (1960) is also of the opinion that in 



160 



I nil ■ II llll II ■■■■ ■■■■■II 



ancient times the southernmost branch of the Syr Dar'ya (the Zhana 
Dar'ya) was the main channel of the river. Dviring the last two warm 
periods (the Middle Ages and the present), on the other hand, the deviation 
was to the right (poleward), and accordingly the Kuvan Dar'ya and Zhana 
Dar'ya channels dried up. 




FIGURE 7. Migrations of the Syr Dar'ya; 1) ancient channels of the Syr Dar'ya; 2) region of fluvial 
deposits of the Syr Dar'ya, and of its former channels and lakes; 3) fluvial-deposit region of ancient 
tributaries. 

This sequence of the migrations of the river is borne out by many data, 
in particular by the findings of archaeological- geomorphological studies. 
For example, it has been established that during the cold periods the 
Kuf-an Dar'ya and Zhana Dar'ya deltas, right down to the Akcha Dar'ya 
delta of the Amu Dar'ya were densely populated, as in ancient times, 
when the so-called Kokcha-Tengiz culture was widespread in this region, 
and in the late Middle Ages, from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries on. 

The main occupation of the people inhabiting these areas was irrigation 
farming, which could only have been possible using the distributary waters 



161 



of the Syr Dar'ya. This indicates that in ancient times and in the late 
Middle Ages the Amu Dar'ya deviated to the south. However, the more 
the cold phase of the climatic cycle gave way to the succeeding warm phase, 
the less water there was in the left-bank distributaries of the Syr Dar'ya 
and the more the channels became filled up with deposits. 

In spite of the increased efforts of its users to adapt the irrigation 
system to the new hydrological conditions, due to the lack of water the 
system was no longer able to perform its function, namely to irrigate 
the fields. Thus farming declined and the whole region became desolate. 
Numerous remains of ancient towns and settlements, as well as of 
irrigation structures, all dating from antiquity and from the late Middle 
Ages, attest to what took place in this region. The fact that there are no 
such remains from the warm period of the early Middle Ages on the Kuvan 
Dar'ya and Zhana Dar'ya deltas, moreover, is further evidence of this. 

The tendency of the Syr Dar'ya to migrate during the present warm 
period is verified by the direct observations of various investigators (for 
example, Bogdanov (1882)). The northward deviation of the Amu Dar'ya 
during this period was accompanied by a deviation of the Syr Dar'ya in 
the same direction. The Sarysu and the Chu gradually became separated 
from the Syr Dar'ya, and the Yany Dar'ya and Zhana Dar'ya became 
overgrown. The Syr Dar'ya found a new course along the Kuvan Dar'ya, 
but then it abandoned this course as well and found its present channel. 
As a consequence, the Yany Dar'ya and Kuvan Dar'ya dried up. It should 
be recalled that Myshkin's map for the year 1831 showed the Syr Dar'ya 
discharging into the Aral Sea via three branches (the Zhana Dar'ya, the 
Kuvan Dar'ya, and the Syr Dar'ya). 

Recently, the channels on the right side of the Syr Dar'ya have 
developed considerably. For example, the Kara Uzyak, which was 
formed at the site of the extensive floods at the end of the last century, 
carried only 10% of the discharge of the Syr Dar'ya in 1925, whereas at 
present it carries 40%. This development of the channel, moreover, 
is continuing. 

Borovskii and Pogrebenskii (1958) think that the bulk of the water of 
the river is in the process of shifting over from the Syr Dar'ya channel 
to the new, growing Kara Uzyak channel. In connection with this shift 
to the Kara Uzyak, it may be assumed that the Dzhaman Dar'ya, the main 
channel of the Syr Dar'ya, will become silted up at its beginning. 

The Kara Uzyak and Kok Su distributaries will undergo an intensive 
development, deepening and widening their channels and thereby 
reinforcing the discharge to the right. This shifting of the distributaries 
northward may also continue further, as far as the Kara Kemir bench. 
The Amu Dar'ya. In its lower reaches this river flows northwest 
and discharges into the Aral Sea (Figure 8). It is a known fact that 
the Amu Dar'ya has repeatedly and abruptly changed course and 
migrated over a vast territory in the western plains of Central Asia, 
and that these plains were formed primarily by the alluvial deposits 
of this great river. 

On the basis of the correlation between the cyclical fluctuations of 
the climate and the planet-wide rearrangements of the drainage 



162 



system, it is possible to draw up the following approximate plan of the 
successive shifts in the course of the Amu Dar'ya during the Quaternary 
period.* 




FIGURE 8, Migrations of the Amu Dar'ya. 



' With respect to the Quaternary as a whole, the "behavior" of rivers flowing in different directions, such 
as the Mississippi and the Rhine (which flow southward and northward, respectively), is significant. During 
each glacial period the rate of flow of the Mississippi, and thus the transporting capacity of the river as well, 
increased. As a result deep erosion took place; the river cut into its bed and carried sediment far out to 
sea. The water table was reduced accordingly, and conditions were such that a more or less thick soil 
cover was formed. 

During these same periods, on the other hand, the flow rate of the Rhine decreased. The margin of its 
delta deposits moved inland, and its valley filled up with sediments and became swampy. During each of 
the warm interglacial periods the channel processes of these two rivers were just the opposite of those 
described. For example, at present the Rhine is going through a stage of rejuvenation, while the Mississippi 
is in a senile stage. 

During the Quaternary, channel processes in the Mississippi and the Rhine took place synchronously with 
and in rhythm with the climatic fluctuations. These processes were, however, opposite for the two rivers; 
when one was in a stage of rejuvenation, the other was in a stage of senility. This regularity can be 
explained satisfactorily in terms of a climatically induced irregularity of the Earth's diurnal rotation, this 
irregularity being more pronounced during the glacial periods than during the interglacial periods. 



163 



The period of Dnieper glaciation was characterized by an enormous 
accumulation of solid moisture in the high latitudes. Accordingly, the 
Earth's diurnal velocity was relatively high, and the global drainage 
system shifted equatorward under the influence of the centrifugal forces. 
The Amu Dar'ya also shifted in this direction at that time. Pressing on 
to the foot of the Kopet Dagh, it flowed into the southwestern depressions 
of the Aral-Caspian plain and filled them up with alluvial deposits (see 
Figure 8a). 

The period of Dnieper glaciation was succeeded by a warm interglacial 
period. The solid moisture in the- high latitudes then turned into liquid 
and part of it was transported to the low latitudes. As a result, the 
diurnal rotation of the Earth slowed down and the centrifugal forces were 
reduced accordingly. The drainage system responded to the new rotational 
regime of the Earth by shifting toward the poles. During this epoch the 
Amu Dar'ya deviated to the right (northward), and the depressions located 
in the northwestern part of the Aral-Caspian plain began to receive its 
discharge. At that time it flowed into these depressions and filled them 
up with alluvial deposits (Figure 8d). 

The warm interglacial period gave way in turn to a new wave of climatic 
cooling. However, the glaciation at this time was on a smaller scale than 
during the preceding glacial period. Consequently, the equatorward shift 
of the global drainage system was also less. 

The Amu Dar'ya then deviated to the left and flowed first into Lake 
Sarykamysh and afterwards along the Uzboi to the Caspian Sea (Figures 8b, 
8c); at this time the central and southwestern depressions of the Aral- 
Caspian plain were watered and filled in with sediments. Thus, the river 
then occupied an intermediate position between the following two extremes: 
a north- meridional course (corresponding to the warm interglacial period) 
which lay approximately along the Akcha Dar'ya channel, and a latitudinal 
course (corresponding to the period of the Dnieper maximum of climatic 
cooling) along the foothills of the Kopet Dagh. 

During the postglacial period, and in particular during the last 4500 years, 
the Amu Dar'ya also deviated southward whenever there was a time of 
climatic cooling (at the end of the Neolithic, in antiquity, and in the late 
Middle Ages). Thus the region around the Sarykamysh delta became 
watered and to some extent the Sarykamysh basin itself; the water level 
in the latter sometimes became so high that the excess overflowed into 
the Uzboi and on into the Caspian. During each of the three warm periods 
(Bronze Age, early Middle Ages, and the present), on the other hand, the 
river deviated northward. As a consequence, its left bank (the Sarykamysh 
delta) dried up and its right bank received more water. 

The foregoing conclusions are borne out by historical- archaeological 
and geomorphological studies carried out for the region in question; such 
studies have been made by Gulyamov, Tolstov, Kes', Zhdanko, Itina, 
Trombachev, Lents, and others. 

Along the Uzboi Bronze- Age remains are found considerably more 
rarely than Neolithic remains, whereas on the Akcha Dar'ya delta there 
were more Bronze- Age settlements. This indicates that during the Bronze 
Age there was much less water in the Uzboi, and that most of the water 
flowed out to the north, to the Aral Sea, or else along the Akcha Dar'ya 
distributaries. In ancient times, however, the Akcha Dar'ya ceased to 



164 



exist, as indicated by the canals built at this time, which led directly 
from the Amu Dar'ya (in its present course). All the main left-bank 
distributaries of the Sarykamysh delta, on the other hand, were active 
at this time. Most of the water of the Amu Dar'ya flowed via the old 
Daudan stream into the Sarykamysh basin, and then out along the Uzboi 
(some of the water may even have bypassed the basin). 

The abundant supply of water which resulted from the southward 
deviation of the Amu Dar'ya enabled the ancient inhabitants of Khorezm 
to construct a magnificent irrigation system within the vast environs of 
the Sarykamysh delta. In this region irrigation farming ensured a 
flourishing economy at the time. In the early Middle Ages, however, with 
the onset of the next warm period, the river deviated to the right and the 
region around the Sarykamysh delta was no longer supplied with water. 

The inhabitants of Khorezm then made strenuous efforts to prolong the 
operation of the irrigation system (by deepening the canals, by transferring 
the main ducts upstream, by introducing hoisting wheels to raise the water, 
etc.). However, nevertheless, most of the irrigated regions finally had 
to be abandoned, and the settlers moved either to distant places where 
there was water or else to the right bank of the Amu Dar'ya, where condi- 
tions were better at that time. A new irrigation system was then 
constructed, which included, among others, the large Kurder canal. 
During this period the Sarykamysh channel of the Amu Dar'ya, Lake 
Sarykamysh, and the Uzboi River did not exist. The land in the 
Sarykamysh delta became well watered again only with the onset of the 
next cold period (late Middle Ages). "Following the catastrophic curtail- 
ment of irrigation in the fourth to eighth centuries, the irrigation system 
in the territory of the Sarykamysh delta was reconstructed and expanded 
again, but it did not reach anywhere near the scale of the ancient system" 
(Tolstov, Kes', et al., 1960). 

During the present warm period the Amu Dar'ya once more has a 
tendency to deviate to the right. In the middle of the last century this led 
to, first, a catastrophic flooding of the rich farmlands in the Kushkan Tau 
hills, which were inhabited by Karakalpaks, and, second, to a complete 
lack of water in the Khan Abad region, situated more to the west. In an 
attempt to retain the disappearing water, the inhabitants of northwestern 
Khorezm constructed dams, but to no avail. The Kungrad and Shomonai 
farming regions were destined to be abandoned. 

As the Amu Dar'ya shifts to the right, it appears to ascend an inclined 
plane. The great height of the right bank is indicative of the fact that this 
bank is being undercut by the river. During the last hundred years the 
Amu Dar'ya has moved about 10 km to the east in the Khozaraps-Urgench 
region. The rightward deviation of the river is in evidence all along the 
lower reaches of the Amu Dar'ya; this has made it necessary to extend 
the existing inlet channels to the irrigation ditches or to dig new ones. 
The periodic migrations of the river have inevitably entailed a resettling 
of the local population, whose lives and activities depended to some extent 
or other upon the water of the Amu Dar'ya. 

The Aral Sea. This body of water is located in the southeastern part 
of the Aral-Caspian depression-. Its water supply depends on the surface 
flow and subsurface flow into the area. 

However, the amount of water in the Aral basin is governed not only 
by the volume of the Amu Dar'ya, the Syr Dar'ya, and the subsurface 



165 



water, but also by the direction of flow of these. As we have pointed out 
above, the Amu and Syr Dar'yas, and also the subsurface water, have a 
tendency to shift equatorward during periods of cold climate and a tendency 
to shift poleward during periods of warm climate. Obviously, these 
successive shifts of the surface and subsurface water in the basins of the 
two rivers will have a direct effect on the level of the Aral Sea: in cold 
periods it will be lower, and in warm periods it will be higher. 

Very few factual data are available on the levels of the Aral Sea during 
anci'fent times. For various reasons, however, many investigators have 
concluded that this level underwent repeated, substantial variations. 
Fedorovich (1954) thinks that the small Paleo-Aral Lake which came into 
being during the Apsheron period did not exist throughout the entire 
Quaternary. Alenitsyn (1874), who discovered some winter-hardy animals 
native to a dry sandy desert on the islands of the Aral, concluded that they 
migrated there when the islands were joined to the desert by dry land. 
This could only have taken place at a time when the Aral, supplied just by 
the Syr Dar'ya, was a small, shallow lake, in comparison with the present- 
day sea. "Whereas there are numerous indications that the level of this 
lake was very high in the preceding period, certain other facts show that 
there was also a time when the Aral did not fill up its entire basin. Its 
level and its area have become alternately greater and smaller ever since 
men began to dwell on its shores" (Reclus, 1898, p. 363). 

During the first warm period the level of the Aral Sea was high. Yanshin 
(1953) assumes that the transgression of the Aral Sea which deposited the 
terrace with Gardium Edule L. shells was most likely related to the period 
when the climate of Turan was the most arid. This transgression naay 
have taken place at the time of the Kel'teminar culture, since it occurred 
in the third millenium B. C. Consequently, this transgression is linked 
with a period when there was a general rearrangement (a poleward shift) 
of the drainage system. In particular, at this time the Amu Dar'ya made 
its maximum rightward deviation and flowed along the Akcha Dar'ya 
channel. This was the main reason why the Aral basin was then supplied 
with water. 

During the second cold period (antiquity) the level of the Aral Sea was 
low. Tolstov and Kes', on the other hand, assume that at this time (middle 
of first millenium B. C.) there took pla^e a transgression of the Aral Sea 
which raised the level to 3.5 or 4 meters above the present level. Their 
assumption was based on the geomorphological features of the southeastern 
part of the Aral Sea, on the distribution of sea shells there, and on the 
fact that Iron-Age sites have been found on its shores. However, the 
assumption of Tolstov and Kes' is contradicted by the following statement 
of Kes' (1958, p. 95): ". . . The Aral Sea became a large basin only after 
the Amu Dar'ya and Syr Dar'ya began to discharge completely into the 
vast Aral depression. Both of these rivers have highly variable courses: 
during the most recent stages of geological history the rivers migrated 
repeatedly, sometimes discharging into the Aral Sea and sometimes 
turning aside and flowing, partially or completely, into other Central- 
Asian depressions. Whenever the Amu Dar'ya turned aside for any long 
or short period (for example, toward Sarykamysh), the level of the Aral 
Sea dropped sharply". 

Let us also quote the following statement of Reclus (1898, p. 363): 
"The Aral Sea depends entirely on the extent to which it is supplied by 



166 



the two rivers discharging into it. If the Amu Dar'ya and Syr Dar'ya 
move away from the Aral depression and flow into the Caspian instead, 
the "Sea of Khorezm" will inevitably become shallow and then dry up 
after some years. However, as we have seen, the Amu Dar'ya has already 
deserted the Aral twice during historical times, and in addition one branch 
of the Syr Dar'ya once flowed into the Caspian via the Oxus (Amu Dar'ya) 
channel". Thus, in antiquity, when all the tributaries of the Sarykamysh 
delta were flowing, the level of the Aral Sea could not have been very high. 
Most likely, this body of water was then just a small steppe lake. 

Now let us consider the presence of Iron-Age sites on the shore of the 
ancient sea, the level of which was 3.5 to 4 meters higher than at present. 
We can assume that the settlements and the shore itself developed at 
different periods, since the shoreland had to form before dwellings could 
be erected on it. During antiquity people were probably forced to settle 
in elevated places, since at that time the Syr Dar'ya deviated to the left 
and abundantly watered the territory around the southeastern part of the 
Aral Sea. Thus, according to Tolstov, this entire region was a kind of 
"Central-Asian Venice" during ancient times. 

It is noteworthy that ancient writers make no reference at all to the 
Aral Sea. Apropos of this. Rectus (1898) states: "It is difficult to explain 
how such a vast water area, at present almost as extensive as the Aegean, 
could have been completely unknown to the ancients, if it had the same 
dimensions then as it does now. Greek rulers governed the countries 
between Persia and the large mountain ranges of Central Asia for several 
centuries. Moreover, Greek- speaking traders and military leaders 
crossed the Oxus and Jaxartes Rivers, but none of them made any mention 
of a second sea lying to the east of the Hyrcanian (Caspian) Sea." 

However, then came the next warm period, with maximum climatic 
warming in approximately the sixth century A.D., and the Amu Dar'ya and 
Syr Dar'ya gradually deviated to the right (poleward). Accordingly, the 
flow of water into the Aral depression increased, and a body of water was 
formed there which was large enough to command the attention of the people 
of that time. In actual fact, writers of the early Middle Ages stopped 
referring to the discharge of the Amu Dar'ya and Syr Dar'ya into the 
Caspian. Instead, they reported that the two rivers flowed into the Aral 
Sea. These writers were acquainted with the Aral; they drew it on their 
maps and discussed navigation on it. 

During the third cold period (late Middle Ages) the water-supply 
situation for the Aral Sea was more or less the same as during the second 
cold period (antiquity). The Amu Dar'ya and Syr Dar'ya deviated southward, 
less water flowed into the Aral basin, and if there was a lake in the basin 
it was small. Reports concerning the Aral once again ceased (not a single 
European traveler makes any reference to it). Then, with the onset of the 
present warm period, the two Dar'yas tended to shift to the north again. 
Accordingly, the flow into the Aral increased and the level rose. 

Lake Sarykamysh. This lake lies between the Caspian and Aral Seas, 
and its geographical position determines the nature of its water supply. 
Optimumi conditions for filling the Sarykamysh basin with water exist when 
the centrifugal forces of the Earth's rotation are not so great that the Amu 
Dar'ya, the Syr Dar'ya, and the other rivers to the east and northeast of 
the basin deviate too far southward. When the rivers deviate to the south. 



167 



they bypass the Sarykamysh basin and discharge into the Caspian; this 
was the case, for instance, during the period of Dnieper glaciation (see 
Figure 8a). However, the centrifugal forces cannot be so small that the 
rivers deviate too much to the north either, since then they will bypass the 
Sarykamysh basin and flow into the Aral; this is the situation during the 
present warm period (see Figure 8d). Optimum conditions evidently 
existed during the Wiirna glacial period and during the long periods of 
climatic cooling which occurred in postglacial times (Figures 8b and 8c). 

The foregoing general considerations are confirmed by the following 
conclusions of Shnitnikov (1959): 

1. Three times during the last 4000 to 4500 years the Sarykamysh basin 
was filled up by the Amu Dar'ya, and during these periods flow took place 
along the Uzboi channel. 

2. During the time interval between the second and third fillings of the 
basin (that is, in the first millenium A.D.), Lake Sarykamysh dried up 
completely. Moreover, there is definite evidence that the basin was dry 
in the period between the first and second fillings as well. At present, 
too, the basin is dry. 

3. All three periods during which the Amu Dar'ya filled the Sarykamysh 
basin coincide in time with cool, wet phases in the great rhythmic wetness 
cycles for the continents of the Northern Hemisphere. The times when 
the Sarykamysh basin was dry and there was no flow along the Uzboi 
channel, on the other hand, coincided with the long dry phases of the 
rhythmic wetness cycles. 

The Atrek. In its lower reaches this river has in general a westerly 
course. The water is entirely used up for irrigation and only reaches the 
Caspian at the time of floods. 

During the first warm period (Bronze Age) the Atrek deviated to the 
right (northward) and watered the so-called Messerian plain. At this time 
the archaic-Dakhistan culture existed on the plain. V.M.Masson (1954) 
suggests that the archaic-Dakhistan culture be dated to the first third of 
the first millenium B.C. and to some unspecified part of the second half 
of the second millenium B.C. 

During the second cold period (antiquity) the river deviated to the left 
(southward). Consequently, the Messerian plain dried up, the irrigation 
system stopped functioning, and the archaic-Dakhistan culture went into 
a decline. 

During the second warm period (early Middle Ages) the Atrek deviated 
to the right (poleward). The Messerian plain then became well watered 
once more, and settlers began to come there. It was at this time that the 
so-called Ephtalito- Turkic culture reached its apex (VI- VIII centuries A.D.). 

During the third cold period (late Middle Ages) the river deviated to the 
left, and the Messerian plain became a desert. According to the data of 
Masson, settled life in the oasis died out completely in the fifteenth 
century. 

During the present warm period the Atrek tends to deviate to the right 
(poleward). Murzaev (1957) notes that with the approach to the delta the 
banks gradually recede and become lower. In this region the Atrek flows 
through lowlands and turns vast areas into swamps; it divides into branches 
and its channel shifts northward. Thus, Hasan-Kuli Bay is at present being 
filled up with deposits from the Atrek, in spite of the fact that the Caspian 
Sea has a low level, which is favorable for downcutting of the river bed. 



168 



The Black and Caspian Seas. Studies of fluctuations in the levels of the 
Black and Caspian Seas during the Holocene led Fedorov and Skiba (1960) 
to the following conclusions. Transgressions of the Black Sea (the 
Neoeuxine, Nymphaic,* and Recent transgressions, at any rate) coincide 
with dry, warm periods, whereas regressions coincide with wet, cool 
periods. Transgressions of the Caspian (Neo-Caspian, at most Neo- 
Caspian and late Neo-Caspian), on the other hand, take place during wet, 
cool periods, while regressions of the Caspian correspond to dry, warm 
periods. Thus, transgressions of the Black Sea correspond to regressions 
of the Caspian, and vice versa. 

In connection with the foregoing conclusions of Fedorov and Skiba, we 
should add the following. We decided long ago that the fluctuations in the 
levels of the Azov-Black and Caspian Seas over the centuries (at least 
during the last 4500 years) were asynchronous, and that these fluctuations 
correlate very closely with Shnitnikov's curve for the long-term variability 
of the wetness of the Northern Hemisphere during this same period. We 
reported this conclusion in April 1960 at a meeting of the Geology Section 
of the Conference on the Caspian Problem, held by the USSR Academy of 
Sciences in Moscow. At this conference it was noted, in particular, that 
it is impossible to explain completely all the observed regularities in the 
level fluctuations of the Azov-Black and Caspian Seas in terms of solely 
eustatic variations (for the Azov-Black Sea basin) and in terms of variations 
in the precipitation- evaporation balance (for the Caspian). Moreover, it is 
impossible to explain these regularities even if we take into account tectonic 
movements. For example, how can we explain the fact that during the 
present period the level of the Azov-Black Sea water is rising twice or 
three times as fast as the level in the ocean at the same latitudes? Also, 
how is it possible to account for the difference between the long-term 
fluctuations in the level of the CaspiaJi in the south (around Baku) and the 
fluctuations in the north (around Astrakhan) ? 

A satisfactory explanation of all the observed regularities in the level 
variations of these bodies is possible only If we take into account the 
long-period fluctuations (over the centuries) in the diurnal- rotation regime 
of the Earth, produced [as noted above] by the rearrangements of the water 
mass on the Earth's surface which accompany climatic fluctuations. The 
observed regularities in the level fluctuations of these water bodies are 
probably, to a large extent, a particular manifestation of a more general 
regularity in the evolution of the Earth. This more general variation is 
the periodic (synchronous with climatic fluctuations, and thus with 
fluctuations in the Earth's diurnal- rotation regime) rearrangement of the 
drainage system on a planet-wide scale, in which the rivers and water bodies 
are oriented (shifted) sometimes poleward and sometimes equatorward. 

It is important to note the following: numerous geological, archaeolo- 
gical, and historical data give incontestable evidence that during the last 
4500 to 5000 years the level of the Azov-Black Sea water began to 
drop with the onset of each of the three cold periods and began to rise 
with the onset of each of the three warm periods (present period included). 
The main reason for this phenomenon, apart from eustatics, is that the 
centrifugal forces of the Earth's diurnal rotation vary as a result of 
climatic fluctuations, 

• According to the terminology of Fedorov and Skiba. 



169 



The level of the Caspian, on the other hand, began to rise with the 
onset of each cold period and began to drop with the onset of each warm 
period (present one included). The fact that the level fluctuations in the 
northern and southern Caspian are not coordinated with one another is 
especially noteworthy. 

The variations in the volume of the Caspian, and also the uncoordination 
of the level variations in its northern and southern parts, can be explained 
as follows. The level of this sea is determined not only by the ratio 
between precipitation and evaporation but also by the diurnal- rotation 
regime of the Earth.* 

Let us assume, for example, that the angular velocity of the Earth is 
constant in magnitude. In this case the level of the sea will clearly depend 
mainly on the evaporation rate and on the amount of precipitation falling 
into its basin. Thus the fluctuations in water level will be the same in all 
parts of the sea, that is, they will be of the same magnitude and will take 
place at the same time. 

Now let us assume that the amounts of evaporation and rainfall in the 
sea basin are constant and that the rotational regime of the Earth varies. 
In such a case we have two possibilities. First, if the diurnal- rotation 
velocity starts to increase, all the water (both surface and subsurface) in 
the Aral- Caspian depression tends to shift toward the equator under the 
influence of the centrifugal forces. In conformity with the geomorphological 
features of the locality, this water moves toward the southeastern part of 
the depression (the Caspian basin); in particular, the flows of such rivers 
asthe AmuDar'yaand Syr Dar'ya will deviate in this direction. As a result, 
the sea level will rise in this area, since the influx of water from the south re- 
mains practically the same while the influx from the north (and especially from 
the northeast) increases sharply. Consequently, the level of the Caspian 
rises and the level of the Aral drops correspondingly, just as a result of 
the redistribution of the water masses of the Aral-Caspian basin caused 
by an increase in the rotational velocity of the Earth. It is significant that 
the water level in the southern part of the sea will rise somewhat higher 
than the level in the northern part. 

Next let us assume that the diurnal- rotation velocity decreases. The 
flow of surface and subsurface water into the Aral- Caspian basin will then 
tend to shift poleward, and due to the geomorphological features of the 
locality this flow will become deviated toward the Aral basin. The level 
of the Caspian will drop, more in the southern part than in the northern 
part, and the level of the Aral will rise. Actually, as Berg has pointed 
out, such a behavior of the seas is observed: the fluctuations in the level 
of the Caspian Sea over the centuries are in general opposite to the 
fluctuations in the level of the Aral. 

Thus the total volume of water in the Caspian depends not only on the 
precipitation and evaporation there and on possible tectonic movements, 
but also on the magnitude of the centrifugal forces associated with the 
Earth's rotation. All these factors are in turn related somehow or other 
to the fluctuations in climate. 



' Essentially, these changes in the level of the Caspian cannot be explained satisfactorily in terms of 
tectonic causes, since the magnitudes of the level fluctuations and the scales of the tectonic movements 
are incommensurable. 



170 



The Kura. The alluvial plain of the Kura was created mainly during the 
upper Quaternary. Several large, independent deltas were formed, the 
river moving on and successively leaving each one behind. In addition to 
the present delta, five delta formations of the Kura exist. These formations 
are located alternately to the left and to the right of the river (Egorov, 
1959). 

This regularity in the evolution of the Kura deltas can be explained in 
the following way. The deltas located on the right bank of the river (the 
first, third, and fifth) were formed during periods of climatic cooling. At 
such times the diurnal velocity of the Earth was higher and the Kura 
deviated southward under the influence of the centrifugal forces, thus 
flowing to the south of its previous delta (Figure 9). The deltas on the left 
bank, on the other hand (the second, fourth, and sixth), were formed during 
periods of climatic warming, when the Earth's rotational velocity was 
reduced. At such times the centrifugal forces were less and the Kura 
deviated northward, thus flowing to the north of its previous delta. 




FIGURE 9. Migrations of the Kura. 

Consequently, the regular distribution of the deltas of the Kura 
indicates the fluctuational character of the Earth's diurnal- rotation 
regime.. Unfortunately, however, due to the lack of data, it is impossible 
to relate the formation of any of the deltas except the last two to a specific 
climatic period. We only know that the sixth (last) delta began forming 



171 



with the onset of the third (present) warm period, and that the fifth delta 
(the Sal'yany delta) formed during the third cold period (late Middle Ages). 
Egorov (1951) notes that the fifth lobate delta of the Kura is about 150 years 
old. Previously the river discharged into Kirov Bay, and the traces of a 
vast delta are visible on the banks of the latter. 

The Rioni. In general this river follows a westerly course. The Rioni 
used to divide its flow between two southwestward-flowing estuarine 
channels, one to the north and one to the south, and empty into the Black 
Sea near the town of Poti. 

Then, with the onset of the third (present) warm period, the Rioni began 
to deviate to the right; as a result, the flow in the southern branch of the 
river diminished while the flow in the northern branch increased. In an 
attempt to check the northward shift of the river, a dami was erected along 
the right bank of the Rioni, from the Tsivido River to Poti. At the mouth 
itself, however, where the water rise, was especially high, the Poti levee 
was constructed, to protect the town from floods. 

In order to prevent overflowing of the river within the town limits, it 
was decided to divert some of the water to an artificial channel situated to 
the north of the actual channels. However, even before the completion of 
the new channel (the Rionsbros), the river broke through the wall and 
streamed to the sea. At present up to 90% of the river flows out along the 
Rionsbros, whereas the mouth of the southern branch has been completely 
closed off. "The Rioni now occupies a more or less stable position, 
although there is some tendency toward a further shift to the north" 
(Motsereliya, 1954). 

The Kuban'. In its lower reaches the Kuban' follows in general a 
westerly course and divides into two main branches: the Kuban' proper, 
to the south, about 120 km long, and the Protoka, to the north, about 
130 km long (Figure 10). Simonov (1958) points out that in its lower 
reaches the southern branch has repeatedly changed from a southwesterly 
to a northerly course, thereby emptying into the Black Sea at times and 
into the Sea of Azov at other times. During the second cold period 
(antiquity) the river deviated to the left (equatorward) and emptied into the 
Black Sea. Therefore during the period of Greek colonization the Taman' 
Peninsula was "many-islanded", comprising the islands of Cimmeria, 
Phanagoria, Sintica, and others. 

With the onset of the warm period in the early Middle Ages, the Kuban' 
began to shift to the right (poleward). Accordingly, the "many islands" of 
the Taman' region disappeared and it became a peninsula. At this time 
the right branch of the river, the Protoka, developed considerably, and 
most of the discharge was into the Sea of Azov. During the third cold 
period (late Middle Ages) the river once again deviated to the left 
(equatorward), and then the main flow was through the Kiziltash and Bugas 
Lagoons to the Black Sea. Downstream from the Griven Protoka station 
the river changed course at this time, flowing to the west instead of north- 
meridionally (a general equatorward shift). During the present warm 
period the Kuban' is shifting to the north. The studies of Kapitonov and 
Bramber (1958) verify that at the beginning of the last century the Kuban' 
emptied into the Black Sea. The influx of water to the Sea of Azov 
especially increased during the 1850's, however, and the old Kuban' 
channel leading to the Black Sea gradually became shallow. 



172 




FIGURE 10. Migrations of the Kuban'. 




FIGURE 11. Migrations of the Don. 



173 



The Don. In its lower reaches this river has a westerly course 
(Figure 11). Below Melikhovskaya stanitsa* the Don floodplain becomes 
much broader, forming a delta with a total width of up to 20 km, and the 
river divides into several branches and distributaries there. The largest 
of these are the Aksai, the Mertvyi Donets, the Kuter'ma, and the 
Kalancha. During the second cold period (antiquity), the Don tended to 
deviate to the left (equatorward). Consequently, the main flow was then 
along the southern branch, the Staryi Don [the Old Don]. It was on the 
bank of this well- watered distributary, not far from Elisavetskaya stanitsa, 
that the large Greco- Scythian trading city of Tanais prospered. 

During the second warm period (early Middle Ages) the river deviated 
to the right (poleward), and most of the flow was along the northern branch 
(the Mertvyi Donets). A large port town, also named Tanais, is now being 
built on the bank of this branch, which is beginning to be well supplied 
with water once again. The new Tanais is not far from the present village 
of Nedvigovka. The old Tanais, which was located on the left bank, on the 
Staryi Don, has long since become a ruin. 

". . . the data for Nedvigovka begin just at the time when the data for 
the Elisavet settlement terminate. . . The reason for the move from the 
Elisavet settlement is quite clear: the previously navigable channel of 
the river on which the settlement was located, and on which the entire lite 
of this predominantly commercial town must have depended, became silted 
up. . . Beginning from the moment when traffic on the river (along which 
goods were transported) began to be hampered, it must have occurred to 
the inhabitants to move the main trading point to some place where condi- 
tions were more favorable; the region of the present village of Nedvigovka 
must have been at that time just such a more suitable place" (Knipovich, 
1934, p. 195). 

During the third cold period (late Middle Ages) the Don deviated to the 
left (equatorward). As noted by Samokhin (1958, p. 48), at the end of the 
twelfth century the Venetians founded their colony of Tana not on the 
Mertvyi Donets, which had already grown shallow by this time, but on the 
bank of the Staryi Don, which was better supplied with water. After being 
destroyed by Tamerlane, Tana was rebuilt on its previous site. Then, at 
the end of the fifteenth century, it was captured by the Turks, who gave it 
the name of Adzek or Assek (now Azov). Samokhin thinks that the town 
was shifted to a new site on account of a change in the states of the river 
channels. 

During the third (present) warm period the river has tended to shift to 
the right (northward). The distributary on which Tana stood accordingly 
has become shallow, and at present the main flow is more to the north, 
via the naiddle branches of Kalancha and Kuter'ma. As a result, the 
central part of the Don delta is now advancing considerably. Belyavskii 
(1888) notes that all the southern branches of the river, including the Don 
(Staryi Don) branch, which was formerly the main branch, have becomie 
quite shallow. 

The Dniester. In its lower reaches this river flows southeast and 
empties into the Dniester Estuary. The channel meanders over a broad 
floodplain, forming a great number of lakes. Through this line of lakes 
flows the deep Turunchuk River. 

* [A stanitsa is a large Cossack village.] 



174 



During the third cold period (late Middle Ages) the Dniester deviated 
to the right (southward), and as a result the supply of water to its left 
bank became insignificant. With the onset of the present warm period the 
river began to deviate to the left (northward), and the water supply to the 
left bank increased. In addition, bifurcation of the river took place: a 
left branch of the Dniester, the Turunchuk, was formed near the village of 
Chuburcha. The Turunchuk flows back into the Dniester again at Beloe 
Lake, which is 60 km from the bifurcation point along the Turunchuk and 
130 km from it along the Dniester. Gradually the stream velocity of the 
Turunchuk began to increase, and its channel developed at the expense of 
the Dniester; sediment began to be deposited in the Dniester just down- 
stream from the bifurcation point. At present the Turunchuk carries more 
than 70% of the discharge of the Dniester, which is beginning to show signs 
of senility. If the Turunchuk continues to develop in this way, then in time 
the "main" channel of the Dniester will become completely senile, as was 
the case with the Staryi Dniester [the Old Dniester] during the seventies of 
the last century. As noted by Kortatstsi (1923) the progressive reduction 
of the rate of flow of the Dniester and the deposition of sediment in it are 
resulting in a continually increased development of the Turunchuk at the 
expense of the Dniester. 

The changes undergone by the southward- flowing rivers of the Russian 
plain must be discussed separately. Both history and tradition provide 
definite evidence that the Dniester, the Dnieper, the Don, and the Volga, 
together with their numerous tributaries (and also the Ural and the Emba), 
had considerably more water in them during the cold period of the late 
Middle Ages than they do during the present warm period. Accordingly, 
navigation conditions were previously much better and there were more 
fish in the rivers. 

The Dnieper and its tributaries are becoming shallower (Mossanovskii, 
1886). The water level in the Kal'mius has gone down, and navigation has 
ceased on this river. Another river, the Lugan', has also become shallow. 
During the course of the last century the Sambek, which flowed into the 
Sea of Azov and which was formerly abounding in water, dried up; the 
vessels of Peter I once dropped anchor in the estuary of this river. Two 
hundred years ago large warships were able to go down the Don from 
Voronezh to the Sea of Azov, whereas now this river is navigable only in 
its lower reaches (Davidov and Tsunts, 1958). 

In the not too distant past the Ilovlya was quite full of water and abounded 
in fish. At present, however, after the spring floods abate, there is not 
even a continual flow of water in this stream. Formerly, it should be 
noted, a waterway joining the Volga and the Don led along the Ilovlya. The 
Medveditsa and the Khoper are also now becoming shallow (Kireev, 1961). 

The Volga is at present going through a stage of aging; its channel and 
the lowlands around its mouth are filling up with sediment (Kel'vin, 1933). 
The Emba has stopped discharging into the Caspian, and the lower reaches 
of the Ural have had to be joined to the sea by means of special canals 
(Fedorovich, 1958). 

What is the reason for this deterioration of the hydrological conditions 
in the southern Russian plain during the present period? Clearly, the 
conditions became worse because climatic changes entailed a corresponding 
rearrangement of the global drainage system, changing its orientation to 



175 



polar. The water-divide line shifted equatorward, the flow gradients of 
the rivers became less (in accordance with the reduction of the centrifugal 
forces), and thus the total southward flow became curtailed. 

The rivers in question seemed to be "pushed up," and it appeared as if 
their erosion levels were raised. Thus all of the phenomena typical of 
rivers in a stage of senility were observed. 

The Danube. The Danube delta is triangular in shape, with its vertex 
in the west and its base along the Black Sea. A straight line drawn from 
the vertex to the sea would be about 80 km long (Figure 12), and the edge 
of the delta along the sea is about 150 km long. In its delta the Danube 
divides into three main distributaries: the Chilia, in the north; the 
Sulina, in the middle; and the Sfantu Gheorghe, in the south. 




FIGURE 12. Migrations of the Danube. 

During the third cold period (late Middle Ages) the river deviated to 
the right (equatorward), and the main flow was along the southern and 
middle distributaries. At that time the southern part of the delta advanced 
more rapidly than the northern part. With the onset of the present 
period of climatic warming, the Danube began to deviate to the left 
(poleward), and consequently the bulk of the flow shifted to the Chilia branch, 
which at present carries about 70% of the total discharge (Zenkovich, 1958). 



176 



The rate of advance of the northern part of the delta has increased 
accordingly. Over the last hundred years this part has moved more than 
6 km out into the sea. 

The Neman. In its lower reaches this river has in general a westerly 
course. The branches of the Neman which supply the most water are; 
the Atmata, the Skvirite, the Gilge, and the Njemen. During the third 
cold period (late Middle Ages) the Neman tended to deviate to the left 
(equatorward), and a considerable part of its discharge was along the 
southern branch, the Njemen. With the onset of the present period of 
climatic warming, the river began to deviate to the right (poleward). The 
part of the delta which is actively expanding at present is thus the region 
between the mouths of the northern branches, the Skvirite and the Atmata. 
As Gudelis (1959) notes, the water arteries in the Neman delta are shifting 
to the north; consequently, some of the southern branches (for example, 
the Njeman) have lost their connection with the main channel and have 
embarked upon an independent existence. The general developnaent of the 
southern part of the delta during the present period is marked by an 
appreciable amount of stagnation. 

The Po. This river has in general an easterly course. Together with 
the Volano, Adige, and Brenta Rivers, it has formed a large common 
delta between the Lagoon of Venice in the north and the Lagoon of Comacchio 
in the south. The existence of five ancient mouths of the Po are evidence 
of the migrations of this river. We do not have sufficient data to identify 
chronologically the activity periods of these mouths with any climatic 
periods. All the same, there is some reason to assume that the river 
tended to deviate equatorward during cold periods and poleward during 
warm periods. For example, during the second cold period (antiquity), 
the mouth of the Po was not far from the Comacchio lagoon, that is, more 
toward the south than at present. The famous Etruscan port of Spina, 
which reached its high point in the fourth century B.C., was situated on 
the southern branch of the Padus (as the Po was then called). 

With the onset of the warm period the mouth of the Po moved toward 
the pole, and the southern branches became silted up. Moreover, whereas 
in antiquity the site of the city was quite high up above the sea, during the 
early Middle Ages it gradually sank down below sea level, under the 
influence of the eustatic factor and as a result of the "water- overflow" 
effect. The city of Spina lost its importance as a major trading center 
and gradually went into a decline. By the first centuries A.D. there was 
only a small village on the site. 

Noirthern psa-t of Mediterranean. The northern Mediterranean is situated 
in approximately the same latitudes, and in the same general locality 
relative to the oceans and continents, as the Azov- Black Sea basin. 
Consequently, the long-term level fluctuations in the part of the Mediter- 
ranean north of the Gibraltar parallel are synchronous with those in the 
Azov- Black Sea basin, the amplitudes of the fluctuations being greater in 
the direction of the pole. 

The course of the level variations in the northern Mediterranean during 
the last 2500 years is indicated by the behavior of the world's oldest "tide 
gauge," the temple of Serapis. This temple was built on the shore of the 
Bay of Naples, near the town of Pozzuoli, at the end of the second period 
of climatic cooling (second century B.C., or, according to some sources. 



177 



some-what later). At the beginning of the ■warm period in the early Middle 
Ages, the temple was found to be several meters below sea level. Then, 
during the third cold period (late Middle Ages), it came out of the water 
completely (Figure 13). The low level of the sea at this time is also 
verified by the fact that in 1501 to 1503 the king of Naples sold (at a low 
price) some pieces of land which had been freed from the sea; in particular, 
he presented the area adjoining Pozzuoli to the university of that town. 





























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FIGURE 13. Height of Serapis temple relative to sea level. 

In accordance with the warmer climate during the present period, the 
tenaple of Serapis has once again begun to be submerged, and its floor is 
already more than 1.5 meters below sea level. 

The sea is also advancing in other parts of the northern Mediterranean. 
For example, during each ten-year period Venice sinks no less than 5 cm 
into the sea. A place situated on the lower reaches of the Po became 
submerged under 18.7 cm of water between 1902 and 1950. This raising 
of the level of the sea should explain the abrasive character of the shores 
in the northern Mediterranean, and also the fact that there are not a 
considerable number of beaches there. 

The World Ocean, Data from precise grading measurements indicate 
that during the present period the level of the World Ocean has a slope 
from the poles to the equator. As Shokal'skii (1959, p. 80) points out, the 
position of the average multiannual sea level from south to north is rising 
gradually. This has been noted in North America for both the Atlantic and 
Pacific, and it has been verified in the Soviet Union. However, Shokal'skii 
does not cite the reason for the indicated phenomena. Apparently, the 



178 



phenomena in question are caused by the secular decrease in the diurnal- 
rotation velocity of the Earth (and thus in the centrifugal forces), which 
is in turn a result of the present climatic warming. 



in. CONCLUSION 

We have considered, unfortunately in a very cursory and fragmentary 
way, the "behavior" of more than 30 hydrological objects (13 water bodies 
and 22 rivers) during various intervals of historical time. Our conclusions 
concerning some of these may be somewhat unjustified, but for an over- 
whelming majority of the objects these conclusions are backed up by quite 
adequate factual evidence. 

A great number of facts indicate that, at least during the last 4500 years, 
periodic planet-wide rearrangements of the drainage system have taken 
place. Accordingly, water bodies and streams have tended to shift toward 
the equator during cold periods and toward the poles during warm periods. 
There is only one possible explanation of this correlation between the 
changes in the drainage system and the fluctuations in climate: the 
correlation must exist due to corresponding fluctuations in the Earth's 
angular velocity, caused by climatically induced redistributions of the 
water mass on the Earth's surface. The redistributions take place in a 
meridional direction, parallel to the diurnal- rotation axis of the planet. 

In general, during the course of geological time the hydrosphere 
influences the diurnal- rotation regime in two ways. First of all, it 
transforms gravitational energy into mechanical energy of the diurnal 
rotation: it slows down, or brakes, this rotation. Second, the hydrosphere 
becomes shifted poleward or equatorward to some extent or other, as a 
result of hydroatmospheric processes, thereby changing the moment of 
inertia of the rotating body (the Earth). Thus, ultimately it transforms 
solar thermal energy into mechanical energy of diurnal rotation, and it 
imparts a fluctuational character to this rotation. Consequently, the 
observational data indicating that the secular variations in the Earth's 
rotational regime cannot be accounted for solely in terms of a tidal 
mechanism are quite to be expected. 

At present it is difficult to judge to what extent the so-called spasmodic 
variations in the angular velocity of the Earth, which can become 
appreciable over the course of some years, are climatically induced. The 
correlation of these variations with climatic fluctuations during the last 
two or three centuries (and also their correlation with the level fluctuations 
of the ocean and the Caspian Sea), however, has been demonstrated 
convincingly by Maksimov (1954, 1960). It is interesting that the drainage 
system even responds appreciably to these fluctuations in the Earth's 
diurnal- rotation regime. For example, when the Earth's rotation speeded 
up considerably during the 1870's and 1880's (during the five years from 
1870 to 1875, the Earth "gained" five seconds), the drainage system 
"responded" to this with a definite tendency toward an equatorward shift. 

In addition to the overall, or background, factor (the variations in the 
centrifugal forces of diurnal rotation), a great many other factors affect 
the evolution of the drainage system. These factors influence, in particular. 



179 



migrations of rivers (especially in their lower reaches) and level variations 
in water bodies. In the past the influence of the rotational regime of the 
Earth on the evolution of the planet was not taken into account. Thus, 
insufficiently substantiated hypotheses were advanced to explain the 
hydrological phenomena in specific cases, or (what was more frequent) the 
roles of certain factors were exaggerated. 

For example, some archaeologists and geomorphologists (Tolstov, Kes', 
and others) think that the repeated variations in the courses of the Amu 
Dar'ya and Syr Dar'ya are principally due to two factors: the accumulation 
of alluvial deposits, and human intervention. For historical times certain 
investigators suggest that the second factor (that is, sociopolitical causes) 
is the most important one. Tolstov (1960) is inclined to explain the 
migrations of the rivers by the way in which the deltas are formed, since 
an extremely rapid accumulation of deposits takes place in the deltas, 
especially in the immediate vicinity of the channels and in the channels 
themselves. As a result of this the stream very rapidly reaches the top 
of the embankment around the channel, and of course it attempts to continue 
its flow via lower places. According to Tolstov, during historical times, 
when man used the Amu Dar'ya to irrigate his fields, the channel was no 
longer able to migrate. Man regulated the flow of the river, in an attempt 
to utilize it in the required direction. Consequently, each time the Amu 
Dar'ya briefly broke through and flowed along its old channels during 
historical times, this was related to a period of sudden slackening of the 
regulative activity of man, as a result of major sociopolitical catastrophes. 

Now let us consider in somewhat more detail what parts these two 
factors actually play in the evolution of the global drainage system. First 
let us consider channel processes. During the course of its evolution a 
river tends to develop a so-called equilibrium profile. The river usually 
enters into this more or less stable state first in its lower reaches and 
then gradually in its upper reaches as well. If the influx- discharge condi- 
tions (that is, the wetness conditions in the basin of the river in question) 
do not vary as time goes by, and if there are no tectonic movements, the 
equilibrium profile will depend entirely on the erosion level of the river. 

If the erosion level drops, downcutting of the river bed will gradually 
take place, beginning in the lower reaches, and the elevation of the channel 
will drop accordingly. If the erosion level of the river rises, on the other 
hand, then (also beginning in the lower reaches) the channel will gradually 
begin to fill up with deposits, and its elevation will rise. Thus, the 
accumulation of sediments in a channel begins only when the water level 
rises inthe body of standing water, as a result of filling of the latter with 
solid deposits, the erosion level of the channel being raised accordingly. 
Only in such a case will the elevation of the channel be raised and 
conditions will be favorable for shifting of the stream to a new channel, 
the probability of a shift in one direction being the same as that of a shift 
in the other. 

However, nothing of this sort is observed, for example in the case of 
the Amu Dar'ya. During periods when its erosion level dropped, regardless 
of whether it flowed into the Aral Sea, Lake Sarykamysh, or the Caspian, 
this river (or more precisely its corresponding branches) filled up its 
channel with deposits rather than deepening it, the accumulation of deposits 
being the most intensive in the head reaches of the various branches. Thus 



180 



it is clear that in this case the accumulation of deposits was in no way 
related to variations in the erosion level, and that it was determined 
solely by a decrease in the stream velocity (that is, by a reduction of the 
total amount of water flowing into the given branch). In other words, the 
channel processes do not cause a reduction of the water discharge, but 
rather the opposite is true: a reduction of the discharge produces the 
corresponding channel processes. 

A study of the ancient irrigation, and also certain historical data, 
indicate that the extensive irrigation constructions in the delta regions of 
the Amu Dar'ya, the Syr Dar'ya, and other rivers were erected at times 
when these localities had received an abundant natural supply of water 
for a long time. In those times the problem was not so much to ensure 
a sufficient supply of water as to ensure its maximum utilization. However, 
as time went by, this well-watered phase of the cycle was succeeded by 
another phase in the utilization of the given region for irrigation farming: 
a poorly watered phase during which the total influx of water to the canals 
gradually became less. Then the problem was one of ensuring a sufficient 
supply of water. In order to solve this problem the inhabitants were 
compelled to carry out large-scale clearing and deepening of the canals, 
to move the canal heads upstream, to erect dams, etc. 

As pointed out by Tolstov (1947), the inhabitants then apparently hauled 
up and brought back to their fields the gradually disappearing water of the 
drying branches of the river. Thus, in spite of the fact that during the 
second phase man, by means of his intervention, even improved the water- 
supply conditions in this area, this supply nevertheless diminished, and 
after a time it was cut off completely, for reasons which had nothing to 
do with human activity. Man in this case only succeeded in retarding, to 
some extent, the naturally occurring process. 

Makeev (1952, p. 554-562) thinks that the abandonment of lands for 
socioeconomic reasons cannot create natural conditions which will prevent 
their subsequent irrigation. When lands suitable for irrigation are 
abandoned for centuries, this just indicates that it is impossible to supply 
these lands with water without carrying out large-scale operations. The 
people who live by working this land will not be easily induced to leave the 
cultivated area, and they will take all possible measures to continue its 
irrigation. The previously cultivated lands on the Kunya Dar'ya and the 
Zhana Dar'ya apparently became neglected because the flow of water along 
these channels ceased, as a result of natural causes. 

We have seen that certain regularities in the development of all rivers, 
for instance the simultaneity of their changes in course and the fact that 
these changes are confined to definite climatic periods (equatorward 
deviation of rivers during warm periods and poleward deviation during 
cold periods), can be accounted for neither by a slackening of the 
regulative activity of man nor by any kind of channel processes. Thus 
it follows that climatically induced fluctuations in the length of the 
terrestrial day must be the main, or background, cause of periodic river 
migrations on a world-wide scale. 

We have pointed out that the course of the Earth's evolution, with 
respect to many of its important features, is determined by three regulari- 
ties. This has been the case ever since a certain stage in the evolution 
of our planet when water appeared on the Earth's surface and the division 
of this surface into dry land and sea took place. From this time on^ it 



181 



becarae possible for water to change from liquid to solid Csnow, firn, or 
ice), and vice versa. Thus conditions were created which were conducive 
to periodic redistributions of the water mass relative to the poles and 
the equator (via hydroatmospheric processes produced by a change in the 
overall external thermal balance of the Earth). These important 
regularities in the evolution of the Earth may now be summarized as 
follows: 

1. First- order regularity in the evolution of the Earth. Three factors, 
climate, diurnal- rotation regime, and tectonics, stand in a mutual cause- 
effect relationship to one another. Any variation in one of these factors, 
no matter what its cause, will inevitably entail corresponding variations 
in each of the others. 

2. Second- order regularity in the evolution of the Earth. This regularity, 
which is a consequence of the first- order regularity, states that at any 
given moment of time the differences in the physicomechanical properties 

of the geospheres (lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere) give to the 
figure of the Earth a kind of triple character, as a result of fluctuations 
in the length of the terrestrial day. The degrees of flattening of these 
geospheres, in the sense of their conformity to a new rotational regime, 
will in general not be identical. Exactly identical oblateness of all three 
geospheres is possible only if the Earth's diurnal- rotation velocity 
remains constant for quite a long time. With respect to the dynamics of 
the Earth, this means that any variation in the diurnal velocity inevitably 
leads to a corresponding "triple pulsation" of its geospheres parallel to 
the axis of rotation. 

3. Third-order regularity in the evolution of the Earth. This regularity 
is a consequence of the second- order regularity. The pulsational shifts 

of the hydrosphere relative to the lithosphere, parallel to the diurnal- 
rotation axis of the Earth, result in periodic rearrangements of the entire 
global drainage system, sometimes toward the poles and sometimes toward 
the equator. These planet-wide rearrangements form a background for all 
the other possible changes in the drainage system. The latter may result 
from, for example, tectonic movements, the filling of standing- water bodies 
with deposits, a change in the ratio between the arrival and departure of 
moisture, human activity, etc. It might be said that rivers act more or less 
like gigantic pendulums, which oscillate with different periods and 
amplitudes under the influence of the varying centrifugal forces. Lakes and 
seas, on the other hand, act miore or less like carpenter's levels, andtheyalso 
indicate some particular state of the rotational regime of the Earth. In the 
long run, both the pendulums (rivers) and the levels (bodies of standing 
water) serve as indicators of the corresponding climatic fluctuations. 

The authors consider it their pleasant duty to express their warmest 
and most heartfelt thanks to B. A. Apollov, B. L. Lichkov, N. I. Makkaveev, 
K. K. Markov, and A. V. Shnitnikov for reading through the manuscript of 
this article and for giving valuable advice and recommendations. 



182 



■ III I ■■■■■■■■■■iiiiiiiii II nil II mil 



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1S8 



P.S. Veitsman 

DEEP SEISMIC SOUNDING AND STUDIES OF THE 
STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH'S CRUST IN THE USSR 

A symposium on deep seismic sounding of the Earth's crust took place 
on 14 — 19 November 1960, at the Institute of Earth Physics of the Academy 
of Sciences of the USSR. The symposium was organized by this institute, 
the Council of Prospecting Geophysics of the Presidium of the Academy of 
Sciences of the USSR, the Geophysics Department and the AU-Union Institute 
of Geophysical Prospecting of the Ministry of Geology and the Conservation 
of Natural Resources of the USSR. 

Geologists and geophysicists have become increasingly interested in 
the internal structure of the Earth, and especially in its peripheral part, 
i.e., the Earth's crust and the outer mantle. This subject is also of interest 
to astrophysicists; although the Earth is the most accessible planet of the 
solar system, very little is known as yet concerning its internal structure. 

Increasingly detailed and thorough studies of the crust and the mantle 
are required for the solution of several basic problems confronting modern 
science, such as the developmental trend of the Earth's crust in different 
geological periods, the origin and evolution of the continents and oceans, the 
distribution patterns of mineral resources, and many other subjects of 
purely scientific as well as practical importance. 

The structure of the Earth's crust is investigated by means of several 
geological and geophysical methods, the seismic method being the principal 
one. Deep seismic sounding (DSS) is the most detailed of the available 
seismic methods for studying the Earth's crust; it is based on the study 
of seismic waves generated by special small-scale explosions. Application 
of DSS to the study of the structure of the crust on land was developed by 
Soviet scientists according to principles suggested by G.A. Gamburtsev, 
and with his direct participation. He was the first to study the internal 
structure of the crust by means of principles and techniques which had 
originated in seismic prospecting. Prior to his work these had been 
employed only in seismology for investigating seismic waves generated by 
earthquakes, and had provided very scant information. At present DSS 
is being used extensively in the USSR, both for pure scientific research and 
for practical industrial purposes. 

Outside the USSR similar studies on land are being performed on a 
considerably smaller scale. However, a method similar to DSS for 
oceans was developed for the first time by American and British scientists, 
and is widely used in investigating the Earth's crust within the boiondaries 
of the World Ocean. In the USSR seismic prospecting on the seas and oceans 
was begun in 1956. Working methods were considerably improved by Soviet 
scientists who took into account experience acquired in DSS work on land as 
well as experience in oceanic work accumulated outside the USSR. 

189 



In recent years the Soviet Union has amassed extensive data on the 
application of DSS on land, in regions with different geological histories, 
as well as on inland and open seas, and in the transition zone from the 
Asian continent to the Pacific Ocean. 

The symposium on deep seismic soimding organized by the Academy 
of Sciences of the USSR in November 1960 was necessary for discussions 
of the results obtained as well as of several methodical and technical 
difficulties which had arisen. The symposium also purported to develop 
and improve various aspects of the working methods, to interpret results, 
and finally to coordinate further work, which is being undertaken by an 
increasing number of organizations. 

There were 190 participants representing 48 organizations, 21 of which 
had worked with DSS. Thirty-six papers were read and discussed. 

The potentialities of DSS from a geological standpoint were considered 
by Associate Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR V. V. Belousov. 

The agenda of the symposium can be divided into three principal 
categories: 1) working methods and methods for interpreting data obtained 
by DSS; 2) characteristics of deep seismic waves, and their physical 
nature and interpretation; 3) further development and improvement of the 
DSS apparatus and operating methods. 

1. Observation methods were considered in a paper, delivered by 
E.I. Gal'perin, which was written by a group of authors from the Institute 
of Earth Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Research 
Institute of Geophysics. The paper compared DSS with other methods for 
studying the structure of the Earth's crust, and noted the extensive, though 
not yet fully exploited, possibilities of this method, which is the most 
detailed. The possibility of using DSS for detecting and interpreting waves 
reflected from deep interfaces and for utilizing different types of waves 
(refracted, exchanged, etc.) was emphasized. 

The use of reflected waves in DSS was discussed by E. D. Tagai and 
N.P. Ivanova, as well as by V. Z. Ryaboi and G. G. Shteinberg. 

2. Papers of the second category dealt with the results obtained by 
DSS in regions having different geological histories, including ancient and 
young shields (such as those of Karelia, the Volga-Ural regions, Turkmenia, 
and Kazakhstan), intermontane troughs (Fergana, Western Turkmenia, the 
Kura lowland), folded regions (Tien Shan and Pamir) inland seas (Black and 
Caspian), and the transition zone from the Asian continent to the Pacific 
Ocean (the northern coast, the Sea of Okhotsk, the Kurile Island Arc and 

its accompanying trench, and the northwestern margin of the Pacific). 

Papers on these subjects were presented byl.V. Litvinenko. 

I. V. Pomerantseva, A.V. Egorkin, K.E. Fomenko, A. A. Popov, 

B. S. andl. S. Vol'vovskii, B.D. Trebukova, T. L. Vasil'eva, 

Yu. M. Neprochnov, P. S. Veitsman, E.I. Gal'perin, N.I. Davydova, 

I. P. Kosminskaya, R.M. Krakshina, and others. 

The majority of the authors devoted most of their attention to the 
characteristics of wave patterns and the determination of the physical 
nature of the recorded waves. 

B.S. and I. S. Vol'vovskii, I. V. Pomerantseva, I. V. Margot'eva, 
and A.V. Egorkin reported that alongside the head waves the records 
often show deep waves similar to refracted ones, as well as waves 
reflected from Moho beyond the limiting angle. 



190 



A.S. Alekseev presented some theoretical results, while A.M. Epinat'eva 
and A.G. Aver'yanov presented analyses of experimental data and calcula- 
tions for certain specific models of a medium approximating different 
Earth crust models in its basic features. 

I. P. Kosminskaya reported on work done by several authors in the 
transition zone from the Asian continent to the Pacific, as well as on 
an analysis of the various wave patterns obtained in different areas of 
the investigated region. Observations on seas and oceans permit a much 
more comprehensive use of the dynamic and kinematic properties of the 
recorded waves. The advantage derives mainly from the constant conditions 
for the generation and recording of vibrations as well as from similarities 
in the directional characteristics of the source and the detector. Analysis 
of the kinematic and dynamic features of the recorded wave patterns 
revealed, and made possible the utilization of the head waves related to 
deep interfaces as well as of refracted and reflected waves and those of 
more complex types, such as multiple and exchange waves. 

Preliminary results obtained by using the entire variety of wave 
patterns make it possible to determine the most probable velocity sections 
of the Earth's crust which are characteristic of the different areas 
investigated, thereby isolating several corresponding types of crustal 
structure, the most distinct being the continental type (characteristic 
of shields), the oceanic, and the transitional. 

Yu. N. Godin presented his concept of the multilayer structure of the 
Earth's crust, involving the absence of the so-called classical layers 
(the granite and the basalt layers), and assuming the presence in the 
crust of only metamorphic sedimentary complexes of various geological 
ages. His viewpoint was supported by I. A. Rezanov. Godin also suggested 
that in the near future work should be restricted to methodical experiments 
aiming at refining DSS. He stated that in its present form this method 
cannot solve practical problems concerning the distribution patterns of 
mineral resources, and therefore the time has not yet come for its large- 
scale implementation for regional investigations. 

A different viewpoint was developed by V. V. Fedynskii, B.A. Petrushev- 
skii, I. P. Kosminskaya, and others who claimed that along with the search 
for further improvements, more extensive use be made of DSS, which has 
been adopted in practice as part of the efficient complex of regional geo- 
physical investigation methods. 

Petrushevskii insisted on extensive use of DSS even for determining 
the more general structural features of the Earth's crust for purposes of 
regional geotectonic zoning, which directly provides an efficient basis 
for the prospecting of minerals. According to this author DSS provides 
the most powerful tool for investigating the deep layers of the Earth's 
crust that has yet been invented; the failure to implement this method 
cannot be justified. 

The symposium discussed the characteristics of waves, the nature 
of seismic boundaries, and the structural variety of the Earth's crust, 
as well as results obtained by comparing seismic and gravimetric data. 

Several papers were devoted to studies of wave patterns recorded 
during earthquakes and powerful explosions. Papers on this subject 
were delivered by S.I. Masarskii, N.I. Bulin, E.M. Butovskaya, and 
D. D. Sultanov. 



191 



3. Some of the papers dwelt on the shortcomings of the existing apparatus 
and ways to eliminate them. Their authors complained about the limited 
application of the most modern achievements of radioelectronics, etc. 
The principal speakers on this subject were A.N. Mozzhenko and S.I. Ivanov. 

Yu. P. Neprochnov spoke on the use of radio buoys in maritime work; 
V. S. Voyutskii reported on the use of accumulation methods for improving 
the effective sensitivity in working on land. Observation methods and 
techniques were discussed by M. A. Zaionchkovskii. 

Several papers were concerned with further development of DSS and 
seismic prospecting in general, including the nature of waves, the nature 
of seismic boundaries, the intensity of waves and their frequency spectrum 
as functions of the weight of charge, low-frequency seismics, the use of 
spectroscopy, etc. These contributions were made by A.M. Epinat'eva, 
G.N. Pariiskaya, G.G. Mikhota, Yu.I. Vasil'ev, L. L. Khudzhinskii, 
and others. 

The symposium adopted a resolution which enumerated several dis- 
advantages of DSS, and also suggested ways to eliminate them, and to 
further improve and develop this method, as well as conditions for its most 
efficient use in conjunction with other geophysical methods. 

The following is a brief summary of the principal recommendations 
by the symposium: 

1. Continuation and expansion of work on DSS for investigating the 
inner structure of the crust, primarily in regions of a basically different 
geological structure. 

2. Organizing the planning and coordination of DSS work in conjunction 
with other geophysical methods for investigating the structure of the Earth's 
crust, initially with the aid of gravimetric and aeromagnetic methods. 

For this purpose an interdepartmental coordination commission for deep 
geophysical investigations will be established. 

3. Special experimental research methods for improving DSS on sea 
and on land. 

4. Continuation and expansion of research on dynamic wave character- 
istics, devising methods for the interpretation of refracted and deep 
reflected waves. 

5. Designing of new apparatus based on the most modern achievements 
of radioelectronics and instrumentation. 

6. Generalization of all DSS data obtained in the USSR over the last 
10 years. Not only is this in itself of scientific interest, but it is also 
necessary for devising a reliable and uniform interpretation method and 
an efficient complex of geophysical m^ethods for investigating the Earth's 
crust and the outer portion of the mantle. 

7. Expansion of investigations into the physicomechanical properties 

of rocks under thermodynamic conditions corresponding to those prevailing 
in the Earth's crust. 

8. Improvement of methods for studying the outer portion of the 
Earth's raantle. Recommendations to Soviet seismologists for more 
active work on the seismological methods used in studies of the Earth's 
crust and the and the outer mantle. Utilization of large-scale industrial 
explosions, performing the observations with DSS and seismological 
apparatus. 



192 



A plan is being devised in the USSR for extensive work on infra-deep 
drilling for the direct study of rocks in the Earth's crust and the outer 
mantle under significantly different structural conditions. Deep boreholes 
are planned as follows: 1) through sedimentary layers into granite; 
2) through sedimentary layers into basalt; 3) through granite into basalt; 
4) through basalt into Moho, i.e., into the mantle rocks. 

It is hoped that the implementation of this plan, besides developing 
borehole observation techniques, will yield highly valuable information 
on the composition and nature of the crustal strata and the outer mantle. 
It will also make possible the most comprehensive use of the inherent 
possibilities of DSS and the entire complex of geophysical and geological 
methods for the investigation of the Earth's crust and the outer mantle, 
leading to a better substantial interpretation of the data. In this manner 
conditions will be created for a detailed and systematic study of the 
structure of the Earth's crust on the territory of the USSR, where a great 
variety of structure and composition can be expected. It will then be 
possible to solve some of the most important problems of modern Earth 
science. * 



For the relevant literature the reader is referred to the bibliographical index "Structure of the Earth's Crust 
and the Outer Mantle According to Geophysical Data" (Stroenie kory i vetkhnei chasti mantii Zemli 
po geofizicheskim dannym), published by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, 1962. 



193 



V.A. Tsaregrads kit 

REGULAR LONG-PERIOD VARIATIONS IN THE 
VELOCITY OF THE EARTH'S ROTATION AND 
RELATED DEFORMATIONS OF THE EARTH'S CRUST 

A majority of hypotheses on the origin of deformations in the outer 
portion of the Earth's shell, known as the exosphere or the Earth's crust, 
attribute deformations exclusively to the intrinsic physicochemical changes 
of the matter composing the Earth. As a rule, all the assumed alterations 
of the matter (heating and cooling, phase transitions, recrystallization, 
differentiation, etc.) ultimately lead to changes in density which are 
responsible for the inevitable deformation of the upper, near-surface 
portion of the Earth's shell. V.V. Belousov' s hypothesis, widely accepted 
in the USSR, asserts that the fundamental cause of folding is the local 
heating of matter at a certain depth in the outer part of the shell. Heating 
causes swelling of the crust and results in its stretching, while subsequent 
cooling leads to the subsidence and contraction of the crust, and thus to 
folding. 

However, physicochemical changes of matter taking place in spatially 
limited areas of the Earth's shell are incapable of producing any con- 
siderable compression deformations of the crust. This conclusion is 
borne out by approximate determination of the magnitude of compressive 
and tensile stresses generated, for instance, in the roof of a magmatic 
chamber (i. e., in the case of the most reliably known alternations in the 
aggregate state of the shell). For an approximate determination of the 
rise in subcrustal pressure caused by the fusion of the shell substance 
sufficient for irreversible crust deformations, let us assume the fusion of 
a shell layer located in the interval between 100 km and some very large 
depth. In this case the 100-km. thick exoshell may be compared, without 
large error, to a thin-walled spherical shell filled with a viscous liquid 
and subjected to internal pressure. In order to produce irreversible tensile 
deformations (viz. ruptures and shifts) in this exoshell the tensile stresses 
must reach the magnitude of its tensile strength. 

The tensile strength (and the elastic limit) of the near-surface portion 
of the shell about 40 km thick has been iiniversally estimated by many 
geophysicists as having a mean value of about 10^ dyne/ cm^, which is 
approximately equivalent to 1.02 ton/cm^. The strength of the shell in its 
deeper horiz^ons is estimated at lO^dyne/cm^ and even 10' dyne/cm^. 
Gutenberg (1949) estimated the strength of the Earth's shell to be lO^dyne/cm^ 
at a depth of 40 — 50km, and approximately 10'' dyne/cm^ at a depth of 100km. 
According to Jeffreys (quoted by Gutenberg) the strength of the matter 
constituting the Earth's shell reaches approximately 10' dyne/cm^ at a 
depth of 600 km. According to Barrell, the strength of the shell near the 



194 



Earth's surface is about 10^ dyne/cm^, and 1 O^" dyne / cm^ at a depth of 
2 km. The strength decreases in a downward direction, rapidly at first, 
down to approximately 2 -lO^ dyne/cm^ at a depth of 50km, and then slowly, 
reaching about 10^ dyne/cm^ at a depth of 100km and about 10'' dyne/cm^ 
at a depth of several hundred kilometers. The strength of most rocks on 
the Earth's surface is also approximately 10^ dyne/cm^. 

Let us determine the minimum increase of internal pressure on the 
lower surface of the exosphere necessary to generate irreversible tensile 
deformations, assuming that the strength of the exosphere (a shell 100km 
thick) is 1 ton/cm^. The radial and tangential tensile or compressive 
stresses in a thin-walled spherical shell are proportional to the product 
of the pressure on the lower surface of the shell and the radius (i. e., the 
distance from the center to the median surface of the thin-walled shell 
under consideration) and inversely proportional to twice its thickness. 

Let us determine the difference between the internal pressure and the 
weight of the thin-walled shell, assuming its mean radius to be 632 -10^ cm 
and the critical tensile stress in its latitudinal and meridional sections 
lO^kg/cm^. The result is approximately 31.7kg/cm^. Consequently, 
a 31 kg/cm^ excess of the subcrustal pressure over the weight of the 
crust (i.e., the exosphere) 100km thick is critical, and its further increase 
would generate irreversible tensile deformations in the exoshell. Such a 
rise in the subcrustal pressure would increase the radius by approximately 
3.1km. 

Assuming that the volume of the shell is increased by approximately 
10% by its fusion, it follows that the thickness of the molten layer should 
be approximately 31 km in order to increase the pressure on the roof 
of the molten layer by the critical value of 31.7 kg/cm^ (over the internal 
pressure already existing at this depth). 

Let us now determine the approximate scale of the tensile deformations 
of the exosphere having the same thickness (100 km), e.g., by assuming that 
the area of the magmatic chamber underneath is approximately 3.14 ■10'' km. 
In order to simplify the calculations we shall assume a cylindrical magmatic 
chamber with an internal radius of 100 km and a height (thickness) of 31 km. 
For infinitely thick cylinder walls the stresses of radial compression and 
tangential tension are equal to the product of the excess of the internal 
over the external pressure and the square of the inner radius of the cylinder 
divided by the squared radius of the surface inside the cylinder wall for 
which the stress is being determined. 

Near the inner surface of the cylinder wall the maximum compressive 
radial stress (equal to the difference between the internal and the external 
pressures) reaches 31.7kg/cm^. At a distance of approximately 17 — 18 km 
from this surface the radial compressive stress and the tangential tensile 
stress are approximately equal to the strength of the substance at the 
respective depth. At a distance of 177 km the magnitudes of both stresses 
amount to only one-tenth of the strength of the shell, i. e., they may be 
considered to be negligible. The tensile stresses in the roof of the 
magmatic chamber can be approximated with the aid of the formulas for 
the determination of stresses in uniformly loaded plates fixed along the 
entire edge. 

According to calculations, the radial tensile stress near the contour 
reaches a magnitude of about 2 3.6 kg/ cm^. i.e., only 1/25 — 1/40 of the 



195 



tensile strength of the roof, while the tangential tensile strength in the roof 
is approximately 5.9 kg/cm^ (1/100 — 1/160 the tensile strength of the roof). 
The maximum sag of the roof is approximately 36.1 cm. 
Thus, the tensile stresses in the roof of the magmatic chamber of the 
above dimensions as well as its sag are insignificant in comparison with 
its strength, and are capable of generating only elastic deformations of the 
roof. The tensile stresses in the roof will equal the roof's tensile strength 
only when the radius of the magmatic chamber is approximately 480 — 650km. 
In this case the maximum sag of the roof will be 190 — 640m. Such dimen- 
sions of magmatic chambers may be regarded as critical, their further 
increase would facilitate the generation of irreversible deformations of 
the roof. 

In the case of the solidification of the molten matter in a magmatic 
chamber of critical dimensions the inward sag of the roof will be too small 
to generate substantial compressive crustal deformations. Obviously, 
compressive crustal deformations in large areas entail physicochemical 
changes of matter in very extensive magmatic chambers in the shell, and 
possibly even throughout the entire geosphere. It is quite probable that 
such alterations in the state of matter of an entire shell layer (e.g., its 
fusion) may have occurred in the recent past history of the Earth. Investi- 
gations into the Earth's thermal history made by several scientists have 
revealed that the decay of radioactive elements in the bowels of the Earth 
following its formation caused its progressive heating; the fusion of a thick 
layer within the shell took place at a certain stage of this heating at a 
particular depth below its surface. 

In the USSR painstaking investigations of the Earth's thermal history 
and temperature were conducted by Lyubimova over many years (1955, 1956, 
1957, and 1958). In her various studies she inevitably concluded that the 
shell substance fused at some depth between 100 and 700 km. According to 
Lyubimova' s calculations the fusion of a layer 600 km thick within the shell 
would have increased the Earth's radius by approximately 50km. 

Obviously, fusion proceeded slowly, in parallel with the accumulation 
of the radiogenic heat inside the Earth. Initially fusion must have taken 
place in a thin layer at a depth exceeding 100 km, with the thickness of the 
molten layer subsequently increasing with the increasing radiogenic heat in 
both directions — toward depths exceeding 100 km, with the thickness of the 
layers. Fusion in the outer layers must have ceased upon reaching a 
certain maximum thickness corresponding to the maximum concentration 
of radiogenic heat in the bowels of the Earth. This was followed by the 
cooling of the outer layers of the Earth's shell as a result of the loss of 
heat through continuous radiation into space. In the deeper layers the 
fusion may have continued for some time, gradually decreasing with the 
depletion of the radioactive elements and the corresponding decrease in 
internal heat. This cooling, which started in the outer layers, must have 
spread progressively downward. 

In its first stages this propagation of solidification may have been 
fully compensated by the increasing thickness of the molten layer in the 
downward direction. Subsequently this compensation must have been 
superseded by a gradual decrease in the thickness of the molten layer, the 
rate of its solidification on top being higher than the rate of the downward 
propagation of fusion. Finally, with further depletion of the radioactive 
elements, slow solidification must have taken place throughout the entire 



196 



molten layer. Many Soviet and non-Soviet geophysicists contend — on the 
basis of the unimpeded propagation of transverse seismic waves throughout 
the entire shell, including the Earth's core —that this shell is now in the 
solid state and may contain only isolated molten "oases". 

The possible existence of a molten layer in the outer portion of the 
Earth' s shell in the recent geological past is consistent with geological 
observations that have revealed the following: 1) the extensive occurrence of 
magmatic chambers over the Earth and huge amounts of effluent lavas on 
the Earth's surface; 2) repeated intrusions and extrusions of magma in the 
same areas, often separated by considerable periods of time, of the order 
of magnitude of tens of millions of years, while the total duration of mag- 
matic activity in these areas reached hundreds of millions of years. 

According to Lyubimova, many geophysical observations seem to indicate 
the existence of a differentiated, molten layer with acid rocks concentrating 
in the outer portion and rocks with a higher content of iron having sunk 
toward the base. Simultaneously a redistribution of radioactive elements 
took place, with enrichment in the upper acid rocks and depletion in the 
lower strata. This must have increased the temperature gradient in the 
so-called waveguide layer whose presence has been established by geo- 
physicists at a depth of about 150km (in strata with lower seismic wave 
velocity), and decreased the temperature gradient at the base of the 
"differentiation zone". The base of this zone coincides with the so-called 
"C -layer", with high seismic wave velocities and a jump in electrical 
conductivity, found by geophysicists to exist at depths of 600 to 900 km. 

Lyubimova' s calculations indicate that the temperature gradients are 
precisely those which are required for the observed variation in seismic 
wave velocities. According to Lyubimova, the concentration of iron due 
to the differentiation of matter in the lower portion of the molten layer 
(which she designated "differentiation zone") "is capable of increasing 
the electrical conductivity at these depths, analogous to the case of several 
'silicate glasses which usually possess low ionic conductivity, but which 
acquire high electronic conductivity in the presence of iron impurities" 
(1958). 

The fusion and subsequent solidification of a thick layer within the shell, 
which caused alternate extension and contraction of the Earth's radius, a 
protracted increase of the radius due to the thermal expansion of the 
inner portions of the Earth, as well as possible changes in the length of 
the radius due to other transformations of matter, inevitably generated 
deformations in the outer part of the shell. While ascribing due importance 
to variations in the physicochemical state of matter inside the Earth, it 
cannot be denied that variations in the Earth's rotation must have played 
an important part in the deformations of the outer portion of the shell. 
Variations in the Earth's volume (within limits) do not provide any convinc- 
ing explanation for many characteristics of the deformations of the Earth's 
crust, such as their periodic formation and their geographical distribution. 

Indeed, an explanation of the fairly regular periodic formation of exten- 
sive folded structures requires the assumption of regular periodic variations 
in the liberation and accumulation of radiogenic heat inside the Earth, or 
of regular periodic variations in the outflow of heat toward the Earth' s 
surface. However, such assumptions are improbable, since radioactive 
elements decay at a constant rate which is independent of temperature and 



197 



pressure. The assumption of other cyclic variations in the state of matter, 
similar to harmonic oscillations, is also of low probability. Even if they 
did exist, it would be very difficult to provide a convincing explanation for 
the formation of extensive folded zones in certain geological periods being 
limited to the polar regions, with the equatorial regions being devoid of 
their age analogues. It is also difficult to explain why the formation of 
folded structures in the polar regions was accompanied by synchronous 
tensile deformations of the Earth's crust in the equatorial regions, accom- 
panied by faults, nonuniform radial uplifts, and profuse fissure eruptions 
mainly of basic magma. For example, the Upper Carboniferous —Lower 
Perm:ian folded structures of the Urals and the Upper Latians have neither 
direct continuations in equatorial regions nor submeridional age analogues. 
The extensive Upper Cretaceous— Lower Tertiary submeridional folded 
structures of northeastern USSR and of the Rocky Mountains of North 
America similarly have neither a direct continuation nor age analogues in 
the equatorial regions. 

Solidification of the molten layer in the shell must have caused crustal 
compressive deformations of submeridional strike extending from the North 
to the South Pole, such as in the shape of stepped folded structures, as 
well as sublatitudinal folded zones around the entire Earth. Such structures 
could not have been missed by geological observations even if they re- 
presented only marginal formations around intact crust fragments which 
had not undergone compressive deformations. 

The contraction of the Earth's surface caused by the contraction of its 
volume and, consequently, of its radii, must be accompanied by a simul- 
taneous decrease in the length of parallels and meridians. 

Great difficulties are encountered in attempts to explain, with the aid 
of assumed variations in the Earth's state of aggregation, the possibility 
and cause of the formation, during the same geological periods, of com- 
pressive deformations in the polar regions and of tensile deformations in 
the equatorial regions. However, this actually happened in the Upper 
Cretaceous — Lower Tertiary period when folding occurred in northeastern 
Eurasia and in North America, while India, Africa, and the Indian Ocean 
bottom were undergoing tensile deformations accompanied by the formation 
of numerous vertical or near-vertical faults obviously caused by tensile, 
rather than compressive stresses in the crust; tremendous extrusions of 
magma flowed from the fissures formed by these faults. 

It is impossible to provide a plausible explanation of the alternating 
expansion and compression of the crust in the same fragment based 
solely on the physicochemical changes in matter. Alternations of this 
kind are known, for example, in the northeastern regions of the USSR and 
in the North-American Rocky Mountains. During the Triassic, Jurassic, 
and Lower Cretaceous periods the Earth's crust in these regions underwent 
tensile deformations accompanied by the formation of numerous long, 
steeply inclined, and even vertical faults of submeridional strike with 
intrusions and eruptions of magma mostly of basic and intermediate 
composition. In the Upper Cretaceous the same regions underwent folding 
processes which were, in turn, superseeded by tensile processes in later 
periods, including the Quaternary; these tensile deformations caused faults 
accompanied by differentiated radial uplifting of crust blocks and by 
fissure eruptions of magma. The difficulties involved in interpreting the 
causes of the above events are eliminated by assuming that the crustal 



198 



deformations were caused by the simultaneous effect on the crust of 
deforming forces generated by physicochemical changes in the matter, 
and by long-period variations in the Earth's rotation. 

At the present time three types of variations in the Earth's rotational 
velocity are reliably known (Pariiskii, 1954). These are long-period 
(secular) variations, short-period variations (which include variations 
v/ith cycles of 24 hours, half a year, a year and 14 months), and irregular 
discontinuous variations. 

The tensile or compressive stresses generated in the shell by the 
short-period and the irregular variations in the Earth's rotation are much 
less than the tensile or compressive strength, and consequently they do not 
produce irreversible deformations of the Earth's crust; therefore we are 
not concerned with them. On the other hand, long-period variations in the 
Earth's rotation may cause the buildup of compressive and tensile stresses 
in the outer part of its shell, exceeding the tensile and compressive strength 
of the latter and generating irreversible deformations. We shall examine 
these variations more closely. 

Comparison of observations of solar eclipses in ancient times performed 
by Greek, Babylonian, Chinese, and Egyptian astronomers with modern 
astronomic calculations reveals beyond doubt a decrease in the angular 
velocity of the Earth's rotation over the last 2 000 years, as a result of 
tidal friction. Furthermore, it has been established by several scientists 
that the deceleration of the Earth's rotation is subtracted from its accelera- 
tion; the latter is due to physicochemical variations of matter inside the 
Earth, and is therefore unrelated to tidal friction. In the USSR this problem 
was thoroughly investigated by Pariiskii (1945, 1948, 1953, and 1954), who 
demonstrated that the deceleration of the Earth's rotation over the last 
2 000 years due to tidal friction resulted in an average increase in the 
diurnal period of 2 3 -lO"^ sec/year. This increment comprises an increase 
of 33 -10"^ sec/year due to the deceleration caused by tidal friction, and a 
decrease of 1 -10"^ sec/year which is obviously due to physicochemical 
variations of matter inside the Earth. 

If the diurnal period had been increasing even by such a small quantity 
as 33 -lO"^ sec/year, (or even 23 -lO"^ sec/year) but over a very long period, 
such as approximately 3 — 4 billion years, the rotational velocity of the 
Earth would have decreased to a value at which the stresses in its shell 
would exceed its strength by many times, resulting in a rearrangement of 
the Earth's configuration so as to re-establish the disturbed equilibrium. 
There would have been considerably less flattening of the poles and the 
figure of the Earth would have more closely approximated a sphere. As 
will be seen below, a decrease in the polar flattening of the Earth would 
be closely related to deformations in the outer portion of its shell. The 
shell's outer portion would undergo com.pressive deformations (such as 
folding or overthrusts) in the equatorial regions, and tensile deformations 
(such as domed swells, troughs, or faults) in the polar regions. 

According to the universally accepted tidal theory originated by 
G.H. Darwin (1923) and subsequently modified by H. Jeffreys (1960 and 
earlier works), approximately four billion years ago the Earth and the 
Moon were separated by only a very short distance of about 15,000 km. 
At that time the velocity of revolution of the Moon and the rotational 
velocity of the Earth were considerably higher than they are now, about 
3.90 — 4.36 -10"* sec"^. Tidal friction has decreased the angular velocity 



199 



of the Earth's rotation to its present value of 0.7292 .10-* sec"^ 
It will be appreciated that such a considerable decrease in the rotational 
velocity of the Earth (by a factor of 5.3—6) must have inevitably trans- 
formed the Earth's figure causing conjugated crustal deformations on a 
tremendous scale. 

Recently E. A. Ruskol advanced a hypothesis on the origin and evolution 
of the Moon based on the principles of O. Yu. Shmidt's theory of the origin 
of the solar system. According to Ruskol' s hypothesis (presented at 
the Moscow A strononnic -Geodetic Society on 10 February 1961), the Moon 
was formed from particles of the protoplanetary cloud soon after the 
formation of the Earth, at a distance of about 5 — 10 terrestrial radii from 
the latter. At that time the velocities of the revolution of the Moon about the 
Earth and of the Earth's rotation were considerably higher than they are 
now. Subsequently both velocities decreased continuously because of tidal 
friction, down to their present-day values. The majority of scientists 
engaged in determining the Earth's age date the Earth's formation as 
4.5—5 billion years ago; if this is correct the Moon could not have been 
formed more than four billion years ago. 

According to the Darwin — Jeffreys tidal theory, the angular velocity 
of the Earth's rotation must have been higher than the angular velocity 
of the Moon' s revolution about the Earth in order that the tidal friction 
could decelerate the Earth's rotation and accelerate the Moon's revolution 
about the Earth (so that the Moon must increase its distance from the 
Earth, the velocity of its revolution eventually decreasing again). Shternfeld 
(1958) calculated that if the distance between the Earth and its satellite is 
equal to five terrestrial radii (about 31,850 km), the satellite must have a 
tangential velocity of revolution of 3.538 km/sec; if the distance is equal to 
ten terrestrial radii (about 63,700 km), the velocity must be 2.502 km/sec. 
Consequently, assuming that the Moon was formed at a distance of 63,700 km 
from the Earth, we must also assume that the angular velocity of the Moon's 
revolution about the Earth miust have been approximately 0.4 -10"^ sec"' in 
the initial stages. If it is assumed that the Moon was formed at a distance 
of 32,000 km from the Earth, the initial angular velocity of the Moon's 
revolution must have been approximately 1.111 -lO'^sec"'. 

According to the first assumption, the mean variation in the Moon's 
angular velocity over a period of 4 '10^ years would have been about 
0.093 -lO'i^sec"' per year, which is only half of the present rate of 
decrease of approximately 0.19 -lO-i^sec-* per year. However, this is 
inconsistent with the tidal theory, since the intensity of tidal friction is 
inversely proportional to the sixth power of the distance between the 
mutually attracted bodies and is almost directly proportional to the squared 
velocity of the propagation of the tidal wave. Consequently, the initial 
velocity of the Moon's revolution around the Earth shortly after the Moon's 
formation must have been considerably higher than 0.4 -10-* see"', and its 
distance from the Earth must have been considerably less than 10 terrestrial 
radii. On the second assumption the mean decrement of the Moon's revolu- 
tion velocity over a period of four billion years would be 0.27 -lO"'^ sec"' 
per year, i. e., slightly larger (by a factor of 1.4) than the present-day 
decrement. 

Thus, Ruskol' s hypothesis was found to be the most probable one. 
According to this hypothesis the Moon was formed at a distance of almost 



200 



five terrestrial radii from the Earth, i.e., about 31,800 km, while the 
angular velocity of the Moon's revolution was approximately 1.2 -IQ-^sec"^. 

In addition to the friction generated by lunar tides, the Earth is affected 
by the friction resulting from solar tides. It is the consensus among 
astronomers that the friction of the solar tides has decreased the angular 
velocity of the Earth's rotation, the decrement in the past being essentially 
the same as that prevailing at the present time, since there has been very 
little change in the distance between the Sun and the Earth. According to 
computations performed by G.H. Darwin (1923), the ratio between the 
present rotational deceleration of the Earth due to the friction of the 
solar tides and its total deceleration due to both lunar and solar tides is 
approximately 1 : 3.2, the total deceleration having been approximately 
0,28 -lO'^^sec"^ per year on the average over the last 2000 years. Con- 
sequently the present-day deceleration of the angular velocity of the Earth's 
rotation due to solar tides amounts to about 0.875 -lO'^^sec"^ per year, 
totalling 0.35 •10~'*sec"i over the period of four billion years. 

If the mean variation in the Earth's rotational velocity had remained 
the same as it is now over the four-billion year period, contrary to the 
tidal theory, the lunar tides over this period would have accounted for the 
decrease in the Earth's rotational velocity by approximately 0.76 •10"*sec"^. 
Under these conditions the angular velocity of the Earth's rotation immedi- 
ately following the formation of the Moon should have been 1.85 -lO'^sec"', 
but it has already been noted that this condition is incompatible with the 
tidal theory. According to this theory the difference between the velocities 
of the Earth's rotation and the Moon's revolution must have increased 
progressively to a maxiraum beyond which it should have decreased, 
rapidly at first, and then at a steadily diminishing rate. 

At the present time the variation in the velocities of the Earth's rotation 
and the Moon's revolution is closer to the latter stage, so that the mean 
variation in the Earth's rotational velocity over the four billion years must 
have been many times larger than it has been over the last 2000 years. 
Consequently (in accordance with the tidal -friction theory) the angular 
velocity of the Earth's rotation in the period immediately following the 
formation of the Moon must have been considerably higher than 
1.85 .10-* sec-i. 

There is no doubt that the long-period decrease in the Earth's rotational 
velocity caused by the thermal expansion of the Earth must be added to the 
above-mentioned long-period variation in the Earth's rotational velocity 
caused by tidal friction. It was calculated by Lyubimova (1958) that three 
billion years ago the average annual increment of the Earth's radii due to 
internal heating amounted to 0.01—0.005 cm. The current radial increase 
is approximately 0.001 cm/year, and this must cause a corresponding 
increase of the diurnal period and a decrease in the Earth's polar flattening, 
accompanied by deformations of the crust. 

In addition to the long-period variations, the Earth' s rotational velocity 
also undergoes variations having shorter cycles which are superimposed 
on the longer ones. These short-period variations include those caused 
by global phenomena, such as glaciation or considerable warming of the 
climate, to which the Earth was repeatedly subjected in the past, as 
confirmed by geological observations. The accumulation of ice and snow 
in the polar regions during glaciation periods decreases the moment of 



201 



inertia of the Earth, thereby increasing its rotational velocity in accordance 
with the law of conservation of angular momentum. 

On the contrary the ablation of ice and snow in the polar regions during 
the warmer periods increases the Earth's moment of inertia, thereby 
decreasing its rotational velocity according to the same law. Obviously, 
such variations in the Earth's rotation do not reach magnitudes large 
enough to generate critical stresses in the Earth's shell. Most probably 
the related crustal deformations are elastic, or at any rate small-scale 
deformations. On the other hand, they must shift the surface gradients, 
thereby shifting the shore lines of seas and lakes as well as the 
river beds. 

The long-period variations in the Earth's rotation are combined with 
variations produced by differentiation of the terrestrial matter, including 
differentiation of the substance of the outer shell in the depth interval of 
100 — 700 km (where, according to Lyubimova, the matter has fused and 
solidified), possible phase transformations of matter, and other factors. 

Deceleration of the Earth's rotation by a factor of 2.6 — 3 and possibly 
more would cause a correspondingly large decrease in its polar flattening 
(from approximately 1/40 to its present value of 1/298). This transforma- 
tion of the figure of the Earth would generate closely related large-scale 
compressive deformations of the Earth's crust in the equatorial region, 
and tensile deformations in the polar regions. These crustal deformations 
would add to the tensile deformations generated by the thermal expansion 
of the Earth's radius, which were very large, especially in the more 
remote past. According to Lyubimova, the thermal expansion of matter 
inside the Earth would increase its radii by 90 — 165 km over a period of 
three billion years. Such a large radial extension would have generated 
considerable tensile stresses in the outer portion of the Earth's shell 
which would have certainly developed faults. Over this period, the 
length of the equator should have increased by approximately 560 — 1030km, 
while the length of the parallels should have increased by 485 — 875km at 
a latitude of 35°, by 373—799 km at 50°, by 281—517 km at 60°, by 
236—435 km at 65°, and by 194 — 355 km at 70°. The elongation of meridians 
must have nearly equaled the maximum elongation of the equator (which 
was approximately 559 — 1028 km). The total increase in the length of the 
parallels due both to the change in length of the terrestrial radii (caused 
by the decrease of polar flattenings), and to thermal expansion would be 
as follows. The equator would increase by approximately 240 — 710 km 
in length, and the parallels by 485—875 km at a latitude of 35°, 530 — 955 km 
at 50°, 480 — 715 km at 60°, 430 — 630 km at 65°, and 370 — 530 km at 70°. 

The meridians would increase by approximately 721 —1190 km. To these 
tensile deformations in the outer part of the Earth's shell would be added 
the tensile deformation due to the fusion of substance in a layer about 
600 km thick. According to Lyubimova' s calculations, the resultant 
elongation of the radii should have been 50 km. 

Thus, over the entire period of about four billion years the Earth's 
crust must have been subjected to continuous tensile stresses and faulting 
both in the polar and the equatorial regions. The stresses and faults must 
have been especially great in the first half of this period, but considerably 
less pronounced during the last stages of the geological history of the Earth. 
Consequently, the Earth's surface should not be carrying any large. 



202 



Perigalactium 



Apogalactium 



Deceleration 



Perigalactium 



Acceleration 



Deceleration 



Accc 




1 



rair 



iiiiiii 



M 



m 



M 



IMF 



■ w>^>w'w www W VV W W V WWWW\, 
V vvvV WWWV W W WV WVVVVWVW 



^VWWVVW>/^'VWWVWVVV\/WVVVV 

' V VV w vvvv VV w vv w w w w w w w 



/r-H<»^^-v-^^^^^^^^ 



Glacial period 



Warm period 



Glac 



low level of the World Ocean 



high level of the World Ocean 



low level of 



3 



n 

3 
n 

3 



O 

3 



n 

3 



s„ 



Is n 



n 

3 



O 

3 



1. 



O 

3 



s 



FIGURE 1. Comparison of the periodic variations in the velocity of the galactic movement of the solar system and the Earth's rotatior 
logical tables: 



L anomalistic periods of the Sun's revolution in the Galaxy (millions of years); IL periods of the variation in the rotational velocir 
marks period of most intense deformations while light shading marks repeated deformations with quiescent periods; IV. tensile defor: 
equatorial regions. Shading indicates the approximate period of the most intense faulting and magmatic eruptions; ticks indicate per 
polar regions; b, in the equatorial regions. Shading marks the periods of most intensive transgressions; VI, general climatic variatic 
1. according to Polevaya, 1961; 2, according to Kay (and Holmes), 1951 (accepted in the USSR since 1960, Tugarinov), with the cr. 



Perigalactium 



Apogalactium 



Etecent period 

Pergalactium 



Deceleration 



Acceleration 



Deceleration 






i lityHMiii i uv;,. ' ! 



illliiiiiii 



.Ilililliilliliiilili.ill 



MSxJw 



■vwwwwv 












%/ www WW wVN-'VN^W W\.»^ n 

W V w V V V v ....^-'V.... iV* 



^wvwww wwv 

WW W WVWWVV 



Warm period 



Glacial period 



VI 



:eani 



high level of the World Ocean 



low level of the World Ocean 






2 f? a p 



Vlt 



as well as the periodic deformations of the Earth's crust and certain other geological events, with the geochrono- 



f years); IIL compressive deformation of the Earth's crust (folding, wrench faults, and overthrusts); heavy shading 
e Earth's crust (faults and shifts accompanied by profuse magmatic eruptions) —a. in the polar regions; b. in the 
ted faulting and magmatic eruptions separated by quiescent periods (epochs); V, marine transgressions — a. in the 
jeriods and warm periods; low and high levels of the World Ocean; Vn, geochronological scale, (million years): 
5 the upper limits; 3. [missing in Russian original]; 4. according to Kulp, 1960. 

1419/202—203 



A similar value for the polar flattening of the Earth (1 : 297.6) was 
obtained by calculations based on the conditions of its hydrostatic equilibrium. 
Consequently, the present state of the Earth is in fact extremely close to 
that of hydrostatic equilibrium. Therefore, throughout its existence, the 
Earth's hydrostatic equilibrium, disturbed by variations of its rotational 
velocity, was restored by repeated transformations of its figure in accord- 
ance with the above law for the transformation of the form of an ellipsoid 
by variations of its polar flattening. 

Physically, changes in the Earth's figure are explained as follows: 
a variation of the Earth's rotational velocity inevitably changes the centrifugal 
forces acting on every unit of mass; the equilibrium between the centrifugal 
forces and the centripetal forces produced by the attraction of mass elements 
toward the Earth's center is thus broken. The changes in centrifugal force 
are considerably more pronounced in the equatorial than in the polar regions, 
and this difference enhances the mass imbalance. A decrease in the Earth's 
rotational velocity and the corresponding decrease in the centrifugal forces 
causes a considerably larger increase in the centripetal acceleration of the 
mass elements in the equatorial region than it does in the polar regions. 
This disparity generates compressive stresses in the shell which are con- 
siderably stronger in the equatorial region than in the polar regions. 

When the difference between these stresses reaches the compressive 
strength of the shell and exceeds it, the shell's endosphere undergoes 
plastic deformations, with matter flowing from the equatorial to the polar 
regions. The equatorial region of the shell's exosphere (crust) undergoes 
irreversible compressive deformations, while tensile deformations occur in 
the polar regions. These deformations in the endosphere and exosphere 
of the shell restore the equilibrium of the Earth's figure. If the centri- 
fugal forces varied identically per unit mass at all latitudes, the transfor- 
mation of the Earth's figure with reduced rotational velocity would merely 
involve a slight uniform compaction of its substance and a corresponding 
decrease of its volume; in the case of increased velocity, the density would 
decrease slightly while the volume would be slightly increased, but there 
would be scarcely any variation in the polar flattening. * It is clear that 
the variation of the centrifugal forces at the critical parallels due to changes 
in the Earth's rotational velocity is always equal to the mean variation of 
centrifugal forces over the entire surface of the Earth. 

Needless to say that actually the Earth's crust is not fixed at the critical 
parallels, and a decrease in the velocity of the Earth's rotation may always 
cause a slight meridional shift of the crust together with the subcrustal 
masses toward the poles. 

However, even these slight shifts of the crust along the meridians 
(conforming to the slight variations in the length of the meridional arcs 
and their curvatures) would be strongly limited by the necessity for a 
considerable preliminary (or simultaneous) latitudinal contraction of 
the crust and its radial subsidence in the equatorial region. The preli- 
minary buildup of compressive stresses necessary for the latitudinal 
contraction of the crust in this region significantly impedes any (even 
slight) shift of the crust along the meridians and its transformation 

• There would still be a slight variation of the polar flattening as a result of the slight variation in the 
Earth's moment of inertia. 



205 



toward the new equilibrium profile. An increase in the Earth's rotational 
velocity cannot cause crustal shifts along the meridians (with the exception 
of small local shifts along shear surfaces) because of the necessary 
contraction of the meridians in their entirety (the contraction being larger 
in the polar regions). An increase in the polar flattening will cause a 
considerable contraction of the Earth's crust in the polar regions along 
the parallels; this contraction necessitates a buildup of considerable com- 
pressive stresses, and therefore the rearrangement of the crust toward 
the new equilibrium profile will occur at some time later than (or at least 
simultaneously with) the commencement of the deformations involved in 
the latitudinal and meridional extension of the crust in the equatorial region. 

Thus, with a decrease in the polar flattening (which is tantamount to a 
decrease in the Earth's rotational velocity) the Earth's crust in the 
equatorial region undergoes deformations of latitudinal and meridional 
contraction (the latter occurring predominantly in the latitudinal zone 
near the critical parallels), accompanied with radial subsidences; the 
Earth's crust in the polar regions undergoes latitudinal and meridional 
tensile deformations accompanied with radial upliftings. An increase 
of the polar flattening (and rotational velocity) of the Earth causes tensile 
latitudinal and meridional deformations of the Earth's crust in the equato- 
rial region accompanied with radial upliftings, while the crust in the polar 
regions undergoes compressive latitudinal and meridional deformations 
accompanied with radial subsidences. 

By the properties of ellipsoids the crust undergoes larger deformations 
in the latitudinal direction, since a variation of the polar flattening (i. e., 
its decrease or increase) causes a considerably larger variation in the 
length of the parallels than in the length of the meridional arcs between 
them. Therefore the meridional compressive deformations of the crust 
must be the more pronounced in the case of increased velocity of the Earth's 
rotation in the polar regions, and in the case of its decrease in the equa- 
torial region. In both cases folding deformations must occur near the 
critical parallels, and therefore folded structures of latitudinal strike 
near the critical parallels will be polygenetic and highly complex. 

There is no doubt that an increase in the Earth's rotational velocity in 
the polar regions or its decrease in the equatorial region may also produce 
folded structures fringing the stable crustal fragments that have escaped 
compressive deformations (in both latitudinal and meridional directions). 
Wherever variations in the Earth' s rotation during the given period 
generate tensile stresses accompanied with radial upliftings (due to the 
influx of subcrustal plastic masses), tensile deformations of the crust 
occur, together with large-scale fissure extrusions of magma. Belts and 
zones of compressive and tensile deformations are produced in the less 
stable, weakened areas of the Earth's crust, with nonuniform composition 
and structure. 

The above estimates of the strength of the Earth's shell make it possible 
to assess the minimum variation in the Earth's rotational velocity that 
is necessary for the compressive and tensile stresses in the outer portion 
of the shell (the exosphere) to exceed the shell's elastic limit (with respect 
to its compressive and tensile strength). According to calculations, this 
minimum variation in the Earth's rotation must be approximately 
0.06—0.1 -10"* sec"'. On reaching this magnitude, variations in the Earth's 



206 



rotation will generate irreversible compressive and tensile deformations 
of the Earth's crust and a transformation of the Earth's figure. Such 
variations in the Earth's rotation will be the combined result of all the 
partial variations, and they will be of at least a certain minimum duration. 
Apparently there have been prolonged increases in the Earth's rotational 
velocity alternating with prolonged decelerations. 

In all probability, large-scale folding of the crust in the polar region 
(such as the Urals, the Appalachians, the folded structures in north- 
eastern USSR, the Rocky Mountains, the Cordilleras, and others) was 
preceded by a period of prevailing increase in the Earth's rotational velocity. 
On the other hand, tensile formations of the Earth's crust (occurring on 
a very large scale in the polar regions), accompanied with faults, non- 
uniform radial uplifts of individual fragments, subsidences and swellings, 
as well as with injection and profuse eruptions of magma into and through 
the fault fissures (m.ainly basic magma) were preceded by periods of 
prevailing deceleration of the Earth's rotation. Obviously, these tensile 
and compressive crustal deformations generated by significant variations 
in the Earth's rotation played an important part in the transformation of 
the outer portion of the Earth's shell, even when being greatly complicated 
by simultaneous crustal deformations resulting from physicochemical 
variations of the matter inside the Earth, Therefore traces of these 
deformations manifest themselves fairly distinctly on the surface. 

The Devonian geological period was probably characterized by prevailing 
deceleration of the Earth's rotation. Possibly such deceleration had begun 
as early as the Silurian and terminated in the Upper Carboniferous. This 
period of the assumed deceleration of the Earth's rotation occupies an 
intermediate positiDn between the Caledonian and the Urals (HercjTiian) 
folding in the polar regions. This hypothesis is based on the absence of 
any appreciable Upper Silurian — Lower Carboniferous folded structures 
of submeridional strike" in the polar region, and on the presence of an 
extensive fault zone on the eastern slope of the Urals manifesting itself 
in numerous porphyrite dikes as well as in large meridional intrustions of 
peridotites. pyroxenites, and gabbros of the Northern and Central Urals 
and in other regions. 

An increase in the Earth's rotational velocity apparently commenced in 
the first half of the Carboniferous period, and its prevalence led to the 
formation of the folded structures of the Urals in the second half of the 
Carboniferous period and of the Appalachian folded structures in the Upper 
Carboniferous — Lower Permian period. 

This was apparently again followed, in the Permian period, by a decelera- 
tion of the Earth's rotation which led to a tensile deformation of the crust 
at the end of the Permian and the beginning of the Triassic in the polar 
regions, on the Siberian platform, accompanied with faults and profuse 
fissure eruptions of basic magma (the Siberian traps). The tensile deforma- 
tion of the Earth's crust continued throughout the Triassic, Jurassic, and 



The reader is reminded that the decrease in the length of the parallels in the polar regions associated with 
an increase in the velo;ity of the Earth's rotation is considerably larger than the decrease in the length of 
the meridian arcs, and therefore in these regions folded structures of submeridional strike must prevail over 
those of latitudinal strike. The increase in the length of the parallels associated with a decrease in the 
velocity of the Earth's rotation is likewise larger than the increase in the length of the meridional arcs. 



207 



Upper Cretaceous periods, involving various areas in the polar region. 
Its traces have been preserved in the extensive fault zones which are 
interlaced by dikes of porphyrites and porphyries, as well as in fields of 
basalt and andesite eruptions in northeastern USSR, in the Cordilleras, in 
the Rocky Mountains, and elsewhere. The tremendous scale of the tensile 
crustal deformation in northeastern USSR is evidenced by the large troughs, 
the numerous steeply dipping and fairly thick dikes of porphyrites and 
porphyries occurring over very extensive areas, the long, narrow belts of 
effusives (traces of fissure eruptions), the nonuniform radial uplifts of 
individual crustal fragments, etc. 

Acceleration of the Earth's rotation was apparently again prevalent at 
the beginning of the Upper Cretaceous period, resulting in the formation 
of folded structures in northeastern USSR, in the Cordilleras, and in the 
Rockies, and to the formation of tensile deformations and faults of the 
Earth's crust in the equatorial region — in Africa, and India, in the 
northern Indian Ocean, and probably also in South America. These tensile 
deformations and faults of the crust were accompanied with intrusions 
of basic magma into numerous fissures (e.g., in Africa) and with large- 
scale fissure eruptions of basic magma to the surface (e. g., in India, 
and in the Indian Ocean). In the Cordilleras and the Rockies the folding 
continued into the Lower Tertiary period. 

The prevailing deceleration of the Earth's rotation apparently recurred 
in the second half of the Tertiary, and has continued to the present time. 
It generated tensile deformation and faults of the Earth's crust in numerous 
areas in the polar regions as well as large-scale, mainly fissures eruptions 
of basic and intermediate magma. Huge fault fissures which served as 
outlets for the eruption of thick basalt sheets are known in Greenland, 
Iceland, the northern Atlantic, Bolshezemel'skaya Tundra, Spitsbergen, 
eastern Transbaikalia, Mongolia, northeastern USSR, Alaska, British 
Columbia, and other regions. No true folded formations (true crustal 
folding) on any considerable scale occurred during this period in the polar 
regions. According to geological observations, the orogenesis in Alaska, 
the Rockies, and other areas during this period took the form of nonuniform 
(radial) uplifting of individual crustal blocks between faults, most probably 
as a result of the tensile deformation of the crust combined with its radial 
uplifting. 

The period between the formation of the folded structures of the Urals 
and those in northeastern USSR, the Appalachians, and the Rockies lasted 
approximately 175 to 180 million years. Indeed, the commencement of the 
most intensive folding processes in the Urals is dated as the end of the 
Middle and the beginning of the Upper Carboniferous period, while the 
commencement of the most intensive folding processes in northeastern 
USSR is dated as the end of the Lower Cretaceous and the beginning of 
the Upper Cretaceous period. According to the geochronological scale 
developed by Holmes and Kay (1951), the boundary between the Middle and 
Upper Carboniferous period lies approximately 265 to 270 million years ago, 
and approximately 285 to 290 million years ago according to the scale 
developed by Polevaya (1961); the boundary between the Lower and the 
Upper Cretaceous period is dated as approximately 90 to 100 million years 
ago on the former scale, and as approximately 105 to 110 million years on 
the latter. The period intervening between the folding periods was, 
therefore, about 175 to 180 million years. 



208 



A period of approximately the same duration intervened between the 
formation of the largest crustal fault zones which was accompanied with 
large-scale magma eruptions (mainly basic) and the nonuniform uplifting 
of crustal fragments in the Upper Tertiary —Quaternary and in the 
Permian —Triassic —Jurassic. Early crustal faults with profuse eruptions 
of basalts are known in the Lower Eocene of North America (in Washington 
and Oregon) and eruptions of andesites are known in the Absaroka Mountains 
in the Rockies and on the Yellowstone Plateau. According to the geochrono- 
logical scale, these eruptions occurred approximately 40 to 50 million 
years ago. Early tensile deformations of the crust and fissure eruptions of 
basic magma during the Early Mesozoic period of deceleration of the 
Earth's rotation had already commenced by the Upper Pernaian period, 
approximately 2 30 to 22 million years ago on Polevaya' s geochronological 
scale. The intervening period was, therefore, again approximately 180 or 
170 million years. This interval between successive periods of compressive 
deformations of the Earth's crust and those of tensile deformations is very 
similar to the so-called anomalistic period of the revolution of the solar 
system about the central galactic masses, determined to be approximately 
176 million years by Parenago (1952). This fairly close agreement can 
hardly be accidental. Evidently, variations in the Earth's rotational velocity 
are closely related to the nonuniformity of this galactic movement of the 
solar system. 



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PARENAGO, P.P. O gravitatsionnom potentsiale Galaktiki (On the 

Gravitational Potential of the Galaxy), Part 2. — Astronomicheskii 
Zhurnal, Vol.29, No. 3, Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1952. 

PARIISKII, N.N. —Ibid., Vol.22, No. 2, 1945. 



210 



PARnSKII, N.N. Nepostoyanstvo vrashoheniya Zemli i ee deformatsii 
(Nonuniformity of the Earth's Rotation and Its Deformations). 
Trudy Soveshchaniya po metodam izucheniya dvizhenii i deformatsii 
zemnoi kory. Geodezizdat. 1948. 

PARIISKII, N.N. Izmenenie skorosti vrashoheniya Zemli v techenie goda 
(Annual Variation of the Earth's Rotational Velocity). — In: Sbornik 
statei "O vliyanii svobodnoi nutatsii Zenali na uglovuyu skorost' ee 
vrashoheniya". Trudy Geofizicheskogo tnstituta AN SSSR, No. 19(145), 
Izdatel' stvo AN SSSR . 1953. 

PARIISKII, N.N. Neravnomernost' vrashoheniya Zemli (Nonuniformity 
of the Earth's Rotation). — Izdatel' stvo AN SSSR. 1954. 

PARIISKII, N.N. andO.S. BERLYAND. Vliyanie sezonnykh izmenenii 
atmosfernoi tsirkulyatsii na skorost' vrashoheniya Zemli (Effect 
of Seasonal Variations in Atmospheric Circulations upon the Earth's 
Rotational Velocity). — Trudy Geofizicheskogo instituta AN SSSR, 
No. 19(146), Izdatel' stvo AN SSSR. 1953. 

POLEVAYA, N.I. Shkala absolyutnoi geokhronologii po glaukonitam 
(Absolute Geochronological Scale by Glauoonites). — Voprosy 
geokhronologii i geologii, Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1961. 

RONOV, A.B. andV.E. KHAIN. Devonskie litologicheskie formatsii 

mira (Devonian Lithological Formations of the World). — In: Sbornik 
"Sovetskaya Geologiya", No. 41. 1954. 

SHTAUB, W. Possibility of Transition from Elliptical Orbit to Circular 
and Vice Versa. — In: Sbornik statei "Ob iskusstvennom sputnike 
Zemli", Izd. oboronnoi promyshlermosti. 1959. 

SHTERNFEL'D, A. Iskusstvennye sputniki (Artificial Satellites). — 
Gostekhizdat. 1958. 

SYTINSKAYA, N.N. Priroda Luny (The Nature of the Moon). — 
Fizmatgiz. 1959. 

TUGARINOV, A.I. Geologu — o metodakh opredeleniya absolyutnogo 

vozrasta gornykh porod (Methods for Absolute Dating of Rocks for 
Geologists). — Gosgeoltekhizdat. 1961. 

WANG CHI-TIEH. Prikladnaya teoriya uprugosti (Applied Theory of 
Elasticity). — Fizmatgiz. 1959. 

WILSON, J. T. The Earth's Crust. [Russian translation. 1961.] 

ZONN, W. and K. RUDNITSKII. Stellar Astronomy. [Russian trans- 
lation. 1959.] 



211 



G.F. Lungersgauzen 

PERIODIC CLIMATIC VARIATIONS IN THE EARTH'S 
GEOLOGICAL PAST* 



Paleoclimatological data occupy a prominent position among new facts 
and generalizations in the fields of geology, geography, and related 
sciences. These data are of fundamental interest, and possibly character- 
ize better and more completely (compared with some other more striking 
discoveries) the current developmental trend of the geological and geo- 
graphical sciences. 

It is characteristic of this trend that investigators working in different 
branches of science discover that a close interrelationship exists between 
various facts which appear to be outwardly quite dissimilar, and that these 
investigators are forced to turn to extraterrestrial, cosmic factors for 
an explanation of the vast group of phenomena which heretofore were the 
domain of the geographer and the geologist. In this connection data 
concerning periodic variations in climate during past geological periods 
become most important. Analysis of numerous observation and specialized 
paleogeographic reconstructions concerning deposits of various ages, 
beginning with Upper Archean and ending with Neogene and Quaternary 
formations, leads to several inferences which appear to be of fairly general 
significance. Some of these inferences are presented below. 

1. Climatic variations (or fluctuations) were generally synchronous 

for large areas of the Earth's surface, i.e., they were of a planetary nature. 

2. The general regularities of such climatic variations (their duration 
and trend) have been operative throughout the entire geological history 
accessible to specialized investigations, probably beginning with the Archean 
and certainly from the Middle Proterozoic, and continuing until the present 
time. The facts elicited by geologists and paleogeographers offer no 
suggestion of any fundamental changes in the general trend of the climatic 
evolution in the remote geological past in comparison with the thoroughly 
studied climate of the Anthropogenic or even with that of historical periods. 

The general, universal scheme of variation in the conditions of the Earth's 
aerial and liquid envelopes during the development of our planet has not 
been disturbed by the specific climatic features of the individual geological 
periods, such as the sheet glaciation of the Upper Pre -Cambrian or Upper- 
Paleozoic (Gondwana region), the hot and humid climate of the Lower and 
Middle Carboniferous periods, or the arid conditions in the Devonian, 
Upper Permian, and Lower Triassic periods. 

* This is a condensation of a paper read at the Third Astrogeological Conference at the Geographical Society 
of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Leningrad, 9 May 1960). 



212 



3. Climatic variations constitute rhythms or cycles of different 
durations. Short periods of climatic fluctuations have left their distinct 
imprints on sediments of all the geological ages, both in the continental 
facies (lacustrine -glacial and proper lacustrine sediments) and in the 
marine facies, especially in shallow marine and lagoon sediments. These 
features include rhythms of saliferous and carbonate or argillaceous- 
carbonate sediments (Figure 1), varved structure of lacustrine and marine 
oozes containing numerous intercalations found in the skeletal parts of 
microorganisms or algal residues, etc. Finally, short climatic rhythms 
are vividly reflected by the structure of organic matter, including annual 
rings of fossil wood as well as those in the xylem of present-day trees 
(Figure 2), structural regularities of accumulation layers of carbonate 
algae (Figure 3), structures of mollusk shells, etc. 




FIGURE 1. Rhythmic banding of an organogenic argillaceous limestone (a polished 
specimen from a transverse section). Middle Eocene. "Green River" formation, 
Colorado. Distinct rhythms corresponding to sunspot cycles (after Rradiey. 1929). 

Short climatic periods correspond to the principal seasons of the year 
(more rarely to shorter periods, i.e., parts of seasons), as well as to 
periods of 2 to 3, 5, 11, 20 to 22, 35, and 70 years (Figures 4 and 5). 
As yet, cycles of 100, 1000, . 10,000 to 12,000 years, etc. can be established 
only with a small degree of certainty. The maximum duration of well- 
established climatic cycles approaches 180 to 200 million years. 

In studies of the banding of sediments and of the climatic rhythms, the 
reliability of inferences depends on proving the annual nature of the 
principal banding elements, i. e., of a conjugated pair of elementary layers 
corresponding to summer and winter, or more precisely to the autumn- 
winter and the spring-summer seasons. This task is facilitated when the 



213 



Years 18 00 



!L1810 



1820 



1830 



1840 



1850 



1860 



1870 



1880 



1890 



1900 



1910 1920 



1930 



1940 



1950 1954 



FIGURE 2. Diagram of annual increments of the xylem of a present-day larch (Larix d ahuric a) for the period from 1796 to 1954. The maximum increments exhibit 
distinct traces of 3-year climatic cycles, while the minimum increments reflect sunspot cycles (about 12 years). Rhythms of 60 to 65 years are less distinct (A, B, C). 
The right bank of the Lena River upstream from the town of Yakutsk. 



investigator deals with banding in organogenic structures, such as separate 
bioherms or entire reef structures, and even more so when he deals with 
fossil wood. Investigation of varved clays (varve sediments) in Sweden, 
Norway, and Finland and recently also in the USA demonstrated that this 
problem can be adequately solved for periglacial lacustrine sediments 
as well (Figure 6). In studies of the banded sediments of marine and 
continental origins, it :.s sometimes very difficult to establish the seasonal 
nature of the banding. 




FIGURES. Structure of cartionate algae fof Col lenia type). Lower Ordovician. 
Podkamenaaya Tunguska River. The sharply delineated dark, mace argillaceous varves 
separate complexes of annual layers corresponding to the 11-year cycle. Rhythms of 3 
and 5 years can be detected «'ithin these cycles. 

As yet, the vast factual data amassed by geologists has been only 
partially utilized in specialized paleoclimatic analyses. As an example 
De-Geer's monumental review (1940) with its numerous varve -correlation 
diagrams may be cited; studies of it may yield very rich material on Upper 
Glacial climatic variations in Sweden. 

4. Apart from the rhythmic banding due to exogenic factors (primarily 
climatic variations) there also exists a rhythmic banding of endogenic origin 
which is most clearly manifested by the structure of carbonate or siliceous 
sediments formed by Recent and Quaternary thermal springs (Figure 7 
and 8) as well as during older geological periods. This is vividly illustrated 
by the banding of jaspers among the volcanogenic Devonian deposits in the 
South Urals and Altai (Figure 9). Banding of endogenic type has not yet 
been adequately studied. However, the available data suggest that the 
rhj-thms of endogenic banduig generally obey the same regularities as do 
the exogenic rhythms. 



215 




2 4 6 8 10 



FIGURE 5. Paleoclimatic curves. Upper diagram — according to annual increments of summer sediments (calcareous varves'); lower - increments of sediments during the 
winter season (thin marly varves). Lower Cambrian. Kutorgina suite on the Lena River opposite the village of Botomaf: 1 —36 — maximum increments of sediments 
corresponding to S-year cycles; I— XI — minima corresponding to the U-year (sunspot) cycles; A— E — maximum increments of winter sediments corresponding to periods 
of 20 to 25 years. 



10 



5 ■ 




M ' I I M I ' I 

40 



10 



20 



30 



50 



60 



70 



60 



90 



100 



110 



120 



130 



140 



150 



160 



170 



180 



X X 

FIGURE 4. Diagram of rhythmic banding(paleocliniatic curve) in micaceous- argillaceous quartzite schists alternating with marble intercalations. Upper Proterozoic 
scale (a total of approximately 380 years); the vertical axis represents the thickness of annual layers (mm). Many sections of the curve display rhythms of 3. 5, and 
carbonate composition. The average duration of these rhythms is 50 to 55 years. The very thick carbonate varves possibly result from secular rhythms (80 to 100 ye 
HI Layers (varves) of pure carbonate composition 
X Very thick carbonate varves 




370 '^>-380 



e Vitlm River, at the town of todaibo. The horizontal axis in the diagram represents the geoclironical 
12 years; moteovec one can notice rhythms whose botindaries are accentuated hy tliick varve-; of 



141<)/2l6-217a 




'iO-i 



15 



10- 



FIGURE 6. Paleocliiiiatic curve based on annual prcciritation increments in Middle Quaternary lacustrine varve clays lying between moraines of stages I and II of the maxi 
from the village ot Kyzyl-Many. 1 —'23. etc. — triennial cycles; a-g, etc. — five-year cycles; I— XLIV — sunspot cycles of 1 to 16 years (mean duration, about 12 years); 




90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 Years 
III urn <«» Hv iim iiva »«m ua. m «ui M«ii «xx»i mwi- «x«y lun x««y« mm ixxn « xu xi« uw xii» 



m glaciation. Altai Mountains, Chuiskaya Steppe, left bank of the Chagan River 7 km upstream 
\— J —climatic cycles of 35 to 60 years. 



14l9/216-217b 




FIGURE 7. Rhythmic banding in travertines deposited by thermal springs. Kazakhstan, Tarbagatai 
Range, Kel'dy-Murat River. Photograph by Yu. A. Tverdislov. 



10 




.1UU.U.U. Rhythmic banding in aragonlte ("onyx marble"). Caucasus, Armenia, Agamzalinskoe 
deposit. Rhythms of 3, 5 and 8 years. 



FIGURE 8. 



5. In many cases the climatic periods established by geologists agree 
remarkably well with periodicities of cosmic phenomena established by 
astronomers. These include the fairly well-studied periodic variations 
in the intensity of solar radiation. This probably explains not only the 
minor rhythms (which include, among others, the period of 11 to 12 years 
that has been known to many geologists and paleogeographers for a long 
time), but also climatic cycles of considerably longer duration, such as 
the major stages in the climatic variations during the glacial periods and 
corresponding variations in the development of sheet glaciers. Traces 
of such stages can be perceived in the solar radiation curves for the last 
600,000 years constructed by Milankovitsch. 



217 





FIGURE 9. Rhythmic banding of 
endogenic type. Gray jaspers. 
Devonian. Kolyvan steppe in 
Rudnyi Altai. Banding rhythms 
correspond to periods of 3, 12 and 
20 years. 



6. We are still in complete ignorance of the 
nature of the largest climatic variations on a 
scale of hundreds, thousands, and millions of 
years. One may only speak, with some measure 
of certainty, of the reflection of the complete 
galactic revolution of the solar system in the 
general course of geological processes and 
climatic evolution of the Earth. This period of 
revolution, which is 175 to 180 million years 
according to Parenago, is probably paralleled 
by the incidence of tremendous terrestrial 
glaciations which have been termed the "cosmic 
winters". This subject will be discussed in 
somewhat greater detail below. 

The existence of geological (and probably 
also climatic, in the broad meaning of this 
word) cycles of even greater duration, com- 
prising several periods of complete galactic 
revolutions, i.e., as much as 700 to 1000 
million years, may be considered. Special 
attention should be drawn to the problem of 
the "Upper Pre-Cambrian" which has recently 
been considered from a new, though far from 
unquestionable, slant. The latest absolute 
geochronological data based mainly on studies 
of the Pre-Cambrian on USSR territory indicate, 
fairly consistently, the tremendous duration of 
time consumed in the accumulation of the so- 
called "Riphean", or "Sinian"* complex, of 
about 700 million or even a billion years. 

The field geologists, thoroughly acquainted 
with these strata, have been amazed by their 
absolute dating, although it can hardly be 
reconciled with the accepted concepts of the 
typical physiographic and geological conditions 
of the Upper Pre-Cambrian. These include 
the relatively small average thickness of strata 
and the Eocambrian predominance of very 
rapidly accumulated continental and shallow 
marine sediments, such as strata of cross- 
grained sandstones, reef limestones, con- 
glomerates, tillites, etc.; the absence of 
regionally consistent lacunes and traces of 
large diastrophic phases in Eocambrian sections; 
and finally the insignificant evolution of the 
organic nature mainly represented by the blue- 
green algae, whose general habit remained 



The term was a very poor choice in the case of the USSR, but 
unfortunately it has become widely adopted on account of its 
introduction into the unified stratigraphic scale used in geolo- 
gical mapping. 



218 



TABLE 2. Number of stnicriires of different dimensions 



Width, km 






























































10 1 


15 1 


20 1 


25 1 


^) \ 


35 1 


40 1 


45 1 


50 1 


55 1 


60 I 


65 1 


70 j 


75 1 


80 { 


85 1 


9(t 1 


95 1 


100 1 105 1 


no 1 


US 1 


120 


125 1 


135 


140 1 


150 1 


160 1 


170 1 


175 


5 


2« 


2 


„ 1 


;| 
















_ 


_ 


_ 


^ 


_ 


_ 


„ 





^. 





_ 





— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 





10 


1 





5 


1 


142 


1 


1 


1 


2 


_ 


9 


— 


— 


_- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


, — 




— 


— 


— 


— 


IS 




— 


1 


— 


16- 


2 


2 


_ 


I 





2 


. 


— - 


1 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


20 


^_ 





1 


1 


4 


1 


3 


1 


IG 





— 


— 


1 


2 


1 


— 


— 


— 


5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 


25 


— 


— 


— 




2 


— 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


— 


1 


I 


— 


— 


— 


1 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-~ 




^ 


_ 


— 


80 














_ 


1 


8 


2 


4 


a 


i 


3 


1 








__ 


195 


— 


3 


^ 


2 


2 


— 


1 


3 


2 


1 


1 


35 
40 


























— - 


1 


, 


— 


__ 





1 


1 


1 


— ~ 


, 





1 


»- 


I 


, — 





,_ 












_ 


_. 





__ 





„ 


^ 


— 


2 


1 


1 


1 


_ 


2 




1 


— 


— 


— 




— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


<4S 

50 





— 


— 


— 


— 


__ 


_ 


_ 


— 


1 
1 


— 


2 


3 


1 


— 


— 


— 


z 


1 

9 


— 


i 


-^ 


1 


- 


- 


- 


B 


" 


_ 


- 


E5 
60 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 
2 


- 


— 


1 


1 


1 








3 


2 


- 


3 


70 


_ 


_ 


_ 


. 


_ 


__ 


— 








— 


— 


■ — 


_^ 


— 


__ 


— 


— 


— 




— 


• — 


■ — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


*~" 


■ ■■ 


-^ 


— 


75 


_ 








—- 


_ 




_ 


_ 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


4 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 
1 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 




*-* 


— 


^ 


80 


_ 


— 


— 


^ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


" 


" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


__ 


-~ 


— 


— 


— 


—* 


' 




~~ 


~ 


~ 




" 


— ■ 


~~ 


100 


„ 





„ 


,^ 





— 







_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


^ 


— 


— 


— 


_ 




18 


„ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 
1 
2 


- 


- 


/i 


110 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


~ 


— 




— 


■ 


■ — 






_ 






* 


~ 


125 


. — 


__ 





— - 


— 


. 


— 


— 





— 


" 


■ — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-" 


— 


' 


— 


... 


— 


' 






' 




' 


~~ 


ISO 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 








— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




-" 


— 


■ ' 




^ 


" 











— ~ 


150 




— 


— 


^ 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 





"" 


*"' 


— . 


— 


-_— 


" 


~ 




" 






















170 





_ 


_ 


^ 


^ 


~- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


— 


— 


^ 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


- 


— 


- 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


- 


175 





_ 




,- 


. 




— 





— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— . 


• 


~- 


— 




— 


— 


■■~ 




~ 


200 


_ 








^ 


_ 





— 








— 





— 


— - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


*-* 


— 


— 


— 


— 


" 


— 


■ 


" 


■ ■ 


— ■ 


■" 


255 


— 


— 





^ 


— 





— 








— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— ' 


— 


■ — 


— 


— 




_ 


~ 


■ ■ 


— 


*~ 


250 


~- 


— 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


"-" 


— 


•*** 


~~ 


— 


_ 


_ 


" 




" 


" 




















3(X) 











-~ 


__ 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


^ 


— 


— 


^ 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


325 











. 


— 


_ 


— 





.» 


— 


— 


• — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— ' 


— 


— 


— 


— 


"" 


■ 






— 


~ 


350 


,„_ 


, 


, 


,^ 


— 


— 


, — 


— 


, 


— 





.^■ 


. — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— ■ 


— 


— 


— 


— ~ 


— 


— 




■ 


— 


'- 


360 








— 


-- 


^ 














— 





. — 


— - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-■ 


— 


— 


~ 


— 


-~ 





'— 


— 


— 


400 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


"~ 


— 




■" 


_ 


— 


~~ 


~ 


_ 








_ 


' 


4m 




_ 


_ 


^ 


_ 


_ 


_, 





, 








__ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


_ 


_ 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


„ 


- 


500 





. 





^. 





__ 


_ 


— 


_ 


— 


.— 


.— 


— 


^ 


— 


- — 


— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




■ 






"" 


■^ 


600 


„,. 





„_ 


_ 


. 


„ 


. 





— 


— 





. — 


— ' 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


__ 




— , 


— 


^ 


650 


-..- 


__ 


. 








.^ 





— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


~ 


~~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


~~ 


-~ 


-~ 


— 


— 


800 


— 


— 


— ■ 


*" 


■ — 


' 


_ 


"~ 


_ 


~ 


" 


" 






































Total num- 






























































ber of 






























































structures 


29 


2 


7 


s 


164 


4 


1 


4 


■B 


a 


19 


3 


•7 


22 


4 


1 


2 


1 


243 


1 


6 


1 


4 


4 


1 


1 


31 


♦ 


1 


n 


(Figure 3, 
cuTve A) 



























































































































ngth, km 


Total num- 
ber of 
structures 
(Figure 3, 
curve B) 


BO 


185 


200 


225 |250 


270 275 300 320 1 325 


350 


400 


425 1 430 


4S0 


SOO 550 


600 { 605 { 700 1 750 I 800 


850 900 1 945 


950 1 1000 1 1100 


1200 1 1300 


I 

1 


- 


2 

1 

1 
3 

3 

1 

1 

2 
1 

1 


1 

I 
1 


1 

2 
3 


1 
1 


1 

1 


1 

7 

2 
3 

7 

57 
3 
8 

2 

1 


1 


1 
1 


"2 
3 

1 
1 


3 
1 

3 
1 

1 


1 


1 


1 

1 

2 
"2 

1 


1 
1 


1 

1 
1 


1 

1 


1 


1 
1 


1 

1 

1 


1 


1 


1 


I 


1 


2 

1 

1 
3 
6 

.1 

2 

1 


1 

1 

6 
1 


1 
1 
2 

I 


2 


31 
163 
28 
39 
17 

235 

6 

10 

9 

35 

2 
20 

9 
27 

3 

103 

1 

5 

1 

20 

1 
4 
13 

1 
5 

21 

1 

1 
1 
3 

1 
2 
3 

I 
1 




19 


3 


6 


6 


1 


2 


91 


1 


2 


8 


9 


1 


1 


7 


2 


3 


2 


1 


2 


S 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


17 


9 


5 


2 


823 



14l9/230-231a 



essentially unchanged throughout the entire Upper Pre -Cambrian, including 
not only its uppermost horizons but partly the Lower Cambrian as well. 

In this connection it is important to note that minor rhythms of climatic 
variations, including the secular rhythm, are excellently reflected in the 
Upper Pre-Cambrian deposits, especially in varved shales which are a 
facies of periglacial lakes (South Urals, Yenisei Range, Patom Plateau, 
etc. ). 

The discrepancies between the geological and the absolute geochronolo- 
gical data are so marked and fundamental that one is completely justified 
in treating the "Upper Pre-Cambrian enigma" as one of the most acute 
unsolved problems of modern geology. The difficulties entailed in 
elaborating the Upper Pre-Cambrian geochronology might necessitate a 
discussion of the problem of the constant duration of the terrestrial day 
and the terrestrial year, and their possible variation in the course of 
geological history, i. e., the existence during terrestrial history of cycles 
or periods differing in the velocities of the Earth's rotation about its axis 
and its revolution about the Sun. 

There are certain indications that Upper Pre-Cambrian is an instance 
of a completely separate, independent cycle in the Earth's development, 
being the longest known cycle. 

7. The relationship between the climatic periodicity and that of the 
geological processes themselves (primarily diastrophism) has hardly 
been studied. The well-known formula involving a definite relationship 
between exogenous and endogenous phenomena (for instance, the dependence 
of large-scale glaciations upon orogenetic stages) needs considerable 
revision. There are reasons to assume that both groups of phenomena 
(endogenous and exogenous) are due to the same general extraterrestrial 
causes, i.e., to factors of a cosmic nature. However, in the subsequent 
development of events the mutual or, more frequently, unilateral influence 
of certain phenomena on other phenomena must have gradually manifested 
itself, and become very strong in certain cases. For instance, the grouping 
of continents and their configuration, and the uplifting of large continental 
areas in the form of mountain ranges or plateaus may have facilitated 

the development of glacial covers, although in themselves they were not 
the causes of glaciation. These causes must be sought in a general 
decrease of the mean annual temperature on the Earth's surface due to 
cosmic factors, probably the same factors as those that must have caused 
disturbances in the subcrustal portions of the planet and deformations 
of its solid shell. 

8. The existence of prolonged stages or periods in the development 
of the Earth's structure, of 150 to 200 million years has been suggested 
(Belousov, 1951). It follows from the above statements that these periods 
agree closely with the "cosmic" winters, " i. e., they correspond to the 
galactic year. Their nature should apparently be studied from this approach. 

A few years ago (Lungersgauzen, 1956, 1957) the important role played 
in the Earth's history by the orogenic and magmatic cycles comprising 
periods of 38 to 45 million years was noted. The analysis was performed 
by superimposing on the geochronological background peaks corresponding 
to the most important geological events such as orogenic manifestations, 
intrusive and effusive magmatism, maxima of the transgressions and 
regressions of the sea, etc. This processing of factual data yielded closely 



219 



TABLE 3, Dimensionality of strnctures with respect to their depth and length 



Depth, m 



15 

•jr, 

ai 

i()() 

ir>i) 

20f) 
4011 
S()(l 
(ifXI 
MO 

978 
KXIO 
15011 

n«i 

2(100 

3000 
4000 
4500 
5500 
(>0(W 
7000 



Total number 

of structures 

(Figure 4, 

curve C) 



Maximum 
depth, m 



lu I 15 I ao I ys I so | as | 40 | 4S | so | 55 j eo | cs | 7o | 75 | so j ss | 90 | &5 | 100 | 10s | 110 | iis | 120 | 125 1 135 | uo | 150 1 10 



10 



10 



Maximum difference bet- 
ween the height of uplift 
and the depth of subsidence 
faccording to Tables 3 and 4) 



S 8 



Length, km 

I 175 I ISO I 185 I 200 I 225 I 250 I 270 | 2 75 | 300 | 320 | 325 | 350 | 400 | 425 | 430 | 450 | 500 | 550 | 600 | 605 | 700 | 750 | 800 | 850 |900 | 945 | 950 | 1000 | HOC | 1200 | 1300 

nber of structures 



Total num- 
ber of 
structures 



- 


2 


- 


- 


2 
4 

1 


1 


1 


1 





12 
12 

1 

5 
1 

2 

1 
1 
1 




- 


I 
2 

1 
1 

1 


1 
1 


1 


1 


1 

1 


1 


1 
1 


1 
1 


1 

_ 


1 


1 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


2 

1 


1 

1 

1 

1 


2 

1 


1 


1 

2 
87 
48 

2 

11 
1 
8 
2 
1 

1 

18 
1 
3 
8 

7 
4 

1 
1 
4 

1 


. 


2 








7 


1 


1 


1 





37 








6 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 










5 


4 


3 


1 


231 




s 


1 


1 


i 


s 


i 


g 


1 


i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


S 


s 


§ 


<N 


t- 


s 


s 


i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


i 


i 




i 






o 
to 


1 


I 


i 




C-i 


1 


! 


i 


1 


1 


c» 


1 


1 


1 


s 


1 


CM 


c^ 


1 


s 


1 


i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


i 


ft 







14l9/230-231b 



conforming numerical results for the eastern and western parts of the 
Siberian platform, Altai, the Eastern Balkhash area, certain parts of the 
Russian platform, the southern Urals, etc. 

Geological periods of 38—45 million years are equal to half of the 
astronomers' "draconitic period" (about 90 million years), i.e., they 
can be causally related to the oscillations of the solar system with respect 
to the galactic plane during the revolution of the Sun in its galactic orbit. 
The self-evident relationship between climatic variations in the past 
geological epochs and the above diastrophic cycles has not yet been given 
special consideration in the literature; studies of this relationship constitute 
one of the most important tasks of paleoclimatology. 

9. The data accumulated during recent years and the probable relation- 
ship between geological events and the Earth's evolution as a cosmic body 
call for critical revisions of geochronology and stratigraphy. Questions 
have been raised concerning the necessity of correcting the positions of 
the principal boundaries between the geological groups (eras) and even 
systems (periods). The solution of this problem is facilitated by the fact 
that the geological eras practically coincide with the galactic year. 
According to the new approach, boundaries of eras (or galactic years) 
may be fixed by stages of the most violent (global) perturbations, such 

as the great glaciations, involving both the Earth's solid shell (Lipalian, 
Caledonian, Hercynian, and Alpine orogenic cycles) as well as the hydro- 
sphere and the atmosphere. Some of the probable corrections for the 
general geochronological scale are already essentially obvious. Such 
corrections include the differentiation of the Lower Paleozoic as an 
independent era, expansion of the Mesozoic era, and modification of the 
lower boundary of Anthropogen (this boundary should be drawn under the 
Upper Pliocence, which is thus excluded from the Neogene period). 

The upper portion of late Pre-Cambrian (or the Eocambrian in the 
former, narrower and more definite sense of this term) should become 
the basement of the Paleozoic, more precisely of the Lower Paleozoic 
group. The Upper Paleozoic group most probably commenced with the 
Middle (?) Ordovician and was terminated by the Middle Carboniferous. 
The boundaries of the Mesozoic must be expanded by the addition of Upper 
Carboniferous and Permian on the one side and nearly the entire Cenozoic 
on the other. Finally, the commencement of the Recent or Anthropogenic 
epoch should be situated in the Upper Pliocene, whose deposits exhibit, 
for the first time, traces of cooling of the climate — a precursor of the 
subsequent great continental glaciation, while the general character 
of its fauna and flora distinctly approach the Recent forms. 

In all probability, the above statements do not exhaust the problem. 
Further investigations will aid in establishing a direct relationship 
between the geochronological subdivisions of the second and the third 
orders and the cosmic processes. Relationships of this kind have already 
been delineated with respect to periods of 38 to 45 million years, approaching 
the geological periods in their duration. The smaller subdivisions of the 
geochronological and stratigraphic scale (such as time units, stages, and 
zones) must also find direct analogues in the stages of cosmic evolution, 
provided they are correctly differentiated. 

10. Geologists and paleogeographers maybe considerable interested 
in the part played by the cosmic winters in the development of the Earth's 
climates and in the duration of glaciations. Data referring to the oldest 



220 



(pre -Quaternary) glaciations suggest that the glacial epochs lasted millions 
of years, 10 million (and possibly even more) in certain cases. 

The first, earliest signs of the Gondwanian glaciation were found in the 
Lower Carboniferous of South America, while the peak of glaciation was 
reached toward the end of the Upper Carboniferous and even the beginning 
of the Permian. Ordovician glaciation has been clearly traced, beginning 
with Tremadocian, and its maximum can probably be dated by the Middle 
Ordovician epoch. Glacial and conglacial Eocambrian deposits are often 
kilometers thick, (the Keweenawan period in North America, the 
Ust-Patom suite or the tillite series in the northern part of the Patom 
Plateau). Glacial strata proper and accompanying strata sometimes 
alternate with definitely interglacial lacustrine and shallow -water marine 
formations, with carbonate remains of algae (Australia; Eocambrian strata 
in the Polar basin, etc.). 

Thus, it may be assumed that the Quaternary glaciation, whose overall 
duration does not exceed 600,000 to 700,000 years (including the interglacial 
epochs), marked only the beginning of the great terrestrial glaciations, 
while the present-day (historical) epoch must be regarded as an inter- 
glacial epoch. 

n 

Glaciation traces are known in the deposits of many geological systems. 
However, it is only occasionally that they can indicate drastic climatic 
changes involving entire continents and even the entire planet. Local, 
orographic glaciations whose deposits have been discovered in Devonian, 
Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, etc., should probably be excluded. 
Caution must also be exercised with respect to certain unreliable data which 
call for most painstaking checks, such as the report on signs of glacial 
conditions in the Triassic deposits in the northeastern part of the Russian 
platform. 

It was demonstrated earlier by this author (1956, 1957) that in addition 
to the Quaternary glaciation the great glaciations probably include those 
of the Upper Paleozoic and Eocambrian, and apparently also the glaciations 
of Ordovician, Lower Proterozoic, and possibly also Archean. General 
reviews of ancient glaciations were given by several authors (Coleman, 
1926; Schwarzbach, 1950; Lungersgauzen, 1957, and others). Therefore 
we shall mention below only certain new or little -known facts. 

Glaciation of southwestern Africa (Windhoek and Rehoboth) is usually 
cited as a classic example of the oldest glaciation known on Earth. This 
opinion is currently acceptable only with reservations. The Archean 
dating of the Chuos tillite is now open to doubt in connection with the recent 
revision of the age estimates of the Damara system which includes the 
tillite strata. There is a possibility that the tillites will prove to be 
post -Archean, and possibly even Eocambrian (?). 

As yet, no authentic traces of Archean glaciation have been found in 
the USSR. On the other hand, certain recent findings may indicate a 
significant cooling of climate in the Archean time on the territory of 
present-day East Siberia. Southeast of the Aldan shield, in the Toko Lake 
area (eastern terminus of the Stanovoi Range), the geologist Yu. B. Kazmin 
of the All-Union Aerogeological Trust (VAGT) found rocks of peculiar habit 



221 



'i gth. km 

•5 I 180 I 185 I 200 I 220 I 250 I 270 | 275 | 300 | 320 | 325 | 350 | •100 | 425 | 430 I 450 | 500 | 550 | QUO I 605 I 70 | 750 | 800 | 850 | 900 | 945 | 950 | 1000 | 1100 | 1200 l3l)o| 

of Structures 



1 

1 

1 

_ 


1 


1 


5 
2 

1 
1 

3 


1 
1 


1 
2 

1 

1 


- 


1 

1 


9 
4 

3 

1 

3 
2 

1 

1 

6 

1 

4 

2 
1 
li 
4 
1 


1 


1 

1 


1 
1 


1 

1 

1 

1 

3 


- 


- 


1 

1 
1 

1 


1 


1 


- 


- 


1 


1 

1 


- 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 
1 

"2 

1 
1 


1 

2 
1 


1 
1 


1 


1 

205 

1 

117 

5 
3B 
1 
1 
1 

29 
1 
1 
6 

23 

4 
2 

2 

46 

1 

6 
3 
1 

1 
27 

3 
2 
11 
6 

1 

1 

1 
41 


'» 


1 


1 


12 


2 


5 





2 


54 


1 


2 


2 


7 


— 


— 


5 


1 


1 


— 


— 


1 


2 


— 


1 


1 


1 


1 


12 


5 


2 


1 


592 


- 


s 


g 


s 




s 


i 


1 


§ 


1 





1 


s 


1 


1 


1 


g 


« 


§ 


1 


1 


s 




1 


i 


1 



g 










i 


i 





1419/2:U)— 2;uc 



TABLE 4. Dimensionality of structures with respect to their height and length 







Height, m 


10 1 15 1 20 1 25 1 30 35 1 40 1 45 1 50 1 55 1 60 1 65 1 70 1 75 1 80 85 ) 90 95 | 100 | 105 | 110 | 115 | 120 | 125 | 135 | 140 | 150 | 160 | 170 




Numl 


25 
30 

so 

75 
100 

150 
200 
225 
240 
260 

300 
350 
390 
400 
500 

600 
700 
900 
1000 
1100 

1150 
1200 
1300 
1400 
1500 

1600 
1800 
2000 
3000 
3500 

5000 
5600 


28 
6 


2 

_ 


7 


3 


3 
1 

59 

17 

1 

10 

11 
11 

41 


4 


4 
1 


2 


17 
5 
1 

4 




2 


2 

1 

4 


1 


4 
3 
3 


6 
3 

5 

1 


2 
1 


- 


1 


1 


1 

30 
52 

2 

7 

13 

2 
2 

2 

1 
19 

20 
1 


1 


3 

1 




2 


2 
1 

1 


— 


- 


3 

1 
9 

3 

1 
1 

2 
1 


1 

3 


1 


Number of 
structures 
(Figure 4, 
curve D) 


29 


2 


7 


3 


154 


4 


5 


2 


27 


2 


9 


1 


7 


18 


3 


_ 


1 


1 


152 


1 


4 


- 


2 


4 


"~ 


~" 


20 


1 


1 


Maximum 
height, m 


8 
^ - 


g 


g 


s 




o 


8 


g 




s 




8 




*-t 


8 


1 


S 


s 




8 


8 


1 


s 


1 


1 


1 









occurring in the so-called "ivakskaya" suite which forms part of the 
Dzhelatula series of the Upper Archean (in the new meaning of the scope 
of this term). Here, stratified marbles containing clastic materials 
occur amidst dark-gray marbles and calciphyres (Figure 10). The clastic 
material consists of graphite -pyroxene gneisses, pyroxene schists, granite 
gneisses, quartzites, and certain other rocks that are completely unknown 
among Archean deposits of the adjacent regions of the Aldan shield, i. e., 
they are of exotic nature. 

The size of fragments reaches 10 cm. The largest fragments are well 
rounded although angular specimens also occur. The occasional small 
boulders and pebbles impart to the marble the habit of a pudding. The 
puddings form lenses, but at the same time are confined to a strictly 
definite stratigraphic horizon in the profile of the Upper Archean. These 
lenses are a few meters thick and a few hundreds of meters across. 




FIGURE 10. Pudding of the type of "marine tillites" — marbles containing small exotic 
boulders. Archean. Dzhelatula series. Stanovoi Range in the Toko Lake area. 
Photograph by Yu. B, Kazmin 

The great age of these deposits and their Archean dating are unquestion- 
able. The entire rock complex containing the puddings was intensively 
metamorphosed by an intrusion of alaskite granites, whose absolute age 
is estimated as 2 000 to 2 300 million years according to the most recent 
data. In character these formations resemble the "marine tillites" which 
have been repeatedly described by A.N. Churakov in the Upper Proterozoic 
of the Altai-Sayan highlands and which have been known for a long time 
in South Africa, including the Damar system already nnentioned. The mode 
of occurrence of the puddings amidst carbonate (marine) deposits suggests 
that they have been formed by the unloading of clastic material embedded 
in ice floes. The latter were probably formed near the rocky coasts of 
the continents (or islands) and were carried out into the open sea by the 
currents. 

Proterozoic glacial formations have been somewhat better studied than 
the Archean ones, yet their stratigraphy is still very little known. The 
Proterozoic glaciation occurred on the most tremendous scale on the 
Canadian Shield (Huronian). Probable analogues of the Huronian tillites 
have been indicated in Ireland, Finland, the southern Urals (puddings of the 
Barangul Mountain), etc. Possibly they also include the supposedly 
Proterozoic glacial formations in Africa (the Nabib Desert), Brazil, 
New South Wales, etc. 



222 



Glacial deposits of Late Pre-Cambrian or Eocambrian are well known 
and have already been described in the specialized literature long ago. 
The majority of investigators consider the presence of glacial facies to 
be symptomatic of the Late Pre-Cambrian. However, the correlation 
of these formations at the present time encounters certain difficulties, 
whereas it was formerly considered to be fairly simple. As already noted, 
the volume of Late Pre-Cambrian which was differentiated under the 
name of the Sinian complex, Riphean group, and Lipalian system has been 
enormously enlarged by the latest absolute geochronological data, which, 
however, markedly contradict the general geological data. Nevertheless, 
a revision of the stratigraphy of glacial formations related to Late Pre- 
Cambrian is now indicated. 

The following are the principal and best known locations manifesting the 
largest glaciations, beginning with the Late Pre-Cambrian. 

Late Pre-Cambrian: North East Land, Spitsbergen, Norway 
(sparagmites), Scotland (Torridonian), Podolia (Mogilev arkoses), 
Greenland, North America (tillites of Keweenaw and Great Salt Lake), 
South Urals, Yenisei Range, Patom Plateau (Figure 11), China (Nangtu 
tillite, etc.) India, Central Asia, South Africa (Numis tillite, etc.), 
Australia, New Zealand, etc. 

Ordovician: Central Urals, south Germany ( ?), England (?), 
Canada, Alaska. Remarkable glacial-marine Tremadocian deposits jare 
known in South America (the Andes), described by Harrington and Keidel. 




FIGURE 11. Tillite. Upper Pre-Cambrian. Northern slope of the Patom Plateau, right bank 
of the Lena lyver above the mouth of the Patom iUver. The tillite contains boulders of alaskite 
granites, marbles, etc. 



223 



Upper Paleozoic (Gondwana complex) : the well-known glacial 
deposits of Africa, South America, India, and Australia. The northern 
hem.isphere contains insignificant manifestations of local glaciations, 
probably of the mountain type, such as on the western slope of the southern 
Urals. 

Quaternary: the tremendous glaciation which comprised vast expanses 
in Europe, North America, and Asia. The first signs of cooling were 
observed in the Middle Pliocene. Older, (Paleogenic) glaciations were 
probably of a purely local character. 

My previous works (1956, 1957) provided a brief summary of absolute 
geochronological data and advanced the conclusion concerning the average 
duration of the great glaciations, approximately 200 million years, i. e., 
corresponding to the galactic year. Although certain corrections have been 
introduced in the geochronological scale in recent years, they do not affect 
this general conclusion. 

It is probably premature to discuss the immediate causes of the great 
glaciations. It must be acknowledged that the earlier hypothesis concerning 
the variation in the intensity of solar radiation due to the translocation of 
the Sun from the region of the galactic nucleus (gravitational maximum) to 
the peripheral regions of the Galaxy with its minimum stellar density 
(Lungersgauzen, 1956) is not the only possible one. 

One cannot exclude the effect of nebulae, whose galactic distribution 
is obviously nonrandom. It is well known that the cold dust matter forms 
tremendous concentrations whose dimensions sometimes reach many 
parsecs. Possibly, a special significance in this respect attaches to the 
so-called globules which contain the highest dust densities and consequently 
possess the lowest translucence. Even if one accepts the average theo- 
retically possible magnitude of light absorption (instead of the maximum one) 
during the passage of the Sun through the zone of a nebula, the variation 
in the amount of solar energy reaching the Earth will be sufficient to account 
for a significant decline of the mean annual temperature on the Earth' s 
surface. 

Thus, the predominant concentration of fine dust matter in certain parts 
of the Galaxy, and the traversing by the solar system of a zone of concen- 
tration of cosmic dust over fairly constant sections of the galactic orbit, 
could satisfactorily explain the periodic nature of the great coolings in the 
Earth's history and the related intensive development of ice sheets, i. e., 
the periodicity of cosmic winters. 

In conclusion I should like to touch upon another highly specific subject. 
Without advancing any definite interpretation of the phenomenon, I permit 
myself to draw the investigators' attention to a circumstance that appears 
to be significant, namely, the possible asymmetry in the development 
of the great ice sheets. 

The Upper Pliocene and the Quaternary glaciations mostly affected the 
northern hemisphere. On the other hand, an overwhelming majority of 
traces of the Gondwana glaciation are concentrated in the southern hemi- 
sphere, with the exception of India which, however, also tends toward 
the southern continental blocks in its general paleogeographic situation 
(Wegener). The Ordovician glaciation has not yet been adequately studied, 
but there are grounds to assume that it mainly affected the northern 
hemisphere. There are at least two glaciation cycles within the extremely 



224 



long geological period corresponding to the so-called Algonkian and 
Eocambrian. Obviously, the Adelaide glaciation (Australia) may sen^e 
as a typical representative of the youngest of these glaciations, while 
Keweenaw (North America) and possibly the Patom Plateau in Siberia (?) 
are typical of the oldest glaciation. 

As yet, very little information is available on the relative stratigraphy 
of the Middle and especially the Lower Proterozoic and even less on the 
Archean. Yet, here too there seems to be a definite regularity in the 
arrangement of glaciation traces beginning with the enormous Huronian 
glaciation of the Canadian Shield (Lower Proterozoic) and the possibly 
synchronous boulder puddings of the Barangulskaya suite of the Ural-Tau 
zone (South Urals) and ending with the supposedly Upper Pre -Cambrian 
tillites of Damaraland, Windhoek, Rehoboth, and certain adjacent territories 
in South Africa. 

m 

The natural sciences are standing on the brink of a new and important 
stage in their development. This refers not only to physics but also 
largely to the entire cycle of the geologico -geographical sciences. Some 
of the most daring and the most disputed ideas and hypotheses advanced by 
investigators of past generations are finding solid foundations in the data 
of the most recent investigations. In this respect it is sufficient to point 
to the fate of Wegener's ideas. 

The evolution undergone by the natural sciences in their development is 
noteworthy and instructive. The age of encyclopedic knowledge and 
universal concepts was superseded, in the second half of the nineteenth 
and the beginning of the twentieth century, by a period of the utmost differ- 
entiation and separation of the sciences. The new phase that can be 
currently discerned marks the convergence and cooperation of the most 
diverse scientific disciplines which, without mutual assistance, cannot 
provide satisfactory solutions of the most significant and difficult problems 
which they face. 

Never before has such a multitude of unanswered questions arisen in 
geological science as in recent years, and never before was the possibility 
of solving these problems, in light of the brilliant successes of physics, 
astronomy, and especially engineering, so great. 

There is no danger of overestimating the importance of the turning 
point which is occurring before our eyes. The geocentric view of the 
nature of phenomena that has stubbornly dominated the minds of a majority 
of natural philosophers (with only a few exceptions; the reader is reminded 
of Humboldt's "cosmos") has now been destroyed. The main effort has been 
made, and thought has been liberated from the hypnotic influence of 
centuries-old traditions. Possibly for the first time since Galilei the 
Earth has acquired a place of its own in the cosmos, not as a planet but as 
a complex geological body, and the geological processes have become an 
inalienable part of the general life of the universe. 






225 



REFERENCES 
Publications in Russian 

BELOUSOV, V. V. Vystuplenie na pervom soveshchanii po voprosam 
kosmogonii (Speech at the First Symposium on Problems of 
Cosmogony). — Trudy soveshchaniya. Izdatel' stvo AN SSSR. 1951. 

BERG, L. S. O predpolagaemoi svyazi m.ezhdu velikimi oledeneniyami i 

goroobrazovaniem (Possible Connection Between the Great Glaciations 
and Orogeny). — Voprosy Geografii, No. 1, Geografgiz. 1946, 

BERG, L.S. Klimaty v drevneishie geologicheskie vremena (Climates in 
the Oldest Geological Times). — Zemlevedenie, Novaya Seriya, 
2(12). 1948. 

BUBNOV, S. Osnovnye problemy geologii (Fundamental Problems of 
Geology). — Izdatel'stvo MGU. 1960. 

CHURAKOV, A.N. Proterozoiskoe oledenenie i istoriya razvitiya severnoi 
chasti Eniseiskogo kryazha (Proterozoic Glaciation and History of 
the Development of the Northern Part of the Yenisei Range). — 
Trudy VGRO, No. 292. 1933. 

CHURAKOV, A.N. Proterozoiskoe oledenenie Sibiri (Proterozoic 
Glaciation in Siberia). — Trudy XVII Sessii Mezhdunarodnogo 
Geologicheskogo Kongressa, Vol.6. 1940. 

LICHKOV, B.L. Dvizhenie materikov i klimaty proshlogo Zemli (Move- 
ment of Continents and the Earth's Climates in the Past). — 
Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1936. 

LICHKOV, B. L. O ritme izmenenii poverkhnosti Zemli v khode geologi- 
cheskogo vremeni (On the Rhythm of Changes of the Earth's Surface 
in the Course of Geological Time). — Priroda, No. 4. 1941. 

LICHKOV, B. L. Geologicheskie periody i razvitie zhivogo veshchestva 
(Geological Periods and Development of Living Matter). — Zhurnal 
Obshchei Biologii, Vol.6, No. 3. 1945. 

LUNGERSGAUZEN, G. F. O fatsial'noi prirode i usloviyakh otlozheniya 

drevnikh svit Bashkirskogo Urala (On the Facies Nature and Deposi- 
tion Conditions of the Ancient Suites in the Bashkir Urals). — 
Sovetskaya Geologiya, No. 18. 1947. 

LUNGERSGAUZEN, G. F. Periodichnost' v izmenenii klimata proshlykh 

geologicheskikh epokh 1 nekotorye problemy geokhronologii (Periodi- 
city in Climatic Variations in Past Geological Epochs, and Some 
Geochronological Problems). — DAN, Vol.108, No. 4. 1956. 

LUNGERSGAUZEN, G.F. Periodicheskie izmeneniya klimata i velikie 
oledeneniya Zemli (nekotorye problemy istoricheskoi paleografii i 
absolyutnoi geokhronologii) (Periodic Climatic Variations and 
Great Glaciations of the Earth (Some Problems of Historic Paleo- 
geography and Absolute Geochronology)). — Sovetskaya Geologiya, 
59. 1957. 

LUNGERSGAUZEN, G.F. Sledy oledenenii v pozdnem dokembrii Yuzhnoi 

Sibiri i Urala i ikh stratigraficheskoe znachenie (Traces of Glaciations 
in Late Pre -Cambrian in Southern Siberia and the Urals, and Their 
Stratigraphic Significance). — Mezhdunarodnyi geologicheskii kongress, 
XXI sessiya. Doklady sovetskikh geologov. 1960. 



226 



MARKOV, K.K. O svyazi mezhdu izmeneniyami solnechnoi aktivnosti i 
klimatov Zemli (Relationship Between Variations in Solar Activity 
and the Earth's Climate). —In: Sbornik "Voprosy geografii". 
No. 2, Geografgiz. 1949. 

MARKOV, K.K. Paleografiya (Paleogeography). — Geografgiz. 1951. 

NALIVKIN, D.V. Uchenie o fatsiyakh. Geograficheskie usloviya 

obrazovaniya osadkov (Theory of Facies. Geographical Conditions 
of Sedimentation), Vols. 1,2.— Izdatel' stvo AN SSSR. 1955. 

PARENAGO, P. P. Kurs zvezdnoi astronomii (A Course in Stellar 
Astronomy). — Gostekhizdat. 1954. 

SHOSTAKOVICH, V. B. Sloistye ilovye otlozheniya i nekotorye voprosy 

geologii (Stratified Silt Sediments and Some Geological Problems). — 
Izv. VGO, Vol.73, No. 3. 1941. 

SHOSTAKOVICH, V. B. Ilovye otlozheniya ozer i periodicheskoe 

kolebanie v prirode (Lacustrine Mud Deposits and Periodic Fluc- 
tuations in Nature). — Zapiski Gosudarstvennogo Gidrologicheskogo 
Instituta, Vol. 13. 1934. 

ZUBAKOV, V.A. and I.I. KRASNOV. Printsipy stratigraficheskogo 

raschleneniya chetvertichnoi sistemy i proekt edinoi stratigraficheskoi 
shkaly dlya nee (Principles of Stratigraphic Differentiation of the 
Quaternary System, and A Proposed Unified Stratigraphic Scale 
for It). — Materialy VSEGEI, Novaya Seriya, No. 2. 1959. 

Publications in Other Languages 

ATWOOD, W.W. Eocene Glacial Deposits in Southwestern Colorado. — 

U.S. Geol. Survey. Prof. Paper 95 — B. 1915. 
BUBNOFF, S. Grundprobleme der Geologic. — 3 Auflage. Berlin. 1954. 
BRADLEY, W. H. The Varves and the Climate of the Green River Epoch.— 

U.S. Geol. Survey. Prof. Paper 158 -E. 1929. 
BROOKS, C. Climates Through the Ages; A Study of the Climatic Factors 

and Their Variations. — McGraw-Hill, New York. 1949. [Russian 

translation. 1952.] 
DuTOIT, A.L. The Geology of South Africa. London. 1939. 
GEER, G. de, Geochronologie Suecica Principles. — Kungl. Svens. 

Vetenskaps Akad. Handingar. Tr. ser., Bd. 18, 6, 1940. 
MILANKOVITSCH, M. Astronomische Mittel zur Erforschiing der 

erdgeschichtlichen Klimate. — Handbuch der Geophysik, 9, 3, 

Berlin. 1938. 
SCHWARZBACH, M. Orogenesen und Eiszeiten. Zur Ursache des 

Klimawechsels in der Erdgeschichte. — Die Naturwissenschaften. 

Heft 17. 1953. 
SCHWARZBACH, M. Eine Neuberechnung von Milankowitsch's Strahl- 

ungskurve. — Neues Jb. Geol. Palaontol. Mh. 6. 1954. 
SCHWARZBACH, M. Das Klima der Vorzeit; eine Einfiihrimg in die 

Palaoklimatologie. — F. Enke, Stuttgart. 1950. [Russian trans- 
lation. 1958.] 
SHAPLEY, H. Climatic Change: Evidence, Causes, and Effects. 

Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge. 1953. [Russian translation. 1958.] 
WEGENER, A. Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane. — 2 Aufl. 

Braunschweig. 1936. 
ZEUNER, F.E. Dating the Past. An Introduction to Geochronology.— 

London. 1952. 

227 



V. V. Piotrovskii 

APPLICATION OF MORPHOMETRY TO STUDIES 
OF THE EARTH'S RELIEF AND STRUCTURE 

The relief of the lithosphere, similar to its inner structure, reflects 
the most important events in the development of our planet. 

Studies of this natural chronicle have contributed considerably to our 
knowledge of the history of the Earth's development. Yet, even now many 
unsolved problems remain, one of which concerns tectonic movements and 
the relief forms conditioned by them. This problem has been discussed 
by many authors and numerous hypotheses have been advanced; nevertheless 
no satisfactory solution has thus far been found. Our work represents 
another attempt to find possible approaches to the solution of this important 
problem. This paper presents the preliminary results of our work and 
describes some of the patterns discovered. 

The object of our study will be the relief of the lithosphere. The term 
"relief" is used to cover the entirety of all surface forms of the lithosphere* 
including convex and concave surfaces and plains of various geological 
structures and origins, forming complex combinations with one another 
and bearing complex relationships to their environment (Piotrovskii, 
1959, 1961). 

Our definition of relief leads us to regard the lithosphere, as well as 
its relief, as a complex but at the same time integral natural formation, 
whose development obeys general laws and which is connected by complex 
interrelationships with its environment, i.e., the Earth's external and 
internal shells. Furthermore, the lithosphere and its relief may to a 
considerable extent be regarded as the "products" of the interaction of 
processes taking place in the external and internal shells. The litho- 
sphere and its relief reflect the results of the interaction of energy 
arriving from interplanetary space (for instance, from the Sun) with the 
energy enclosed in the bowels of the Earth. 

At the same time the entire Earth, being a cosmic body, is closely 
related in its development to interplanetary space and obeys certain 
general laws of the evolution of matter which have not yet been completely 
deciphered. 

The effect of terrestrial and cosmic factors which are reflected in the 
lithosphere and in its relief manifests itself in various ways; furthermore, 
it varies in time and space. It may also vary in scale and may be composed 
of quantities of dissimilar orders of magnitude. Obviously, the weaker the 
effect of any given factor, the weaker also is the process brought about by 
this factor; the briefer the effect of the given process, the smaller its effect 

* In this case we identify the lithosphere with the concept of the "Earth's crust". 



228 



on the development of the Earth including its relief; the more limited its 
spatial distribution, the smaller the area on which the "traces" of its 
manifestation may appear. On the other hand "minor processes" or 
"forces" may cause large-scale changes in the structure of the Earth 
and the Earth's crust, and in its relief, when they act together over long 
periods of time to produce a combined effect. 

The genesis of relief forms is discussed in detail in specialized works; 
at this point we shall concentrate our attention on the dimensionality of 
these forms. 

The Earth's relief is a complex combination of a variety of forms whose 
dimensions vary widely. The largest form is represented by the Earth 
itself while the smallest investigated forms may be represented by the very 
snnall -scale forms of sand ripples produced on sandy surfaces by wind, 
small waves, or weak currents. 

The dimensionality of the relief forms — their length, width, vertical 
development (height and depth), steepness of their slopes, etc. — is studied 
in a special branch of geomorphology (science of the Earth's relief) which 
IS known as morphometry. Until recently this branch was underdeveloped, 
although certain isolated attempts in this field were made some time ago. 
Currently morphometry has been receiving increasing attention, and the 
accumulated morphometric data already reveal, in certain cases, some 
patterns which facilitate the grouping of relief forms into certain categories; 
even an attempt to elucidate certain general causes of the development of 
the leading forms has been made. 

Our work on the collection and generalization of m^orphometric data was 
begun several years ago. A work of this kind encounters great difficulties. 
The morphometric relief data available in literature are scattered through 
innumerable papers; moreover, these data are usually quite inaccurate 
(because averaged numerical data are reported) and incomplete. Many 
papers and special works provide information only on the length and width 
of the relief forms, but not on their height nor depth; other papers only 
describe the width and height without referring to length; still others only 
mention the steepness of slopes, without providing any other dimensions, 
and so on. In spite of the difficulties encountered, our preliminary 
processing of the collected data enabled us, in 1959, to discern patterns 
in the ratios of the basal area (length and width) and the vertical develop- 
ment (height and depth) for a considerable number of relief forms including 
the tectonic structural forms, i. e., forms deriving from movements of 
the Earth's crust. 

In classifying relief forms and tectonic structures according to their 
morphometric indexes, we found a regular repetition of the ratios of these 
indexes, while the forms themselves could be grouped in a general 
morphometric series consisting of 18 orders (Table 1), In these orders 
the ratios of length, width, and vertical development are constant (1:3 
and 1:10), and they comprise the most common relief forms and tectonic 
structures of the Earth. 

Obviously some of the forms differ in their dimensions from those 
indicated in the orders of the general morphometric series. However, 
further processing of the data made it possible to establish the limits of 
deviation and to find out that wide forms (rounded in plan) deviate by 
20 — 30% from the linear indexes of the series, whereas their areas largely 



229 



TABLE 1. Morphometric series of relief forms and tectonic structures 












Order of 
fotms and 


I 


II III 


IV 


V 


VI 


VII 


vm 


IX 


X 


XI 


XII 


xm XIV 


XV 


XVI xvu 


XVlll 


structures 


Dimensions (m and m^) 


Dimensions (km and km') 




Length 


0.1 


0.3 


1 


3 


10 


30 


100 


300 


1 


3 


10 


30 


100 


300 


1000 


3000 


10 000 


30 000 


Width 


0.03 


0.1 


0.3 


1 


3 


10 


30 


100 


0.3 


1 


3 


10 


30 


100 


300 


1000 


3000 


10000 


Area 


0.003 


().03 


0.3 


3 


30 


300 


3000 


30 000 


0.3 


3 


30 


300 


3000 


30 000 


300 000- 


3000 000 


30 000 000 


.300 000 000 


Height or 
depth 


0.003 
0.01 


0.01 
0.03 


0.03 
0.1 


1 
0,3 


0.3 

I 


i 
3 


3 
10 


10 
30 


0.03 
0.1 


0.1 
D.3 


0.3 

1 


1 
3 


3 
10 


10 
30 


30 
100 


100 
300 


300 
1000 


1000 
3000 



Notes : 1. Deviations in length and width may reach ± 10— 2Q<5Si . In the case of height (or depth), larger nega- 
tive deviations observed. In large orders, level areas (forms) correspond to plains. 

2. The maximum absolute elevation of relief forms is about 9000 m. the maximum relief amplitude is 20,000 m, 
and the maximum amplitude of the surface of the tectonic basement is about 30,000 m. In orders IX to XV the numerical 
data for height and depth may characterize not only the relief amplitude but also the depth of the roots of tectonic struc- 
tures (especially the bonom row of numbers). In orders XVI to XVni the numerical data on height and depth mainly 
characterize the depth of the roots. 



conform to those of the series. In very long forms, the ratio of width to 
length reached 1 : 10 in isolated cases, but their areas were similar to 
those of the forms of the respective order in the general series. 

The first order of the general morphometric series comprise the 
smallest relief forms of the type of sand ripples and the smallest folds 
occurring in plastic clays, shales, etc. The last orders of the series 
include entire highlands, continents, and oceanic depressions (Gerassimov's 
"geotectures", 1946). Order XVIII connprises forms which are commen- 
surable with the Earth itself, their areas approaching those of the hemi- 
spheres. 

The general morphometric series is simple and consistent (see Table 1), 
the transition from one order to another being completely uniform over 
the entire series and with respect to all the indexes (length, width, height, 
and area). The uniformity is expressed by the same ratios as in every 
individual order (1:3 and 1:10) but with a certain difference. The difference 
consists in the ratio of 1 : 3 alternating with the ratio of I : 3,3 for every 
other order (10, 30, 100, 300, etc). The index for areas increases 
regularly by a factor of 10 in transition from one order to the next. * 

The general morphometric series p-'oved to withstand various trans- 
formations to other ratios (1 X2, 2X3, 3X5, etc. ); the attempts to 
eliminate the existing ratio of 1 : 3.3 also failed. In such attempts the 
actual relief forms are satisfactorily arranged in two or three adjacent 
orders but after that the theoretically calculated values disagree with the 
factual data. The regularity involved in the transition from forms of a 
certain order to the next order (i,e,, their trebling) is especially evident 
in relief forms which definitely derive from wave action (sand ripples, 
barchan ridges, etc.). When enlarged threefold, these forms undergo the 
most successful transition to geometrically similar bodies of the next 
order with the least rearrangement of their original elements. The 
elements are preserved when the slopes of the small ridges are taken 
over by the larger ridges, as shown in Figure 1, while the material is 
transported over short distances (from negative relief forms to crests of 
the nearest ridges). 




FIGURE 1. Scheme for the summation of "waves" of two adjacent orders: 

0, 1, 2, 3, 4 — nodes of the "waves"; I. small "waves"; II. large "waves"; IH. common surfaces; 
IV. direction of movement.' 

A.CaiUeux and J, Tricard arrived at conclusions similar to ours in their work "Problems of the Classification 
of Geomorphological Phenomena" (see collection "Problems of the Climatic and Structural Geomor- 
phology [Voprosy klimaiioheskoi i strukturnoi geomorfologiij. 1959). 



231 



Figure 1 presents a scheme of sand ripples formed from local material 
on a horizontal surface, preserving the general basic level. The scheme 
must be somewhat modified for large relief fornas developed on the Earth's 
spherical surface and for forms whose genesis involves influx of additional 
material (or loss of material), yet the general principle and the derived 
ratios are preserved. 

It will be seen from Figure 1 that if two adjacent forms — a positive 
and a negative one (i. e., crest and trough) — are taken as the basic ones 
(as single "wave"), then the next order is obtained by combining three 
such "waves". Moreover, the scheme shows that the "momentum" stored 
between the large positive forms (in the "trough") is capable of producing 
a smaller ridge. In the crest portion of the large ridge there is a 
"momentum" tending to flatten it and subdivide it into two smaller crests. 
Both cases are observed in nature when the spacing of ridges are changed, 
and when individual large forms become excessively wide. Thus, the 
transition of forms from one order to another is effected with relative 
simplicity, while their similarity is partially maintained by the common 
element of slopes and by certain permanent properties of rocks (shear 
angles, angles of repose, etc.). 

The discussion of the subject of the general morphometric series at 
a meeting of the geomorphological commission of the Moscow branch of 
the Geographical Society of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and at 
the scientific conference of the Moscow Institute of Engineers for Geodesy, 
Aerial Photography, and Cartography (MIIGAiK) in the spring of 1960 
resulted in a decision on the necessity for further studies of the patterns 
discovered. However, further work was very much hindered by the 
above-mentioned nonuniformity of the morphometric data available in the 
literature. We obtained comparatively uniform data only after publication 
of the "Neotectonic Map of the USSR" (Karta noveishei tektoniki SSSR) 
compiled by a large group of authors, with N.I. Nikolaev and S, S. Shul'ts 
as general editors (1959). In contrast to other specialized maps (geological, 
tectonic, etc.), this map reflects the dynamics of the Earth's crust; it 
clearly exhibits the tectonic structural forms which underwent subsidence 
or uplift over a relatively brief (geologically speaking) time period. 

Notwithstanding the large inaccuracies in the map, due to the lack of 
knowledge of certain territories, excessive generalization of the structures, 
the crude scale of the sections scale, and other causes we succeeded in 
measuring 823 tectonic structural forms with sufficient accuracy for a 
first approximation. The preliminary data elicited from an analysis of 
this material will be presented below. The results of measurements 
performed on this map are listed in Tables 2—6, and the reader can 
analyze the material presented by any available m.ethod. 

It is seen from Table 2 that structures of certain orders dominate 
among those marked on the map. Structures of the smallest areas are 
about 10 km long and 5 km wide (28 structures). 

Structures of the next order are about 30 km long and 10 km wide 
(143 structures). Then come structures 300 km long and 100 km wide 
(57 structures), followed by those having a length of 900 to 1300 km and 
a width of 100 to 300 km. 

It may be assumed that the highest order is formed by tectonic structures 
over 1300 km long but relatively narrow (complex geosynclinal belts), and 



232 



TABLE 5. Dimensionality of structures with respect to their depth and width 



Depth, m 



Width, km 



'- I 



:|g| 



S S. 



Number of structures 



Total num- 
ber of 
structures 



15 
25 

so 

100 
150 
200 
■100 



978 
1000 
1500 
1700 
2000 
3000 

two 

4500 
6500 
6000 
'000 



3 3 3 33 2 1 1 



Total num- 
ber of 
structures 



1 2 1 — 231 



Maximum 
depth, m 



I a 



I § r 



S 8 



I 1 



Maximum difference bet- 
ween the height of uplift 
and the depth of subsidence 
(according to Tables 5 and 6) 



by structures whose width and length exceed 1000 — 1500 km (platforms); 
there exist only a few of these, and they were not included in our tables. 
Thus, the map marks structures corresponding to orders XI— XVI of the 
general morphometric series. 

The tectonic structures form nodes, as it were, in which the structures 
are concentrated in considerable numbers and are extensively developed in 
the vertical direction (uplift or subsidence, see Tables 3—6). Structures 
of intermediate dimensions are less widespread and are generally less 
developed vertically. In certain places the intermediate structures form 
seco-idary "nodes", such as structures about 150 km long. At these nodes 
the morphometric indexes of the structures are multiples of the principal 
indexes in the morphometric series. A noteworthy feature is an abrupt 
increase in the number of structures wherever even a single one of their 
morphometric indexes (length or width) approaches 10, 30, 100, or 300km. 

The neotectonic map shows that the characteristic structures of platform 
regions possess plan shapes approaching circles and broad ellipses, 
while the characteristic structures of the geosynclinal belts are elongated, 
in the shape of ellipses and spindles, as has already been noted by several 
authors. These features of platforms and geosynclinal structures make it 
possible to differentiate corresponding "fields" in Figure 2, where the 
structures are grouped according to their width and length, i.e., regions 
which characterize the platforms and the geosynclinal structures. 



width 



800 




j Length 



900 1000 1100 1200 km 



FIGURE 2. Dimensionality of structures with respect to length and width. The graph Illustrates Table 2, 
and Is marked only with the nodal groups of structures represented In the table: 

1. field of the platform structures; 2. • field of the geosynclinal structures; 3. 1 to 30 structures; 4. over 
30 structures. 



234 



In order to provide a vivid idea of the relative arrangement of structures 
characterized by different indexes, graphs were plotted in the simple 
ratios taken from the principal tables. These graphs clearly exhibit 
parts of curves corresponding to the most widespread structures (Figures 3 
and 4). 



1200 



1100 



1000 




200 300 400 500 



700 800 number of 

sauctuies 



FIGURE 3. Dimensionality of structures widi respect to length (curve A) and width 
(curve B). The graphs illustrate Table 3. 

An analysis of the vertical development of tectonic structures represented 
on the neotectonic map by the height of uplifts and depth of subsidences 
occurring over a comparatively brief geological time reveals a signlficEuit 
vertical underdevelopment of the positive structures compared with the 



235 



height of uplifts of the same length and width according to the morphometric 
series (Table 1). This phenomenon can largely be explained by the vigorous 
denudation of the uplifts. Furthermore, the map features heights referring 
only to brief periods of geological time (Neogene and Quaternary), whereas 
the structures were undergoing uplifting over a considerably longer period 
of time. The uplifting of many structures had started earlier, in the 
Mesozoic and even in the Paleozoic. 



1300 


•km 






1200 


• 






1100 


- 






1000 


■ 


1 


900 


■ 






800 


- 






700 


- 






600 


■ 






500 


■ 






400 


• 




300 


/ r" 


200 


/ / 


100 


c J 


c 




n 


^ 



100 



200 



300 



400 



500 



600 700 number of 
structures 



FIGURE 4. Dimensionality of negative (curve C) and positive (curve D) 
structures with respect to length. The graphs illustrate Tables 3 and 4. 

The vertical development of the negative (subsiding) structures is 
fuller than that of the positive (uplifting) structures. This may be explained 



236 



by their being preserved by sedimentary strata and possibly also by the 
additional load provided by the accumulating sediments. 

In negative structures of high orders (XIII —XV) the depth of subsidence 
marked on the neotectonic map is less than that calculated theoretically. 
This may be attributed to the fact that the depth of subsidence of the 
structures does not refer to the surface of the basement but rather to a 
certain stratigraphic horizon. The true "bottom" of the trough is located 
at a considerably greater depth, as can be readily seen in the instance 
of the Fergana depression. This explanation is substantiated by material 
found in the literature, tectonic maps, etc. Moreover, one must take into 
account the fact that many structures are still in a formative stage and have 
not yet reached their full development. 

A marked feature is the absence from the map of small negative 
structures. This is probably explained by their masking by sediments 
(so that the structures were not discovered by the investigators), as well 
as by the fact that many negative relief forms are occupied by lakes of 
which only a small number were marked on the map. 

Studies of the morphometric features of the structures marked on the 
neotectonic map of -he USSR revealed considerable inaccuracies in some 
parts of the map. This is illustrated by the structures in northeastern 
Siberia, which are depicted in an overgeneralized manner, so that their 
contours are quite distorted from the viewpoint of the possible mechanism, 
of their formation. Another instance is provided by the representation of 
the positive (uplifted) structures in Transbaikalia which are shown exces- 
sively long on the map, whereas actually they are lenticular. These 
errors stand out very clearly in a comparison of the positive structures 
of this region with the negative structures which are depicted more 
correctly on the map. Moreover, the authors of the map overgeneralized 
the structures of Al-,ai, Sayan, and several other regions, whereas the 
Tien Shan structures are depicted in a much more satisfactory manner. 

Morphometric processing of the data given on the neotectonic map 
of the USSR achieved several purposes. 

First, the basic material confirmed the patterns that were delineated 
in establishing the general morphometric series. 

Secondly, it became possible to identify the tectonic structures of the 
platform and the geosynclinal regions, their graphic expression, and their 
morphometric features (see Figure 2). 

Finally, consideration of the characteristics of well-studied structures 
and the patterns expressed in the form of the morphometric series made 
it possible to reveal the errors and inaccuracies in the map itself. This 
confirm.ed the importance of taking account of the morphometric indexes 
in the compilation of specialized geological, tectonic, and similar maps. 

Analysis of varied and voluminous morphometric data, including those 
taken from the neotectonic map of the USSR, shows that the general 
morphometric series of relief forms and tectonic 
structural forms expresses numerically the general 
pattern that can be traced in nature and that is reflected 
by small and large relief forms and by tectonic struc- 
tures of exogenous and endogenous origins.* 



In 1960—1962 a siinilar regularity in the lunar relief was dixovered by Shemyaldn (1962). 



237 



In this paper we shall not discuss the development of the relief forms 
due to external agents (wind, running water, etc.), although this aspect 
is important for the elucidation of all the general patterns; we shall, 
however, dwell on certain interesting interrelationships which became 
manifest during attempts to correlate the tectonic structures with the 
internal structure of the Earth's crust. 

Obviously, amy relief form or tectonic structure possesses "roots", 
i.e., a zone in the Earth's crust which is under the load of a positive 
relief form or whose deformation was involved in the formation of the 
form itself. Examples are seen in the interaction of engineering structures 
with their bed, manifesting itself in the subsidence of the ground under 
loads or in the decompression of structures in foundation pits. These 
subjects are studied in detail by geological engineers, builders, and other 
specialists and are beyond the scope of this paper. In the case of small 
structures suid small relief forms the zone of their interaction with the 
underlying masses is usually small, but large relief forms may also 
possess deeper "roots". 











Number of earthquakes 











200 


400 


600 800 1000 


1200 


1400 


1600 1 


100 


• 


^r^ 












200 


y 


/ 













300 



400 



36' 


40* 




A-vr 





80 

00 v>a^<^,§!gSlifiggm<affV*SBt» 




o 


100 


■8i^°* -'1^ 


a 


oo« 




200 


"^ 

o a « 


• 






300 


• 









FIGURE 5. Location of earthquake hypocenters in the mountainous regions of Central Asia, according to 
Rozova (1950) and Magnitskii (1953). The graph illustrates Table 7. 



238 



by their being preserved by sedimentary strata and possibly also by the 
additional load provided by the accumulating sedinaents. 

In negative structures of high orders (XIII— XV) the depth of subsidence 
marked on the neotectonic map is less than that calculated theoretically. 
This may be attributed to the fact that the depth of subsidence of the 
structures does not refer to the surface of the basement but rather to a 
certain stratigraphic horizon. The true "bottom" of the trough is located 
at a considerably greater depth, as can be readily seen in the instance 
of the Fergana depression. This explanation is substantiated by material 
found in the literature, tectonic maps, etc. Moreover, one must take into 
account the fact that many structures are still in a formative stage and have 
not yet reached their full development. 

A marked feature is the absence from the map of small negative 
structures. This is probably explained by their masking by sediments 
(so that the structures were not discovered by the investigators), as well 
as by the fact that many negative relief forms are occupied by lakes of 
which only a small number were marked on the map. 

Studies of the morphometric features of the structures marked on the 
neotectonic map of the USSR revealed considerable inaccuracies in some 
parts of the map. This is illustrated by the structures in northeastern 
Siberia, which are depicted in an overgeneralized manner, so that their 
contours are quite distorted from the viewpoint of the possible mechanism 
of their formation. Another instance is provided by the representation of 
the positive (uplifted) structures in Transbaikalia which are shown exces- 
sively long on the map, whereas actually they are lenticular. These 
errors stand out very clearly in a comparison of the positive structures 
of this region with the negative structures which are depicted more 
correctly on the map. Moreover, the authors of the map overgeneralized 
the structures of Altai, Sayan, and several other regions, whereas the 
Tien Shan structures are depicted in a much more satisfactory manner. 

Morphometric processing of the data given on the neotectonic map 
of the USSR achieved several purposes. 

First, the basic material confirmed the patterns that were delineated 
in establishing the general morphometric series. 

Secondly, it became possible to identify the tectonic structures of the 
platform and the geosynclinal regions, their graphic expression, and their 
morphometric features (see Figure 2). 

Finally, consideration of the characteristics of well-studied structures 
and the patterns expressed in the form of the morphometric series made 
it possible to reveal the errors and inaccuracies in the map itself. This 
confirmed the importance of taking account of the morphometric indexes 
in the compilation of specialized geological, tectonic, and similar maps. 

Analysis of varied and voluminous morphometric data, including those 
taken from the neotectonic map of the USSR, shows that the general 
morphometric series of relief forms and tectonic 
structural forms expresses numerically the general 
pattern that can be traced in nature and that is reflected 
by small and large relief forms and by tectonic struc- 
tures of exogenous and endogenous origins.* 

• In 1960—1962 a similar regularity in the lunar relief was discovered by Shemyakin (1962). 



237 



In this paper we shall not discuss the development of the relief forms 
due to external agents (wind, running water, etc.), although this aspect 
is important for the elucidation of all the general patterns; we shall, 
however, dwell on certain interesting interrelationships which became 
manifest during attempts to correlate the tectonic structures with the 
internal structure of the Earth's crust. 

Obviously, any relief form or tectonic structure possesses "roots", 
i. e., a zone in the Earth's crust which is under the load of a positive 
relief form or whose deformation was involved in the formation of the 
form itself. Examples are seen in the interaction of engineering structures 
with their bed, manifesting itself in the subsidence of the ground under 
loads or in the decompression of structures in foundation pits. These 
subjects are studied in detail by geological engineers, builders, and other 
specialists and are beyond the scope of this paper. In the case of small 
structures and small relief forms the zone of their interaction with the 
underlying masses is usually small, but large relief forms may also 
possess deeper "roots". 



200 



400 



Number of earthquakes 
600 800 1000 



1200 



1400 



1600 1700 



100 



200 - 



300 



400 




36° 


40° 






A-vr 





00 o*4p «BP,^j8MJttapc,rf)««wpaP 






o 


100 


■2^j^'^ o 


•f - 


eea 


OoO 


" 


200 


O 

g O 


o-^ 








300 


• 











FIGURE 5. Location of earthquake hypocenters in the mountainous regions of Central Asia, according to 
Rozova (1950) and Magnltskii (1953). The graph illustrates Table 7. 



238 



I 



TABLE 6. DiitiensionaJiiy of structures with respect to their heij^Vht and width 



Height, m 



Width, km 



If. 



5 I 10 I 15 I 20 1 25 I 30 I 35 I 40 I 45 I 50 [ 55 | «0 | 70 | 75 | 80 | 10 | 110 | 125 | 130 | 150 | 1 70 | 175 | 200 [ 225 | 250 | 30(' | 325 | 350 | 360 | 400 [ ■(60 | 500 | 600 j 6fiO | 800 



Number of structures 



Total 

number of 

structures 



25 
30 
50 
75 

lou 
ini) 

2(10 

j-iii 

2tj0 

300 
350 
300 
400 
500 

600 
700 
9(10 
1000 
1100 

1150 
1200 
1300 
1400 
1500 

1600 
1800 
2000 
3(K)0 
350(1 
500(1 
5600 



Total num' 

ber of 
structures 



— 3 



26 63 



34 



12 



— 10 



12 



22 B 



36 



32 



10 



20 



I S 



4- 






36 



143 



25 



34 



14 



149 



27 



18 



17 



Maximum, 
height 



205 

1 

117 



36 
1 



1 
29 



23 

4 
2 
2 
46 
1 

6 
3 
1 
1 
27 

3 
2 

11 
6 
1 
1 
1 

41 



S92 



1419/234-235 



Morphometric analysis of tectonic structures and relief forms revealed 
that these fall regularly into several orders; consequently their "roots" 
must also be arranged in certain stages in the Earth's crust and not in 
a random fashion. In order to test this conclusion we analyzed data on 
the location of earthquake hypocenters provided by several sources, 
including Rozova (1950) and Magnitskii (1953). Graphs based on these 
data (Table 7) display an remarkable similarity to our own graphs (see 
Figures 3, 4, and 5), suggesting a fairly pronounced relationship between 
tectonic structures and the internal structure of the Earth's crust. 

TABLE 7. Number of earthquakes and the depth of their 
hypocenters In the mountainous regions of Central Asia 

(according to Rozova, 1950, and Magnitskii, 1953) 



Depth of 


Number of 


ocenters, km 


earthquakes 


0-10 


521 


35 ilO 


545 


60*10 


29 


100 ±20 


410 


150 ± 20 


95 


200 i 20 


123 


250 ±20 


28 


300 ± 20 


4 



On the basis of the patterns discerned from the general morphometric 
series (see Table 1), it may be assumed that most earthquakes occurring 
in Central Asia are related to the development of structures of the order 
XIII, XIV, and XV. These include the Issyk-Kul and the Fergana depressions 
which correspond to structures of the order XIV. Some of the earth- 
quakes having their hypocenters at depths of 200 — 300 km are probably 
related to the development of large planetary structures of the order XVI. 
A large number of earthquake hypocenters located at depths of 30 and 100 km 
may correspond to structures of the order XV, which must be about 
1000 km long and up to 300 km wide, according to the morphometric series. 

The bibliographic sources (Belousov, 1948 , 1954; Azhgirei, 1959) as 
well as geological, tectonic, and even physical maps depict these structures 
as geosynclinal. Among the depressions they include sediment-free forms 
of the type of deep-sea trenches (Kurile Trench, Marianas Trench, and 
others), the Black Sea depression, and several other seas, while among 
mountain structures they include the Greater Caucasus, the Alps, the 
Carpathians, and many others. The intermontane Tarim depression also 
probably belongs among analogous structures (accordingto Fedorovich (1961)) 
its length is 1100 — 1410 km, its width 420 km (along the meridian of 
Keriya), with Meso-Cenozoic strata over 14 km thick; the depth of its ■ 
basement is still unknown). This depression is in the stage of being filled 
and bears a special relationship to the surrounding relief, i.e., it is 
fringed by mountain structures. The significance of these structures 
in the development of the Earth' s crust attracts special attention, and 
analysis of their morphometric characteristics appears to us to be of 
extreme interest. 



239 



At the present stage it may be noted that the long axis of rectilinear 
structures of the type of the Greater Caucasus drawn at the depth of 30 km 
under the center of the mountain structure may be regarded as a chord 
subtending an arc described with a radius of about 6000 km, which is 
fairly close to the Earth's radius. Since these structures are to a certain 
extent related to the Earth's dimensions and figure, the other indexes of the 
entire morphometric series may obey a similar relationship. 

In order to examine this possibility, we performed an elementary 
calculation with the formula 

/ = — . 



where / is the full wavelength, equal to twice the index of the width of the 
relief form in the morphometric series (in the case of a combination of 
a positive with a negative form), r is the Earth's radius (the equatorial 
radius of 6378 km was used), « = 3.14 is the factor necessary for the 
scaling of linear magnitude to a circle (a sphere). 

The results calculated are listed in Table 8. They display an interesting 
agreement with indexes of the morphometric series. 

TABLE 8. Correlation of the morphometric series indexes with the 
wave parameters calculated with respect to the Earth's radius 

Width of 
the forms in 
the morpho- 



Order 


Wavelength 


of waves 


I, km 


1 


2031.21 


2 


646.88 


3 


206.01 


4 


65.6 


5 


20.9 


6 


6.65 


7 


2.111 


8 


0.6723 


9 


0,214 


10 


0,0681 


11 


0.0217 


12 


0,0069 


13 


0.0022 


14 


0.0007 


15 


0.00022 


16 


0.00007 



— , km 



1015.6 
323.44 
103,0 
32.8 
10.4 
3.32 
1.05 
0.336 
0.107 
0.034 
0.0108 
0.0034 
0.001! 
0.0003 
0.00011 
0.00003 



metric series 
s, km 

1000 

300 

100 

30 

10 

3 

1 

0.3 
0.1 
0.03 
0.01 
0,003 
0.001 
0.0003 
0.0001 
0.00003 



Difference 


Order in 


^-S 


the series 


2 




15.6 


XVI 


23.44 


XV 


3.0 


XIV 


2.8 


XIII 


0.4 


XII 


0.32 


XI 


0.05 


X 


0.036 


IX 


0.007 


VIII 


0.004 


VII 


0,0008 


VI 


0,0004 


V 


0,0001 


IV 





III 


O.OOOOI 


11 





I 




_ 



There is no doubt that this calculation calls for further check and study. 
Possibly it only indicates the direction in which the solution of the problems 
of interest to us must be sought. 

The patterns discovered suggest that the tectonic structural forms 
formed in the Earth's crust and reflected on its surface in the relief forms 
derive from certain general processes occurring in the Earth's body, 
and that they are proportional to the Earth's dimensions and are dependent 
upon its physical properties. =■'' Most probably such processes are periodic 
deformations — oscillations or "waves" generated in the Earth's body by 
various agents, including solar and lunar attraction, variations in the 

• Interesting ideas concerning the relationship between relief and the physical properties of rocks will be 
found in "Inorganic Life of the Earth" (Neorganicheskaya zhizn' Zemli), Part 1, by O. Lukashevich 
(published in 1908). 



240 



Earth's rotation about its axis, variations in the atmospheric pressure, etc. 
The presence of oscillations of various orders in the Earth has already been 
established by precise instrumental measurements, but their relief -forming 
significance still calls for painstaking studies. Quite probably, these oscil- 
lations or "waves" are one of the important agents stimulating, regulating, 
and directing the development of tectonic structures in the Earth's cmst. 
In studies of this problem special attention should be paid to the possible 
summation of these oscillations and resonance phenomena. 

Further studies of the morphometric problems call for additional 
collection and processing of vast and diversified data, including an enormous 
amount which are morphometric. These data must be of a higher quality 
than those heretofore obtained from the literature and from small-scale maps. 

Very valuable data are provided by large-scale structural maps compiled 
by instrumental surveys. Likewise, interesting information can be obtained 
from studies of fairly accurate maps of the bottom relief of the World Ocean, 
since the tectonic structures at the bottom of the sea have been less modified 
by external agents than they have been on dry land. Extremely valuable 
should be the results of field observations carried out according to a special 
program. 

Methods for collecting morphometric data, their processing and their 
analysis have not yet been adequately elaborated, but it is already possible 
to make some tentative recommendations. 

In collecting any morphometric data one must avoid all kinds of averaged 
indexes, since arbitrarily chosen averaging obliterates the possible natural 
"peaks". Moreover, averaged data collected by one investigator in a certain 
region are difficult to compare with those from other regions collected by 
other investigators. The numerical characteristics (length, width, height 
of uplifting, depth of subsidence, etc.) of the relief structures and forms 
must be given on a very detailed scale for every relief form and every 
tectonic structural form, and they must be measured with the maximum 
accuracy possible in this kind of work. 

Working with the neotectonic map, we used an interval of 5 km for plan 
measurements, corresponding to 1 mm on the map. 

In the tables presented in this paper this interval was sometimes changed 
where structures of the corresponding dimensions were absent from the 
territory under consideration (the USSR territory). For instance, we did 
not discover any structures with length of 505, 510, 515, 545 km, nor 
structures with a width of 155, 165 km, nor several others. The intervals 
were not shortened in the plotting of graphs (see Figures 2, 3, and 4). 

In determining morphometric indexes it is important to establish the 
level with respect to which the measurements are to be performed. These 
levels may differ for relief forms of different origins; they must be deter- 
mined for every specific case, and must be precisely indicated in records, 
tables, and graphs. In processing vast numbers of homogeneous data, 
the base level can be established statistically with a sufficient degree of 
accuracy as the mean of a large number of measurements, even when some 
of the latter involve errors. 

In the course of measurements an index card should be made out for 
every measured form, and this card should include all the morphometric 
characteristics recorded in a definite sequence. Such cards make it possible 
to process the collected data by meajis of modern computers. 



241 



The work done thus far (a brief summary of which has been provided 
in this paper) leads to the following conclusions: 

1. Systematic collection and analysis of morphometric data is an 
important method of studying relief forms and the tectonic structures of 
the Earth. 

2. The general morphometric series which we established as a result 
of the preliminary processing of a tremendous amount of data still requires 
further checking, since our data were incomplete and of insufficient 
accuracy. However, this series must now be accepted as the numerical 
expression of natural regularities. 

3. At the present time the morphometric series can be employed in the 
construction and analysis of geological, tectonic, geomorphological, and 
other specialized maps, in drawing the contours of tectonic structures, 

in collecting and processing morphometric data, and for other scientific 
and practical purposes. 

4. The pattern expressed by the morphometric series delineates a 
new approach to studies of the problem of the development of tectonic 
structures and relief forms. 

5. Final checking of the patterns observed calls for further collection 
and processing of sufficiently accurate morphometric data on a mass 
scale and according to a uniform program; this will require joint efforts of 
geologists, geophysicists, and geomorphologists. 



REFERENCES 

AZHGIREI, G.D. Strukturnaya geologiya (Structural Geology). — 

Izdatel'stvo MGU. 1959. 
BELOUSOV, V. V. Osnovnye voprosy geotektoniki (Main Problems of 

Geotectonics). — Gosgeolizdat. 1961. 
BELOUSOV, V.V. Strukturnaya geologiya (Structural Geology). — 

Izdatel'stvo MGU. 1961. 
BOCH, S.G. and I.I. KRASNOV. Klassifikatsiyaob"ektovgeomorfologiches- 

kogo kartografirovaniya i soderzhanie geomorfologicheskikh kart 

(Classification of Objects for Geomorphological Mapping, and 

Contents of Geomorphological Maps). — Sovetskaya Geologiya, 

No. 2. 1958. 
BORISEVICH, D.V. Universal'naya legenda dlya geomorfologicheskikh 

kart (Universal Legend for Geomorphological Maps). — Zemleve- 

denie, Novaya Seriya, Vol. 3(43). 1950. 
FEDOROVICH, B.A. Proiskhozhdenie rel'efa pustyni Takla-Makan i 

voprosy ee osvoeniya (Origin of Relief in the Takla-Makan Desert 

and Problems of Its Economic Development). —In: Sbomik "Kun' 

Lun' i Tarim", Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1961. 
GERASIMOV, I. P. Opyt geomorfologicheskoi interpretatsii obshchei 

skhemy geomorfologicheskogo stroeniya SSSR (An Essay on 

Geomorphological Interpretation of the General Scheme of the 

Geomorphological Structure of the USSR). — Problemy Fizicheskoi 

Geografii, Vol. 12. 1946, 
MAGNITSKU, V.A. Osnovy fiziki Zemli (Elements of Terrestrial 

Physics). — Geodezizdat. 1953. 



242 



MARKOV, K.K. Osnovnye problemy geomorfologii (Basic Problems of 

Geomorphology). — Moskva, Geografgiz. 1948. 
MESHCHERYAKOV, Yu.A. Ob otrazhenii v rel'efe Russkoi ravniny 

antiklinal'nykh struktur tipa valov 1 kupolov (Reflection in the 

Relief of the Russian Plain of Anticlinal Structures of the Type 

of Ramparts and Domes). — DAN, Novaya Seriya, Vol. 79, 

No. 2. 1951. 
MESHCHERYAKOV, Yu.A. Osnovnye elementy morfostruktury Zemli 

i problemy ikh proiskhozhdeniya (Principal Elements of the Morpho- 
logical Structure of the Earth and Problems of Their Origin). — 

Izvestiya AN SSSR, Seriya Geograficheskaya, No. 4. 1957. 
NIKOLAEV, N.I. Noveishaya tektonika SSSR (Neotectonics of the USSR). — 

Trudy Komissii po Izucheniyu Chetvertichnogo Perioda, Vol.8, 

Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1949. 
NIKOLAEVA, N. 1. and S. S. SHUL'TS, editors. Karta noveishei tektoniki 

(Neotectonic Map). — Gosgeoltekhizdat. 1959. 
PIOTROVSKII, V.V. K voprosu o sozdanii obshchei klassifikatsii form 

rel'efa litosfery (On the Elaboration of a General Classification 

of the Relief Forms of the Lithosphere). — Trudy MIIGAiK, No. 18, 

Geoizdat. 1959. 
PIOTROVSKII, V.V. K voprosu o migratsii radioaktivnykh elementov 

i ee znachenii v razvitii litosfery (On Migration of Radioactive 

Elements and Its Significance in the Development of the Lithosphere) .- 

Ibid. , No. 44. 1961. 
PIOTROVSKII, V. V. Geomorfologiya s osnovami geologii (Geomorphology 

and Elements of Geology). — Geodezizdat. 1961. 
POLDERVAART, A.H., editor. The Earth's Crust, a Symposium. — 

Geological Soc. of America, New York. 1955. 
Problems of Climatic and Structural Geomorphology. Collection of 

Papers. [Russian translation. 1959.] 
RAMENSKII, L.G. Vvedenie v kompleksnoe pochvenno-geobotanicheskoe 

issledovanie zemel' (Introduction to Comprehensive Soil-Geobotanical 

Investigation of Lands). — Ogiz, Sel'khozgiz. 1938. 
ROZOVA, E.A. Raspolozhenie epitsentrov i gipotsentrov zemlyatryasenii 

Srednei Azii (Location of Earthquake Epicenters and Hypocenters in 

Central Asia). — Trudy Geofian, No. 10. 1950. 
SHEMYAKIN, M. M. Zamechatel'nye tsepochki lunnykh kraterov 

(Remarkable Chains of Lunar Craters). — Priroda, No. 2. 1962. 
VOLKOV, N.I. Printsipy i metody kartometrii (Principles and Methods of 

Cartometry). — Geodezizdat. 1950. 
Voprosy vnutrennego stroeniya i razvitiya Zemli (Problems of the Earth's 

Inner Structure and Development). — Trudy Geofizicheskogo instituta 

AN SSSR. Moskva. 1955. 



243 



G.G. Khizanashvili 

FORMATION OF SUBMARINE VALLEYS IN THE 
LIGHT OF THE DYNAMICS OF THE EARTH'S AXIS 

The problem of the formation of submarine valleys has not yet been 
fully solved. Hypotheses of the subaerial formation of submarine canyons 
assume improbably large variations in the amount of water in the oceans 
or similarly large vertical movements of the continent*. Therefore 
scientists were forced to discard the hypothesis of the subaerial formation 
of these canyons and to seek an explanation of this phenomenon in under- 
water processes. 

Variations in the ocean level (and consequently the possibility of suitable 
conditions for subaerial formation of submarine valleys) may also occur 
without any variation in the amount of water in the oceanic depressions. 
The hypothesis advanced by Khizanashvili /lO/ demonstrates that variations 
in the ocean level, even of considerable amplitude, may occur on Earth 
irrespective of any variation in the quantity of oceanic waters. This 
hypothesis may be briefly summarized as follows: shifts of masses 
continuously occurring on our planet deflect the rotation axis within the 
Earth's body; the solid part of the Earth changes its position with respect 
to its rotation axis; the hydrosphere, being liquid, continued to rotate 
in such a manner that the minor axis of the oceanic spheroid always 
coincides with the rotation axis. As a result, the ocean level rises in 
two opposite quadrants of the Earth's surface while falling in the other two; 
a rise in level in certain areas is compensated by subsidence in other areas, 
while the volume of oceanic waters remains unchanged /lO, pp. 5 — 14/. 

An explanation of the genesis of submarine valleys based on Khizanashvili' s 
hypothesis suggests that a deflection of the rotation axis within the Earth's 
body causes a depression in the ocean level in regions approached by the 
poles. The rivers and other streams follow the retreating seacoast by 
cutting their valleys through the newly dry land. Subsequently, when the 
deflection of the rotation axis changes its direction and the poles start 
retreating from these areas, the ocean level again rises and part of the 
river valleys become submerged, fornaing submarine canyons. 

Nevertheless, fluctuations in ocean level may still prove inadequate to 
explain the origin of submarine valleys by erosion. The submarine canyons 
are not formed unless the retreat of the ocean is followed by vigorous 
erosion processes which destroy the newly exposed dry land. Consequently, 
another no less important factor is represented by erosion agents on dry 
land. One such agent is atmospheric precipitation. 

• The variations in the level of the ocean necessary to produce subaerial conditions on areas now under 
water are attributed by scientists either to a change in the volume of oceanic waters or to a change 
in the volumetric capacity of the oceanic depressions, 

244 



It will be useful to remind the reader of Shepard's view of the lower 
incidence of submarine canyons in desert regions where the amounts of 
atmospheric precipitation are insufficient for intensive erosion. Shepard 
wrote that there are grounds for assuming that canyons should occur less 
frequently in the zone centered at 30° lat. where the atmospheric precipita- 
tion is light. However, this phenomenon may be partially explained by 
the insufficient number of soundings in this latitude. Yet, characteristically, 
not a single large canyon has been discovered in the desert region /12, 
p. 243/. Similarly, the absence of submarine canyons off the Australian 
shores is related by Shepard to the underdeveloped river system of this 
continent /9/. 

Thus, the following are the two principal prerequisites for the fornnation 
of submarine valleys: 1) fluctuations of the ocean level; and 2) adequate 
atmospheric precipitation to form streams capable of vigorous erosion. 

The formation of submarine canyons must undoubtedly be affected by 
many other factors besides those mentioned. For instance a significant 
factor may be the relief of the adjacent sea -bottom areas; this factor may 
assume decisive importance in certain cases. However, the ocean floor 
is variable everywhere, and while hindering the formation of submarine 
canyons in one area, it may facilitate their formation in an adjacent area. 
Thus, the effect of the sea-bottom relief is confined to localized areas. 

On the other hand, the two basic prerequisites given above for the 
formation of submarine valleys conform to definite global patterns. If 
our purpose is given a broader formulation (i.e., if we try to encompass 
the largest possible number of submarine valleys and the most extensive 
territories of their occurrence), local factors may be neglected and 
we m.ay base our analysis of the phenomenon solely on the main factors. 
We may then trace the principal regularities which are instrumental 
in the formation of submarine canyons and their distribution over the 
Earth. We shall now examine these main factors separately. 

Fluctuations in ocean level. A deflection of the rotation axis 
within the Earth's body causes fluctuations of the ocean level of the entire 
surface of our planet. However, the magnitude and size of these fluctua- 
tions differ at different points on the globe. Variations in the magnitude 
and direction of the fluctuations in the ocean level conform to certain 
patterns. Simultaneous fluctuations are of the same sign in opposite 
quadrants of the globe separated by "indifferent" meridians and parallels. 
Following along the parallel in any quadrant the fluctuations reach their 
maximum values on the meridian of the shift of poles, attenuating gradually 
in both directions away from this meridian toward the "indifferent" 
meridians. 

Similarly, in every quadrant, following along the meridian, the fluctua- 
tions reach their maximum values in the middle latitudes, their amplitudes 
diminishing toward the poles and the equator. In this case we are interested 
in the latter phenomenon, i.e., the regularity governing the amplitudinal 
variation of the fluctuations in ocean level in the meridional direction. 

Table 1 lists variations in the length of the Earth' s radius between the 
equator and the poles at intervals of 5° lat. The differences in length of 
every adjacent pair of radii listed in the table govern the amplitude of the 
fluctuation in ocean level on approaching the poles (or withdrawing from 
them) by 5°. For instance, the Earth's radius is 6369.6 km at a latitude 



245 



of 40°, and 6367.7 km at a latitude of 45°. The difference in the Jength 
of the radii is 6369.6 - 6367.7 = 1.9 km. This means that as the pole 
comes 5° closer to any point situated at the latitude of 40° the ocean level 
there will fall by 1.9 km. At a point situated at a latitude of 55° the 
approach of the pole by 5° will depress the ocean level by 1.7 km; the 
fall will be 1.1 km at a latitude of 15°, and so on. 



TABLE 1. 



Latitude, 


Spheroid 


Fluctuation of 


degrees 


radius, km 


ocean level, km 





6378.5 




5 


6378.3 


0.2 


10 


6377.8 


0.5 


15 


6377.0 


0.8 


20 


6375.9 


1.1 


25 


6374.6 


1.3 


30 


6373.1 


1.5 


35 


6371.4 


1.7 


40 


6369.6 


1.8 


45 


6367.7 


1.9 


50 


6365.9 


1.8 


55 


6364.1 


1.8 


60 


6362.4 


1.7 


65 


6360.8 


1.6 


70 


6359.6 


1.2 


75 


6358.5 


1.1 


80 


6357.6 


0.9 


85 


6357.2 


0.4 


90 


6357.0 


0.2 



The third column of Table 1 lists the magnitudes of the fluctuation in 
the ocean level at different latitudes of the Earth when the poles approach 
the point (or withdraw from it) by 5°. The tabulated data can be used for 
plotting a graph by marking the y-axis with the values listed in the last 
column of the table (on any convenient scale). The resultant curve will 
display the pattern governing the amplitudinal variation of the fluctuations 
in ocean level at different terrestrial latitudes. It will be seen from 
Figure 1 that the maximum fluctuations in ocean level occur in the middle 
latitudes, decreasing at lower and higher latitudes. 

In the geological past the Earth's poles shifted in several directions, and 
therefore it is possible to conclude that the maximum fluctuations of the 
ocean level in different epochs occurred in different areas of the Earth's 
surface situated in the middle latitudes, so that eventually large fluctuations 
occurred in all areas along these parallels. Areas in the polar regions 
and in the equatorial zone must have undergone fluctuations of considerably 
smaller amplitudes. 

Hence it follows that conditions favoring the formation of submarine 
canyons by erosion must have occurred primarily in the middle latitudes. 
If the submarine valleys were indeed incised by rivers at low ocean levels, 
then they must be most numerous in the middle latitudes. 



246 



The fluctuations in ocean level are small about the poles and along the 
equator, and are practically zero for small deflections of the rotation axis. 
However, this does not indicate that appreciable fluctuations of the ocean 
level did not occur in the polar regions and in the equatorial zone of the 
Earth. 



2000 - 



1500 



1000 



500 




FIGURE 1. Graph of the amplitudinal variations of the fluctuations in ocean level at different 
terrestrial latitudes. 

The depth of the largest submarine canyons (such as those discovered 
along the shores of North America) often reach 2 — 2.5 km. Assuming 
that these canyons were incised by rivers when the ocean level was low, 
we must admit a shift of the poles within 5—6°, in order to allow for a 
depression of the surface of the oceanic spheroid by an amount corresponding 
to the depth of these canyons in the middle latitudes. Such a deflection of 
the rotation axis would also produce appreciable fluctuations in the ocean 
level in the equatorial zone and in the high latitudes, although they would 
be far more limited than in the middle latitudes. 

Although the amplitude of the fluctuations in ocean level is approximately 
the same within the polar circles and in the tropical zones, the prerequisites 
for the formation of submarine valleys in these regions are totally different. 
In the tropical zones, as the ocean level falls, the rivers follow the advancing 
coastline, incising their valleys more deeply in the process. With the 
characteristic abundance of atmospheric precipitation in the tropical zones 
it is readily seen that the erosion processes will be fairly vigorous, forming 
submarine canyons along the continental coasts. 

The conditions created by the fall of the ocean level will be totally 
different in high latitudes. In case of a slight shift of poles the fluctuation 
in ocean level at these latitudes will be small, and the rivers will incise 
their valleys only to a small depth, so that the submarine canyons will soon 
be buried under the shifting sands after the return of the sea. If the poles 
shift considerably and the fall of the ocean level is large, this phenomenon 
will be accompanied with such a considerable drop in the mean temperatures 
that glaciation would inevitably occur at these latitudes. The ice sheet 
would cover the dry land and possibly also the sea shallows, preventing the 
erosive activity of the rivers. 



247 



To illustrate the above hypothesis, let us examine the possibility of 
the formation of the submarine valleys near the mouths of Siberian rivers 
flowing into the Arctic Ocean, choosing the largest rivers for this purpose, 
namely the Ob, the Yenisei, and the Lena. Their respective mouths lie 
at 67°N., VO'N, and 73°N. At these latitudes the approach of the pole 
through one degree causes a drop of 220 m in ocean level (see Table 1); 
thus, the rivers will be able to incise their valleys to a depth of 220m, 
i.e., they will remain within the boundaries of the continental shelf. 
Such valleys may readily become buried afterward. Therefore, in order 
to allow for the possibility of the formation of sufficiently deep and stable 
submarine canyons we must assume larger shifts of the pole, of about 
2.5 — 3°. An approach of the pole through 3° will depress the ocean level 
by 3X22 = 660 m, and in this case the submarine valleys will be much 
better preserved, provided they have been incised by the river to such 
a depth. 

However, a drop in ocean level will also cause a drop in mean temper- 
ature. 

Let us calculate the variation in mean annual temperature by the method 
provided by Khiz ana shvili /lO, pp. 61— 64/. A 660m depression in the ocean 
level will decrease the mean annual temperature by 660/200 = 3.3 °C, while 
the increase in the latitude will reduce the mean annual temperature by 
3X0.6= 1.8 °C. The total temperature drop will amount to 3.3 + 1.8= 5.1 °C. 
It may be assumed that a drop of 5 °C in the mean annual temperature is 
sufficient to cause glaciation. Evidently, favorable conditions for the 
formation of submarine canyons may not occur in this region even in cases 
of considerable shifts of the poles. 

The above discussion was not intended to exclude the possibility of the 
formation of submarine valleys in high latitudes. The formation of 
canyons there may be facilitated by other factors, such as warm sea 
currents limiting the spread of glaciation which might result from the 
drop in ocean level. Furthermore, it was noted by Saks /9, p. 34/ that 
in high latitudes one may encounter submerged valleys of glacial or other 
origin. Consequently, our hypothesis should be interpreted to mean that 
the probability of the formation of submarine valleys is considerably 
lower in the polar regions than in the middle and low latitudes. This 
possibly explains why no submarine canyons have been discovered thus 
far in the Antarctic /3, 9, 11/, while their known number in the Arctic 
Ocean is small /9, 11/; in the Pacific basin the northernmost canyon was 
found at a latitude of 54°, according to Shepard /12, p. 228/. 

Thus, in our discussion of the fluctuations in the level of the oceanic 
spheroid with respect to the possibility of formation of submarine valleys 
we have seen that a drop in ocean level should create conditions con- 
ducive to such formation in the middle and low latitudes of the Earth, but 
these conditions may not arise in high latitudes. 

Distribution of atmospheric precipitation. Our second 
prerequisite for the formation of submarine valleys was a sufficient 
amount of atmospheric precipitation. As in the preceding case, we are 
interested in the distribution of atmospheric precipitation at different 
terrestrial latitudes. 



248 



We traced this distribution along four routes traversing the northern 
hemisphere from the pole to the equator in the most characteristic areas. * 
The routes were as follows: 1) along the western coast of North America, 
through Central America, and along the western coast of South America 
to the equator; 2) along the eastern coast of North America through 
Central America, and along the eastern coast of South America to the 
equator; 3) through western Europe and the Mediterranean basin, and 
through western Africa down to the Equator; 4) along the eastern coast 
of Asia, including Japan, India and Indonesia, down to the equator. ** 
Our data on atmospheric precipitation along the above routes were taken 
from the instructional climatic map of the world published by the Main 
Administration of Geodesy and Cartography of the Ministry of Internal 
Affairs of the USSR in 1955. 

These data were used for plotting the four graphs in Figure 2. Each 
of these graphs reflects the variations in atmospheric precipitation 
from the equator toward the North Pole along one of the routes mentioned. 
According to all the graphs, the maximum atmospheric precipitation falls in 
the equatorial zone, decreasing gradually in a northward direction, but 
conforming to different patterns in each of the four cases. 




FIGURE 2. Graphs of the latitudinal distribution of atmospheric precipitation: 

1. western coast of America; 2. eastern coast of America; 3. western Europe — Mediterranean basin; 
4. eastern coast of Asia. 

Averaged data from the above four graphs were used for plotting a 
combined graph (Figure 3). The values of the ordinates of this graph were 
computed as the arithmetic means of the corresponding ordinates of the 

• The routes were chosen so that they include areas with the largest numbers of subrrarine canyons. 
•• Being concerned with the submarine canyons in the northern hemisphere of the Earth, which have been 
studied most extensively, we did not deem it necessary to include the southern hemisphere in our 
discussion. 



249 



original four graphs. Consequently, curve B in Figure 3 does not portray 
the distribution of atmospheric precipitation along any single route, but 
reflects the general variation patterns of the amounts of atmospheric 
precipitation over the entire northern hemisphere. 




0° 5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 35° 40° 45° 50° 55° 



60° 



65° 70° 75° 80° 85° 90° 



FIGURE 3. Combined graph of the distribution of atmospheric precipitation (B) , 

Thus we have examined separately the two main factors in the formation 
of submarine canyons — fluctuations in ocean level and distribution of 
atmospheric precipitation. In nature, however, these factors act simul- 
taneously, and therefore we must discover the possible results of their 
simultaneous action. In this case we shall also use the graphic method. 
Curve A in Figure 3 depicts amplitudinal variations of the fluctuations 
in ocean level from the equator to the pole. Curve B displays the variation 
in the quantity of atmospheric precipitation (also from the equator to the 
pole). The results of their simultaneous action may be determined by 
simply combining these two curves. 

The following introductory explanation is necessary. The amplitude 
of fluctuations in ocean level and the amount of atmospheric precipitation 
are quite different phenomena, measured in different luiits, so that the 
combination of the respective measurements is a difficult task. However, 
we consider it feasible to reduce both phenomena to a single scale, in their 
roles as prerequisites for the formation of submarine valleys. For this 
purpose we shall assume that the effect of both factors are approximately 
equal in the formation of submarine canyons. This statement is expressed 
graphically simply by assigning equal ordinate values to the maxima of 
each phenomenon. * 

• We have no reason to assume that one of these factors is more important than the other; such an 

assumption would require special proof. Nevertheless, if either is subsequently found to be dominant, 
it will be sufficient to increase its ordinate accordingly in plotting the combined graph. It is readily 
seen from Figure 3 that such an alteration will have no appreciable effect on the general character 
of the combined curve. The principal change will be in the absolute values of its ordinates, which is 
immaterial in our case. 



1419 



250 



This somewhat arbitrary use of the graphic method is justified in view of 
our use of the combined curve only as a qualitative characterization of the 
phenomenon under consideration rather than a quantitative indicator. If 
considerable portions of the two graphs being added are more or less in 
phase, both the above conditions for the formation of submarine valleys have 
been met, and each intensifies the other. In this case, the probability for 
the formation of submarine canyons is maximum, which is expressed by 
the maximum ordinate value of the resultant curve. 

If large ordinates of one curve correspond to minimum ordinates of the 
other, their combined effect will reflect the case in which absence (or 
insignificance) of one of the conditions lowers the possibility of the 
formation of submarine canyons. In the case of coincidence of the 
minimumi values of both constituent curves nature does not provide the 
conditions necessary for the formation of submarine valleys. In this 
case the probability of their formation is at its minimum and the combined 
graph will drop to a minimum^. 

Curve C in Figure 3 has been constructed by the method described above. 
It combines the graphs of the distribution of atmospheric precipitation and 
of the amplitude of the fluctuations of the oceanic spheroid. Ordinates of 
this curve for each of its abscissa values were obtained by addition of the 
ordinates of the first two curves (A and B). Since the absolute values of 
the graphs are unimportant in this case, the position of curve C was 
somewhat lowered for the sake of convenience. 

Our resultant curve reflects the combined effect of both factors — 
fluctuations in ocean level and amount of atmospheric precipitation — 
upon the formation of submarine valleys. It indicates those cases in 
which conditions for the formation of submarine canyons are most favorable 
and those in which the probability of their formation is at a minimum. It 
is seen from the graph that curve C reaches maximum values in latitudes 
ranging from 32 to 50°, indicating conditions conducive to the formation 
of submarine valleys. This is, in fact, the zone in which the amplitude 
of fluctuations of ocean level is maximum and atmospheric precipitation 
is abundant, so that here the two factors exhibit the same characteristics, 
intensifying each other. 

In the zone between 50 and 55° ajid further north, the curve dips 
abruptly, signifying deterioration of conditions for the formation of sub- 
marine canyons. This is explained by the smaller amplitude of fluctuations 
of ocean level and a decrease in atmospheric precipitation. The curve 
also dips abruptly south of the zone of its maximum values, at 20 — 27° lat., 
where the probability of the formation of submarine valleys is also low. 
This substantiates Shepard's hypothesis on the comparative scarcity of 
submarine valleys at latitudes of about 30°. 

Between 5 and 20° the curve has two additional miaxima, indicating a 
recurrence of conditions favorable for the formation of submarine valleys. 
In this zone the amplitude of the fluctuations of ocean level is considerably 
smaller than in the middle latitudes, but there is a heavy increase in 
precipitation which more than compensates for the attenuation of the first 
factor. In this zone the fall in ocean level will not be very large, but the 
intensive erosion caused by excessive rainfall enhances the incision of 
canyons, so that the formation of submarine valleys becomes possible. 



251 



Curve C drops again in the equatorial zone, indicating a very low 
probability for the formation of submarine canyons in spite of the maximum 
amount of atmospheric precipitation. This is because the amplitude of the 
fluctuations of the ocean level approaches zero along the equator. 

We have described curve C and deterniined the latitudes providing the 
most favorable conditions for the formation of submarine canyons. If our 
approach toward the solution of this problem is correct, then the maximum 
number of submarine valleys should be concentrated at the latitudes 
corresponding to the maxima of the curve. We must now check whether 
the regions providing the most favorable conditions for the formation of 
submarine canyons indicated by the graph are actually those of their most 
extensive occurrence in nature. 

We must first study the distribution of submarine valleys at different 
latitudes. We found suitable data for solving this problem in the work 
of Shepard /ll, 12/, Klenova /5/, and Saks /9/. Data on more than 
200 submarine valleys taken from these sources are listed in Table 2. 
They were used for plotting the graph in Figure 4 illustrating the latitudinal 
distribution of submarine canyons. Each point of this curve corresponds 
to a known submarine canyon at this latitude. In order to render Figure 4 
more informative we transferred to it also curve C from Figure 3 plotting 
the variation in the conditions for the formation of submarine valleys. 



TABLE 2. I. Eastern coast of America 



No. 



9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 
19-20 

21 
22—23 
26 — 29 

30 



Name of canyon 



Tay Gully , . 
Corsair . . . 
Lidoniya . . . 
Oceanographer 
Weiiier . . . 



Hydrographer . 
Witch . . . . 
Block . . . . 
Hudson . . . 



Wilmington 

Baltimore 

Washington 

Norfolk 

Mississippi 

De Soto 

Northern coast of Cuba . . . 
Group of Puerto Rico Is. . . 

Windward Is 

SSo Francisco group in Brazil 
Rio de Janeiro group .... 
Uruguay 



Number 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
4 
4 
1 



Latitude 

43°50' N 
41* N 
40"25' N 
40*20' N 
40*20' N 
40*10' N 
40* N 
39*50' N 
39'50' N 
39*30' N 
39* N 
38*30' N 
38° N 
37*20' N 
37* N 
29* N 
29* N 
21*30' N 
18* N 
16* N 

4*30' — 10' S 
20 — 23* S 
35* S 



252 



II. Western coast of America 



No. 

31 
32—35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

SS 

56 

57 

58 

59 

60 

61 

62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 — 74 
75 — 78 



79 — 82 
83 — 85 
86—89 
90 — 91 
92 — 97 



Name of canyon 



Bering 

The Aleutian group . 
Fraser [River mouth] . 



Number 

1 
4 



Ciays Harbor 

Willapa (Cape Lidbenter) . 
Columbia [River] . . . . 
Trinidad [Light house] , . 

Eel 

Mattole 

Spanish canyon 

Pt. Delgada 

Noyo 

Stuart's point 

Bogeda [Head] 

Pioneer 

Ascension 

Monterey 

Carmel 



Pt. Sur . 
Pottington 



Pt. Arguello 



Dyum . 
Redondo 



Scripp 

Los Coronados . . . 
North-Mexican group 
North- Mexican group 



South- Mexican group 
Guatemala group . . 
Panama group . . . 
Peruvian group . . . 
Chile group 
(Maipo) 



3 
1 
3 
4 
3 
4 
2 
3 
3 



' N 



' N 



■ N 
' N 



Latitude 

54' N 

50— 52'30' 

48*30' N 

48'10' N 

47*S0' N 

47*30' N 

47*10' N 

46*50' N 

46*30' N 

46*10' N 

41*10' N 

40*40' N 

40*20' N 

40*10' 

40* N 

39*30' 

38*30' 

38*10' N 

37*20' N 

37* N 

36*40' N 

36*30' N 

36*10' N 

36* N 

35*50' N 

35*20' N 

35*10' N 

35* N 

34*20' N 

34*15' N 

34* N 

34* N 

33*50' N 

33*40' N 

33*10' N 

33* N 

32*50' N 

32*30' N 

22*30' — 25* N 

21* N 

18 — 20*N 

15*30' — 17*30' N 

13*- 14*30' N 

7*30' — 10* N 

16-17* S 

22 — 25* S 

32 — 36* S 



253 



III. Eastern and southern Asia 



No. 



98-106 

107—110 

111—113 
114 
115 
116 

in 

118-121 

122 

123 

124—135 



136 
137-142 



143 
144 



Name of canyon 



Fat Eastern group . 

Korean group . . . 
(Pisan canyon) . , . 
Toyama Wan group . 

Sagatni 

Tokyo 

Sunosaki 

Suruga Wan group . . 
Formosa group . . . 
(Chotsui Pit) . . . . 

Balintang 

Calayan 

Luzon group: (Laoag) 
(Mainganan) . . . . 

(Manila) 

Ganges 

Ceylon group . . . . 

Indus 

Oman coast . . . . 



mber 
5 


Latitude 
45'-46*30' N 


4 


42*30'— 44' N 


2 


40'30'— 42°N 


2 


38—40* N 


3 


37* N 


1 


35*10' N 


1 


35*5' N 


1 


34'50' N 


1 


34*30' N 


2 


22*30' — 24°N 


2 


21-22° N 


1 


19* N 


1 


19° N 


4 


17*30'- 19°N 


6 


15*- 17°30' N 


2 


14°-15*N 


1 


21° N 


3 


7°30' — 9°N 


3 


5. —7.30' N 


1 


23° N 


1 


17*20' N 



IV. Africa 



No. 



145—150 
151-155 
156 — 158 
159 — 164 



165 — 168 

169 

170 

171—172 

173 

174 
175—181 
182 — 185 
186-188 



Name of canyon 



Algerian group 

Egyptian group (Nile) 

Syrian group 

Western group 

Somali group 

Bight of Benin 

Kamoe [Inlet] 

Equatorial group 

Congo 

Bengo 

Mozambique group (Mocimboa) 

Sul do Save group 

South African group 



Number 



Latitude 



6 


37° N 


5 


32° N 


3 


33— 35°N 


1 


8 — 10°N 


2 


10*- 12*30' N 


1 


12*30'-15*N 


2 


15*- 17°30' N 


3 


5*-7*30' N 


1 


7*30'-10*N 


1 


5°N 


1 


5°N 


1 


0° 


1 


30' S 


1 


6°S 


1 


8°S 


7 


8°-16° S 


4 


20-25* S 


3 


33—35° S 



254 



V. Europe 
No. 



189—190 
191 — 193 
194—201 

202—204 

205—208 

209 — 211 

212—213 

214 
215—216 

217-218 

219 
220 — 224 



Name of canyon 



Norwegian group 
Riviera group . 
Corsican group . 



Group of Sardinia Is,. 
Italian group . . . . 
Sicilian group . . . 



Riviera di Levante 
Strait of Gibraltar 
Tajo [Tagus] . . 
(Baia de Setubal) 
Nazare 



Douro 

Biscay group (Capbreton). 



Number 


Latitude 


2 


67°30' -70* 


N 


3 


43— 44*N 




3 


42'30' -43* 


N 


5 


4r-42*30' 


N 


1 


41* N 




2 


39'-4D'N 




2 


40-42* N 




2 


38*-39°30' 


N 


2 


38 'SO' N 




1 


37° N 




2 


41-42* N 
36 -37° N 
38°30' N 
38*20' N 
39°30' N 
39*50' N 
4r30' N 




5 


43°40' N 





VI. Oceania and Australia 



No. 

225 — 227 

228 
229-233 



234—235 



Name of canyon 



Hawaii group , . . 
New Guinea .... 
Australia: 

Cape Steep Point 

Perth 

Kangaroo Is. . . . 

Southeastern coast 
New Zealand . . . 



mber 


Latitude 


3 


21-22* N 


1 


8°S 


1 


26* S 


2 


32° S 


1 


36* S 


1 


37*3 


1 


37° S 


1 


42° S 



Information on nameless canyons was borrowed from Shepard's map/ll, 12/. 




15* 20° 25* 30* 35* 40* 



50* 55* 60* 65* 



FIGURE 4. Comparison of curve C, indicating favorable conditions for the fomiation of submarine valleys, 
and curve D, representing the latitudinal distribution of these valleys. 



255 



It is now possible to check, by comparing the two curves, whether the 
maximum occurrence of submarine canyons is actually found within the 
regions that should provide the most favorable condition for their formation 
according to the graph. In Figure 4, the great similarity of the two curves, 
both in main features and in details, is immediately apparent. For example, 
both curves reach their maximum values in the middle latitudes, in the 
zone 30 to 50°; each reaches a secondary peak in the latitudes 13 to 18°, 
somewhat lower than the maximum value. In both cases there is a 
depression between these two peaks in the region of latitudes 2 5 to 27°. 
The minimum values of both curves occur on the equator and at latitudes 
higher than 60 to 65°, and so on. 

It is our opinion that the similarity of the two curves cannot be 
accidental, and that we are justified in assuming that a causal relationship 
exists between the phenomena illustrated by the graphs. Similarity of the 
curves shows that the assumed pattern of the formation of submarine 
valleys is to a certain extent reflected by the actual distribution of canyons. 
The hypothesis that the genesis of submarine valleys is actually related to 
fluctuations in ocean level due to deflections of the rotation axis within the 
Earth evidently reflects, somewhat, the real conditions. 

The distribution curve for submarine valleys was plotted from data that 
we found in scientific literature. Obviously new submarine canyons will 
be discovered in the course of time and their plotting on the graph may 
modify it to some extent. Our final judgement on the similarity between 
the curves of the most favorable conditions for the formation of submarine 
canyons and their actual distribution must be withheld until curve D has 
been marked with all submarine canyons actually existing in nature. 
Nevertheless, our data was sufficiently extensive to reveal the general 
distribution pattern of submarine valleys. Probably the nature of this 
pattern will not be significantly affected by supplementary information on 
new canyons. In order to trace the correlation between the phenomena 
illustrated in Figure 4 the curves need not resem.ble each other in all 
details. If, after the accuracy of the graphs has been improved, the 
curves retain their similarity with respect to their principal features 
(such as their maxima in the zones 30 to 50° and 5 to 20° and the well- 
marked depressions between them), we shall be justified in assuming 
that the phenomena reflected by these curves are in some way correlated 
and that the conclusions reached in this paper provide some knowledge of 
the real conditions. 



REFERENCES 

1. Atlas mira (World Atlas), Moskva, 1954. 

2. BERG, L.S. Podvodnye doliny (Submarine Valleys). — Izvestiya 

Vsesoyuznogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva, Vol.78, No. 3. 1946. 

3. DOBRYNIN, B. F. K voprosu podvodnykh kan'onov (Submarine 

Canyons). — Uchenye Zapiski MGU, No. 48, Geografiya. 1941. 

4. KLENOVA, M. V. Pogruzhennye beregovye linii Barentseva morya 

(Submerged Coastlines of the Barents Sea). — Trudy Sovetskoi 
Sektsii Mezhdunarodnoi Assotsiatsii po Izucheniyu Chetvertichnogo 
Perioda, No. 4. 1939, 



256 



5. KLENOVA, M.V. Geologiya morya (Marine Geology). -Moskva, 

Uchpedgiz. 1948, 

6. LINDBERG, G.U. Geomorfologiya dna okralnnykh morei Vostochnoi 

Azii i rasprostranenie pre snovodnykh ryb (Bottom Geomorphology 
of East Asian Marginal Seas and the Distribution of Freshwater 
Fish). — Izvestiya Vsesoyuznogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva, 
Vol.78. No. 3. 1946. 

7. LINDBERG, G.U. Sovremennoe sostoyanie problemy proiskhozhdeniya 

podvodnykh dolin (Current Views on the Origin of Submarine 
Valleys). — Voprosy Geografii, No. 3. 1947. 

8. LINDBERG, G.U. O prichine sokhrannosti mikrorel'efa sushi na dne 

morya (Causes of the Preservation of Continental Relief on the 
Sea Bottom). — Izvestiya AN SSSR, Seriya Geograficheskaya i 
Geofizicheskaya, Vol.12, No. 4. Moskva. 1948. 

9. SAKS, V.N. Zagadka podvodnykh dolin (The Riddle of Submarine 

Valleys). — Priroda, No. 9. 1948. 

10. KHIZANASHVILI, G.D. Dinamika zemnoi osi vrashcheniya i urovnei 

okeanov (Dynamics of the Earth's Rotational Axis and of Ocean 
Levels), Tbilisi. 1960. 

11. SHEPARD, F.P. andC. BIRD. Submarine Canyons: Their Distribution 

and Long Profiles. [Russian translation. 1941.] 

12. SHEPARD, F.P. Submarine Geology. — Harper, New York. 1948. 

[Russian translation. 1951.] 

13. SHUMSKII, P. A. Sovremennoe oledenenie sovetskoi Arktiki (Present- 

day Glaciation of the Soviet Arctic). —Voprosy Geografii, No. 4. 1947. 



257 



S. Yu. Brodskaya 

PALEOMAGNETIC RESEARCH IN THE USSR 



Paleomagnetism is a new field of Earth science which lies on the 
boundary between geophysics, geology, and the study of ferromagnetism. 
Research in this field is becoming a matter of ever- increasing interest, 
since it gives us information on the following important subjects: 1) the 
history of the Earth' s magnetic field and the variations in this field 
throughout geological time; 2) the relation between these field variations 
and phenomena taking place during the course of the Earth's evolution. In 
addition to this, paleomagnetic research opens whole new vistas in 
geological stratigraphy and geochronology. 

Ffe.leomagnetic studies are developing with particular intensity in the 
Soviet Union. In order to coordinate the research in this field, a Paleo- 
magnetism Commission was set up at the Shmidt Institute of Earth Physics 
early in 1959. This commission, which is a part of the Division of Physics 
and Mathematics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, periodically holds 
meetings and conferences at which findings in the field of paleomagnetism 
are presented. 

The Fourth All-Union Conference on Paleomagnetism was held at the 
Institute of Earth Physics from 31 January to 6 February 1961, with 160 dele- 
gates, representing 60 institutions in 28 cities of the Soviet Union, taking 
part; 26 scientific reports were read and 20 communications were 
presented. At the Third All-Union Conference on Paleomagnetism, held 
the previous year, only 58 delegates from 13 Soviet cities were present. 
These figures indicate how much the interest of geologists and geophysicists 
in problems of paleomagnetism has grown in recent years. 

The reports dealt with the following general subjects: 1) the magnetic 
field of the Earth in the past and the correlation between geological strata; 
2) the different geological- geophysical conditions under which ferromagnetic 
rocks are formed; 3) the physical fundamentals of paleomagnetism; 
4) reverse magnetization; and 5) instrumentation problems. 

The following survey reports were presented at the conference: "The 
Physical Fundamentals of Paleomagnetism," by G. N. Petrova and 
B. M. Yanovskii; "Paleomagnetic Studies in Stratigraphy and Geochronology, " 
by A.N.Khramov; "The History of the Geomagnetic Field on the Basis of 
Paleomagnetic Research," by A. G. Kalashnikov; and "A Review of Modern 
Geotectonic Theories, Particularly Theories of Horizontal Shifting of the 
Earth's Crust." by P. N. Kropotkin. The first report was actually two 
separate studies in one. In his portion Yanovskii gave a theoretical 
explanation of the remanent magnetization in certain rock types. He 



258 



discussed the conditions under which the remanent magnetization changes 
and also in cases in which, despite a change in the crystal lattice of the 
rock, the magnetization may be considered to be unchanged. 

Petrova's report dealt with the basic principles and the limits of 
application of all the various laboratory methods for determining the 
stability of the remanent magnetization of rocks. This subject is a very 
vital one, since magnetologists cannot as yet distinguish between the 
primary and secondary magnetization of all rocks. Thus, methods must 
be worked out for obtaining samples in which the direction of the 
magnetization is practically unchanged. 

Khramov's report was of particular interest to geologists. It presented 
some results of paleomagnetic studies in stratigraphy and geochronology, 
and it also pointed out some new applications of paleomagnetic research 
in stratigraphy, paleogeography, paleoclimatology, and tectonics. In 
particular, the possibility of constructing a geochronological scale by 
paleomagnetic methods was considered. 

The report of Kalashnikov constituted a first attempt toward generalizing 
all the various paleomagnetic conclusions concerning the position of the 
magnetic pole during past geological epochs, according to the data of Soviet 
and non-Soviet investigators. This report included a composite table, 
compiled using Soviet data, in which material submitted at the present 
conference was also used.* 

The various modern geotectonic theories, in particular the theory of 
horizontal shifting of the Earth's crust, were discussed in detail by 
Kropotkin. After considering both the fixed- crust and moving- crust 
hypotheses, the author concluded that in general the contraction theory is 
being replaced by theories assuming a moving crust. Kropotkin also noted 
that geophysical methods Cand the magnetic method in particular) make it 
possible to ascertain the dimensions and the mechanism of the crustal 
motion, a problem which cannot be solved unambiguously by geological 
methods alone. 

The findings of paleomagnetic studies of deposits of different ages from 
various parts of the Soviet Union were discussed in the first group of 
reports. The regions covered in these studies were: the Russion Platform, 
the Ukraine (including the Crimean region), Armenia, the Urals, Kazakh- 
stan, the southern part of the Siberian Platform, and the central part of 
the Krasnoyarsk Territory. This group also included a report on the 
study of secular variations using archeomagnetic methods. 

A. N. Khramov and his coworkers presented the results of some new 
affirmative tests of making up composite key sections of rocks, using the 
paleomagnetic method. These tests were used to correlate the deposits 
laid down over vast territories. 

A paleomagnetic analysis of sedimentary strata from the Upper Devonian 
was presented by T. I. Lin'kova. These studies indicated that rotation of 
the geomagnetic field took place during the Devonian, since directly and 
reversely magnetized rocks were found to have identical ferromagnetic 
compositions. The pole positions computed on the basis of these measure- 
ments agreed well with the data of other authors. 

• Kalashnikov, A. G. Istoriya geomagnitnogo polya (po paleomagnitnym dannym) (The History of the 

Geomagnetic Field (According to Paleomagnetic Data)). — Izvestiya AN SSSR, seriya geofiz. , No. 9. 1961. 



259 



G. I. Kruglyakova and A. N. Tret'yak reported on a series of measure- 
ments of the remanent magnetization of rocks from the Cambrian, 
Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous periods; the rocks 
studied were found in the Ukraine. The coordinates of the poles were 
calculated for the corresponding epochs. Ts.G.Akopyan discussed the 
stratigraphical correlation and the differentiation of Cenozoic volcanogenic 
formations in the Armenian SSR and in the adjacent parts of the Lesser 
Caucasus Mountains, on the basis of paleomagnetic measurements. 

V. V. Kochegura and B. Sh. Rusinov gave the results of their study of 
reverse magnetization in Devonian porphyrites. It is these authors' 
opinion that the value of Q drops exponentially with age, and that thus 
the Q factor can serve as a criterion for the stability of rocks. The 
position of the pole during the Carboniferous period, as determined by 
Gzhel' clays from the region around Moscow, was discussed by 
O. L. Andreeva. These clays turned out to be exceptionally stable, due to 
the presence in them of finely dispersed hematite. The vector field of 
the remanent magnetization was found to be very uniform (confidence- 
circle radius of 1°). 

V. F. Davydov made a study of the remanent magnetization of traprocks 
in the southern part of the Siberian Platform. On the basis of computed 
pole positions, this author related some of the traprocks to the period 
between the Cambrian and the Carboniferous and some to the period 
between the Carboniferous and the Triassic. The conclusions of the 
author, however, are somewhat dubious. 

The results of a study of Devonian rocks from the central part of the 
Krasnoyarsk Territory were presented by A. Ya. Vlasov and others. In 
this study, which from the methodical point of view was on a very high 
level, the average pole position was computed for the rocks in question. 

I. A. Rezanov attempted to show in his report that horizontal movements 
of the continents could not have taken place. The plots of polar wandering 
obtained on the basis of measurements of rocks from different continents 
do not coincide, and this fact led to the continental- drift hypothesis. 
Rezanov questions the latter hypothesis, however, since, in his opinion, 
the spread in the pole positions for different continents is the result of a 
systematic error, probably introduced by a reversal of the magnetization 
of the rocks during subsequent periods, and thus it does not constitute 
evidence for continental drift. 

S. P. Burlatskaya and G. N. Petrova solved the problem of the recovery 
of the geomagnetic field in the past, on the basis of archeomagnetic 
studies. Samples from the city of Tbilisi covering the period from the 
sixteenth century to the present were measured. As a result of these 
studies, the first Soviet curves of the change in direction (orientation) of 
the geomagnetic field, and also of the change in absolute magnitude of the 
field, were obtained. 

These reports, particularly that of Davydov, provoked a lively discus- 
sion. The need for a more accurate geological referencing of the samples, 
and thus of the measurements as well, to strata and formations was 
pointed out. Certain geologists criticized the conclusions of paleomag- 
netism which lead to the hypothesis of continental drift, but this 
criticism was made with respect to the data of modern geology and not 
with respect to the correctness or incorrectness of the methods of 
paleomagnetism. 



260 



A final solution of this problem will be possible only after careful 
paleomagnetic studies in which the sections are very accurately pinpointed 
to regions in which continental movements definitely did not take place. 
Such sections may be found on the Russian, Siberian, and Chinese 
Platforms. The Paleomagnetism Commission was accordingly assigned 
the task of organizing studies designed to solve this problem. 

The reports in the second group dealt with the geophysical conditions 
accompanying the formation of specific types of rocks. A.G.Komarov 
considered the changes which take place in extrusive rocks after their 
formation. For platform formations, magnetic and structural aging takes 
place, without any variation of the chemiical composition of the rock. For 
mobile belts, the initial stages of metasomatic metamorphism are observed. 
These are accompanied by the addition of considerable quantities of 
magnesium and ferrous iron, by the loss of alkalis, ferric iron, and silicon, 
and by a change in the magnetization of the rocks as a function of the 
chemical effects. 

A. N. Shmeleva studied the magnetization of sedimentary rocks, both in 
a natural state and after reprecipitation, and she showed that secondary 
magnetization can be distinguished by this means. The precipitation was 
carried out during the course of a year, with deposit formation at a 
pressure of 1.5 kg/dm^. 

The effect of consolidation of the remanent magnetization of artificially 
precipitated sediments was investigated by A. Ya. Vlasov and his coworkers. 
It was found that the consolidation brought about by a vertical pressure of 
1666 kg/cm^ reduced the inclination by almost 10°; lateral pressures 
resulted in an increase of the inclination. The artificial sediments 
possessed high magnetization stability, with respect to constant and variable 
magnetic fields and also with respect to temperature variations. 

T. A. Martynova studied changes in the magnetic properties of ferruginous 
quartzites of the Kursk magnetic anomaly. It was found that the magnetic 
susceptibility and the remanent magnetization decreased at the boundary 
of the oxidation zone (in the weathering crust). The relation between the 
amount of remanent magnetization of a rock and the degree of its meta- 
morphism was established. This same subject was treated by V.I. Zavoiskii 
and Z. A. Krutikhovskaya, who made a study of iron quartzites from Krivoi 
Rog. These investigators reported that the magnetization direction depends 
both on the rock structure and on the orientation of the eutaxitic structure 
of the rock. 

The magnetization of rocks in the alkali massif of the part of the 
Ukrainian Shield in the vicinity of the Sea of Azov was studied by 
N. P. Mikhailova. The remanent magnetization was found to depend on the 
susceptibility, Q being a quantity which characterizes the structure of the 
rock and its position in the massif. However, it is doubtful whether this 
Q factor can be used for age correlation. 

During the discussion of the foregoing reports, it was suggested that 
further studies of artificially precipitated rocks be made, and that 
particular attention be given to the reprecipitation conditions (flow, salinity 
of water, and particle dimensions). 

The third group of reports dealt with the physical fundamentals of 
paleomagnetism. G.N. Petrova justified her suggestion that the magnitude 
of the so-called disruptive field be taken as a stability parameter. In 
addition, she described the properties and limits of the temporary 
magnetization of ferromagnetic rocks. 

261 



The viscous magnetization of rocks was investigated by L. E. Sholpo, 
who suggested that the viscous magnetization during any time period be 
computed by extrapolation. Laboratory studies showed that magnetic 
viscosity is more evident in rigid materials and that it depends on the 
ferromagnetite concentration. The author did not elaborate upon the 
latter factor. 

S. Yu. Brodskaya and M. A. Grabovskii presented the results of a study 
of the magnetic parameters of artificial rocks. The dependence of these 
parameters on the concentration of ferromagnetic components in one- 
component and two- component media was investigated. Formulas for 
calculating the magnetization of one- component and two- component samples 
were derived for all concentrations. There was good agreement between 
the experimental and calculational data. 

The report of A. G. Zvegintsev and A. Ya. Vlasov contained the findings 
of a study of thermal magnetic hysteresis in various fields, over a 
temperature range from 20 to 700°C. 

V. I. Bagin presented the results of his study of the magnetic properties 
of hematite. According to Bagin' s data, this mineral has very high 
magnetic stability. The thermoremanent magnetizations of hematite and 
magnetite are commensurable. 

During the discussion of these reports it was noted that viscous and 
temporary magnetization of rocks are both relaxation phenomena, but that 
the relaxation coefficients of the two are different. It was also noted 
that the main task at present is to work out improved methods for distinguish- 
ing the primary magnetization or else methods for magnetic cleaning. 
During the discussion it became evident that the paleomagnetologists 
present disagreed sharply with respect to the possibility of making use of 
the Q factor. V. V. Kochegura, A.G.Komarov, and others consider that 
Q can definitely be used to determine age and, in addition, that it is a 
very convenient stability criterion. Others (N. M. Efremova, N. P.Mikhai- 
lova, G. N. Petrova, and D. M. Pecherskii) disagreed, and they pointed out 
that the value of Q depends on the magnitude of the disruptive field, so 
that only the ages of rocks with specific ferromagnetic components can 
be determined according to the value of Q. Pecherskii demonstrated in 
his report that the values of Q for rocks of identical ages and compositions 
may differ by a factor of ten or more, depending on the conditions under 
which the rocks were formed. 

The fourth group of reports dealt with reverse magnetization in rocks. 
B. V. Gusev made a study of ultrabasic rocks exhibiting reverse 
magnetization. When such rocks were heated up to 800°C and then 
cooled down in a 0.6- oersted field, only a single, normally magnetized 
component with Ty^= 300 to 400° appeared. After aging of the samples 
for times ranging from 10 days to 2 years, self- reversal of the remanent- 
magnetization vector took place; it was established that in this case a 
new magnetic phase with Tj^ = 600° was initiated. 

The report of V. V. Kruglyakov included data on the behavior of 
hematite and titanomagnetites under supergene conditions. Decomposition 
of these minerals is observed under such conditions and the magnetite 
separates out; reverse magnetization may also occur. Consequently, 
titanomagnetites cannot always be used for paleomagnetic research. 
V. V. Metallova described some studies which were made with samples 



262 



of reversely magnetized traprocks from the Siberian Platform. She 
demonstrated that the reverse magnetization in this case was related to 
the composition of the rocks, rather than to the direction of the geo- 
magnetic field. 

A. A. Smelov and L. P. Zhogolev carried out an analysis of the remanent 
magnetization in rocks from Kazakhstan. Both positively and negatively 
magnetized rocks were studied. These investigators attribute the 
reversal of the magnetization to suitable rock composition and to rapid 
cooling of the rocks. In the discussion of these reports the need for 
further study of the self- reversal of the magnetization of rocks was 
stressed; it was also noted that criteria enabling the prediction of self- 
reversal must be worked out. V. V.Kochegura questioned the conclusions 
of Smelov' s study of the rocks from Kazakhstan, and he pointed out that 
the reverse magnetization of these rocks is related to rotations of the 
geomagnetic field rather than to self- reversal. 

Several reports were read at the meeting on problems of instrumentation, 
which was organized on the initiative of the participants of the conference. 
Raising the sensitivity of magnetometers by means of resonance techniques 
is a basic instrumentation problem. 

The Fourth Conference on Paleomagnetism made it clear that Soviet 
studies of the remanent magnetism of rocks are developing rapidly 
and leading to significant conclusions. A resolution was adopted, in which 
the main tasks related to paleomagnetism which still have to be carried 
out by geophysicists and geologists were cited. Two of the most important 
of these tasks are: making a detailed study of individual stages in the 
history of the geomagnetic field; and studying certain stratigraphical 
sections, with a view toward using paleomagnetic data for geological 
correlation. 



263 



V.B. Neiman 

A COMPARATIVE DESCRIPTION OF HYPSOGRAPHIC 
DATA OF SOME PLANETS 

The hypsographic curve and the frequency curve of heights and depths 
of the Earth, both externally very simple but plotted after gross generaliza- 
tions, were first constructed by A. Penk in 1894 /7/ and W. Franbert in 
1911 /5/. Subsequently, as new materials became available (the lack of 
data was at first particularly acute for the description of oceans), the 
curves were gradually made more accurate. The curves for other planets, 
for obvious reasons, have not yet been plotted. One of the first attempts 
in this direction is the plotting of the frequency curve for heights and depths 
on the visible side of the Moon /3/. 

To disclose the deeper meaning inherent in these plots, it is advisable 
first to touch on some questions of the relationship between the relief and 
the inner structure of the epigene strata of the Earth. While small, local 
forms of relief are often only indirectly influenced by tectonic factors, 
structures of first and higher orders* generally have any one of their 
structural elements participating in the topography (with the exception of 
substructures). 

What is the reason for this feature of large topographic forms? The 
answer is that the inner structure develops in each case almost autonomously, 
and therefore differ greatly for different territories. 

These differences are not only morphological and structural, but also 
genetic and historic-geological. While comparatively small structures differ 
mainly in that they are somewhat more elevated or somewhat more sunken 
relative to neighboring parts, large elements are characterized by sharply 
differingintensity of volcanic and metamorphic processes, by the degree of 
metamorphization, by a different composition, etc. These zones also differ 
qualitatively in their types of motion, which depend on "time and space 
coordinates". 

Seas and mountains, oceans and plains . . . With the exception of plains, 
these formations are "defective" from the viewpoint of the "orthodox" 
geologist, since they are devoid of the upper, granite part of the crust. 
For example, in marine basins, which are often prototypes of geosynclines 
(e.g. , the southern part of the Caspian, Black Sea, Red Sea, Gulf of 
Mexico, etc. ), thick strata of sedimentary rocks (up to 25 km on the bottom 
of Caspian Sea) lie directly on a basalt substratum**. In mountains these 
strata often form folds whose structure sharply varies even on comparatively 

I 

• Structures of first order include large lowlands (such as the North Caspian syneclise), shelves (Ukrainian, 
Baltic), mountain systems (the Caucasus, the Carpathians), etc. 
*• Basaltic crustal substratum does not show on continents. Its existence is inferred from indirect indications. 



264 



small stretches. At the bottom of the oceans there are virtually no 
sedimentary strata, and water comes almost in direct contact with basalt, 
and sometimes apparently peridotite, masses. There are thus great 
differences in the structures of different large zones. These vertical- 
structural differences must obviously be reflected also in the relief of 
these zones. 

We have grown so accustomed to the present-day aspect of our planet 
that without much conscious thought we try to fit all the enormous volume 
of historic -geological data available into the Procrustean bed of the 
contemporary terrestrial structure. On the other hand, the existence of 
zones which differ both in structure and in age points to diverse stages of 
evolution of the planet Earth. 

Of considerable significance in the analysis of this evolution are such 
generalized characteristics of the relief as the hypsographic curve (Figure 1) 
and the frequency curve of heights and depths (Figure 2). The former gives 
a generalized, averaged profile of the planetary surface — from highest 
mountains to deepest troughs. Here heights and depths are laid off on the 
ordinate, and the corresponding areas are marked on the abscissa (from 
left to right). When plotting the curve, each consecutive, lower-lying area 
is added to the preceding value. 




10 20 30 40 50 

FIGURE 1. Hypsographic curve of the Earth. 



100<7„ 



265 



The frequency curve gives the distribution of heights and depths at certain 
intervals (for the Earth, every 200m). Since this curve is more character- 
istic than the hypsograph, we shall refer to it first (see Figure 2). Super- 
ficially, this curve should have onlymorphological meaning. However, this 

is not so. The frequency curve can help in 
answering the following question: is there any 
genetic relation between the principal formations 
of the Earth's surface — the continents and the 
oceans; are the oceans formed by continents, 
or vice versa? The only answer possible here 
is that these are entirely unrelated formations, 
and that the oceans appeared much later 
than the continents. 

Indeed, the minimum observed on the 
frequency curve between the two maxima 
closely approaches the ordinate axis, i.e. , it 
is very small, and consequently the transition 
from the upper part of the curve characterizing 
the continental heights to the lower part, which 
characterizes the depth of the oceans, is 
insignificant: otherwise, intermediate heights 
would have been abundantly represented. Their 
virtual absence gives firm evidence to the effect 
that the principal formations of the Earth's 
surface are genetically unrelated. This is 
repeatedly confirmed by the abruptness of 
transition from continental structures to the 
5% oceans, via the steep continental slope, which 

is observed not only at the fringes of continents, 
but also surrounding any of the large islands. 

These facts suffice to prove, without touching 
on the entire body of geological, geophysical, 
astronomical, and other evidence, that the 
oceans, in view of their comparatively young age relative to the age of the 
Earth as a whole (100-150 million years as compared to several billion), 
are neoformations which originated independently of the continents owing 
to surface accretion in these depressions, at a lower level than the 
continents. This position is consistent with the conception of an expanding 
Earth, advocated by the author of the present article /2/. 

To conclude the Einalysis of contemporary terrestrial hypsometry, we 
should observe that in some oceanic zones, particularly in the Pacific 
Ocean, there exist vast leveled portions of the bottom generally situated 
at a depth of 5-6 km (as distinct from the broken relief of the shallower 
parts). This explains the third, lowest stage of the hypsographic curve. 

We can make a suggestion (there is still no direct evidence for or 
against that this part refers to the exposed (that is, covered by a thin 
sedimentary layer) peridotitic shell of the Earth. This assumption becomes 
more plausible when we compare the general relief of the ocean with the 
topography of other planets, but mainly of the Moon /3/. 

Until recently this problem was not even formulated in the most general 
of terms, but proceeding from a comparative analysis of hypsographic data 



5 


km 


4 




3 


^ 


2 


\ 


1 


v____ 





^ ■ — ■ 


-1 


1 


-2 


\ 


-3 


v 


-4 


\^ 


-5 


J^^p^^^ 


-6 


^"^^ 



FIGURE 2. Frequency curve of 
heights and depths for the Earth. 



266 



for the planets we may gain insight into the historical stages through which 
our own planet has passed. 

To plot the frequency curve of heights and depths for the Moon, the author 
studied the available hypsometric (physical) maps for this body. It turned 
out that besides the chart compiled over 60 years ago by Franz /6/, 
there only exists the map of G. Schrutke-Rachtenstamm /8/. However, the 
latter author, who used an enormous body of data, failed in this interpreta- 
tion — in his charts he made no allowance for the actual outlines of the 
"maria", which: is highly essential in view of the scant data available. The 
last chart was therefore redrawn by the author of the present article and 
presented at the International Symposium on the Moon, held in December 
1960 in Leningrad /3/. 

A calculation of areas in each height interval on this map made it possible 
to plot for the Moon the frequency curve of heights and depths, and then to 
draw — especially for this article — the lunar hypsographic curve (Figures 3 
and 4 and Table). In all plots the bottom of crater Mosting A was assigned 
zero level. 




10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 

FIGURE 3. Hypsographic curve of the Moon: the side facing the Earth. 



100<y„ 



However, before proceeding with our analysis — mainly an analysis of the 
frequency curve, it being the more characteristic of the two — we should 
emphasize that of necessity the accuracy of the plots is low: the isolines 
were drawn every 2 kna. Consequently, flexures of relief, even the 
boundaries of lunar maria and continents, are inadequately represented 
in our graphs. 

The lunar frequency curve, in distinction from the terrestrial curve, 
has a single maximum (see Figure 4). A study of spectroscopic properties 
of lunar rocks leaves no doubt that this curve is analogous to the curve for 
the ocean bottom of the Earth /3/. Like the ocean bottom, the lunar 
formations are apparently made of basic (lunar continents) and ultrabasic 
(maria) rocks. While accumulation of more accurate data on terrestrial 
oceans will enable a trimodal curve to be plotted for the Earth in the near 
future, the lunar curve will eventually have two maxima. These secondary 
maxima, however, will not be as sharp as the present ones. 

A comparative analysis of the two curves thus leads to certain general 



267 



questions. Did the frequency curves always have an appearance similar 
to their present one? The answer, of course, is no. In particular, on the 
Earth in past epochs (prior to the Mesozoic) no oceanic depressions 
apparently existed; they formed subsequently in extension zones of the 
primary crust /2/. Up to that stage, only small, so-called epicontinental 
seas existed on the Earth*. The frequency curve corresponding to that time 
should only have the upper "continental" peak. 

Table of occurrence of heights and depths on the visible 
side of the Moon 



Height and depth 
intervals, km 


Area, Ic 


Over 6 


2 


+ 6+4 


7 


+ 4+2 


13 


+ 20 


15 


0-2 


35 


-2-4 


22 


—4-6 


4 


-6-8 


1 


Below —8 


1 



An analysis of data on the evolution of the Earth's crust shows that it 
breaks from time to time /4/, which leads to accumulation of sedimentary 
strata in fault zones; this stage gives way to orogenesis, followed by aging 
(erosion and leveling) of the mountains, and finally their conversion to 

plain, platform regions. Consequently, the relief of 
the sial crust periodically grows complex, and then 
simple. At certain times, the "fault" may expose the 
basalt substratun:, which is then covered with sediments 
and no longer shows on the surface. As a result, the 
frequency curves of earlier epochs apparently alter- 
nated between one and two maxima. Moreover, in 
distinction from the recent curve, the oceanic level 
played a highly inferior role. This is proved by the 
fact that sediments were then deposited in shallow 
seas, while abyssal formations are known in a few, 
generally questionable instances. How does this 
historical outlook help in characterizing the surfaces 
of other planets ? 

Let us start with Mars. Its surface, as we know, 
is relatively plain, with the exception of the dark belts 
of the maria. Are these analogs of the oceanic bottom 
or of the great terrestrial plains? In spite of the large 
distance to this "near" planet, we apparently can give 
a fairly definite answer to this question. The point is 
that rose- colored rocks prevail on Mars, occupying 
some 60-70% of its surface. Their rose color is generally regarded as a 
desert varnish. However, the Martian conditions are far from desert: the 

* It seems that the main bulk of water filling the oceanic depressions originated at a later time, during the 
actual formation of the oceans. 




30% 



FIGURE 4. Frequency 
curve of heights and 
depths for the Moon; the 
side facing the Earth. 



268 



planet's average temperature is far below the freezing point. It is 
therefore logical to attribute the color of the Martian surface to acidic or 
related rocks, i. e. , most of the crust of Mars can be regarded as an analog 
of the terrestrial granite crust. In places, however, e. g. , in maria which 
are obviously lower than the continents (which is the reason for the accumu- 
lation of moisture in them), the main surface component is apparently the 
crustal "basalt" of Mars. An analysis of Martian topography thus shows that 
the main peak of the frequency curve will be accompanied by a second peak, 
which, though an analog of the oceanic (basalt) bed of the terrestrial oceans, 
is much less developed than the second terrestrial maximum (its magnitude 
is similar to what has apparently been the case for the Earth in past epochs). 

What is the position of Mars relative to the other planets? The Moon, the 
smallest of well-known planets, has a diameter of 3.5 thousand km and a 
differentiated basic -ultrabasic crust. Mars is 6.7 thousand km in diameter 
and is characterized by essentially different conditions than the Moon. 
Finally, the Earth, with its diameter of 12.7 thousand km, has a highly 
differentiated three-layer crust. 

Applying the extension hypothesis /2/, we may find the reason for the 
differences. The crustal differences of the three planets are consistent wilh 
differences in their respective sizes, which in turn are functions of the inner 
development of the planets. Briefly this can be summarized as follows. 
The granite crust has not developed yet on the Moon because of the small 
size of this planet. It apparently forms on planets reaching a size of the 
order of 6 thousand km, whose material acquires new physical properties. 
This should naturally lead to a transformation of the hypsograph which, 
from a curve characterizing a peridotite -basalt planetary surface (e. g. , 
the Moon), will change to a curve typical of planets with "granitized" crusts 
(Mars, Earth). 

Depending on the particular stage of evolution of the granite part of the 
crust at which a given planet is observed, the latter can have a poorly 
differentiated (as now on Mars) or a highly differentiated (as on Earth) 
surface. During the evolution from the poorly differentiated surface 
characteristic of Mars to the highly differentiated (actually three- layered) 
structure of the Earth, the frequency curve characterizing the surface 
topography should undergo several radical changes. Periodically appearing 
and disappearing, the intermediate "basalt" level (which is only poorly 
developed on Mars) should have a progressively greater area on the curve. 

We shall now say a few words about Venus, whose surface is not accessible 
to direct observation. The size of this planet, which measures 12.4 thousand 
km together with the atmosphere, indicates, in accordance with the previous 
discussion, that it is well advanced on its evolutionary path. The vigorous 
generation of the atmosphere on its surface also points to intense processes 
of relief formation. The composition of the Venusian atmosphere — enormous 
amounts of nitrogen, CO2, oxygen, and water vapor — can only be a 
consequence of considerable internal activity. The large quantities of 
nitrogen liberated from the interior are transformed to C7* and O9® and 
enormous amounts of water vapor as a result of certain known nuclear 
reactions, under the influence of cosmic factors /2/. 

The rapid growth of Venus should have broken its granitic crust (there 
is no question but that granite is the main constituent of the Venusian shell) 
resulting in the formation of deep, apparently as yet rudimentary, oceanic 



269 



basins. The frequency curve of Venusian heights and depths should there- 
fore have two maxima. To sum up, certain theoretical premises /2/ enable 
us to develop a fairly reliable characterization of the relief of some planets 
of the solar system. 



REFERENCES 
Publications in Russian 

1. NEIMAN, V. B. Geofizicheskii smysl gipsograficheskoi krivoi (Geo- 

physical Meaning of the Hypsographic Curve).— ByuUeten' MOIP, 
geologicheskii otdel. No. 6. 1954. 

2. NEIMAN, V. B. Rasshiryayushchayasya Zemlya (The Expanding Earth). 

— Geografgiz. 1962. 

3. NEIMAN, V. B. O prirode osnovnykh lunnykh obrazovanii (On the 

Nature of Principal Lunar Formations).— ByuUeten' Vsesoyuznogo 
astronomo-geodesicheskogo obshchestva. No. 30. 1962. 

4. SHEIMANN, Yu. M. Platformy, skladchatye poyasy i razvitie struktury 

Zemli (Platforms, Folded Belts, and the Development of the 
Earth's Structure).- Magadan. VNII, No. 1. 1959. 



Publications in Other Languages 

5. FRANBERT, W. Lehrbuch der kosmischen Physik. Leipzig und 

Berlin. 1911. 

6. FRANZ, G. Hbhenschichten— Karte des Mondes.— Astronomische 

Beobachtungen d. Konigsberger Sternwarte, 38(75). 1899. 

7. PENK, A. Morphologie der ErdoberflSche. — Bd. I, II. Stuttgart. 1894. 

8. SCHRUTKE-RACHTENSTAMM, G. and J. HOPMANN. Die Figur des 

Mondes.— Abteilung, II. Sitzungsbericht, Bd. 167, H. 8-10. 
Wien. 1958. 



270 



II 



PART FOUR 

SOLAR ACTIVITY AND THE EARTH 



V. V. Arsent ' ev 

GIANT SOLAR FLARES IN 1961 



Solar radiation is characterized by high stability. A drop of its intensity 
to one half its present value would reduce the temperature on the Earth much 
below the freezing point. All water bodies would turn to ice, and no life 
would be possible. A fourfold increase in the flux of solar heat and light 
would bring the oceans to the boiling point, and similarly destroy all life. 
However, geological findings show that life has existed on our planet for 
at least a billion years. Hence we come to the conclusion that during this 
entire period the flux of solar energy reaching the Earth did not change, 
or varied but insignificantly. Therefore the radiation of the Sun as a whole 
also remained constant or fairly constant. 

Theoretical calculations show, in fact, that the solar radiation increased 
during this time by some 10%. This variation, of course, is not highly 
significant. It is moreover possible that the Earth's atmosphere, which 
greatly changed during the evolution of our planet, offset to a certain extent 
the increase in the radiation of the day luminary and that the flux of solar 
radiation reaching the surface of the Earth increased by less than one tenth. 

Not all stars are as calm as the Sun. The radiation flux of variable stars 
changes considerably. It sharply increases when novae flare up; when 
supernovae erupt, their brightness increases in a very short time many 
njillions of times. 

Although the luminosity of the Sun remains fairly constant, its surface 
is by no means immutable. We have known of the appearance of dark spots 
on the Sun for a long time. In far antiquity our forefathers saw them with 
the naked eye, and the first written record of a sunspot observation dates back to 
188 A.D. Observations of sunspots are recorded in ancient Chinese 
chronicles. One of the Russian annals mentions that in 1371 "spots dark 
like nails" were visible on the Sun. An analysis of perennial observations 
of the Sun carried out at the end of the first half of the last century showed 
that the number of sunspots on the solar surface varies from year to year, 
reaching a high approximately every 11 years. Distinct cyclic repetition 
was observed on the Sun. Most of these changes are quite rapid and some 
are violent. 

A solar activity maximum was last observed in 1958, when a multitude 
of variable phenomena were recorded on the Sun. At about that time, in 
1957-1958, the solar research in many countries followed a single program 
set for the International Geophysical Year (IGY). The day luminary was 
almost always in the field of vision of observers in one or several obser- 
vatories, i.e. , almost continuous observations were made. The solar 
activity will reach a low, as the astronomers expect, in 1963-1964. Solar 
research in almost all the countries of the world will then again follow the 



271 



program of the International Year of the Quiet Sun. According to some 
researchers, the minimum of solar activity will occur somewhat later, in 
the first quarter of 1965. 

Having reached a maximum, the solar activity mostly decreases rapidly 
and no outstanding solar phenomena are observed. However, the 1958 peak 
was exceptionally high, the most powerful of all recorded until now. There- 
fore, apparently, even by the middle of 1961 the Sun has not quieted down 
by any means. 

Sunspots, which are relatively cold regions of the solar surface, have 
been known for so long because they are so easy to detect. While the 
teniperature of the visible surface, the photosphere, reaches almost 6 
thousand degrees, the temperature in a sunspot is a mere 4.5 thousand 
degrees. Although the sunspots in themselves are fairly bright, they seem 
dark in comparison with the intensely luminous surrounding surface. A 
sunspot can be regarded as some sort of a recess in the photosphere. The 
depth of this recess may reach several thousands of kilometers, but 
apparently no more than 10,000km. 

A large group of sunspots was discovered on 9 July 1961 at the Mountain 
Astronomical Station near Kislovodsk. Many of these spots measured up 
to 40,000 km in diameter, i.e. , more than thrice the diameter of our planet. 
Some spots may be up to 200,000 km long, i.e., their diameters are equal to 
half the distance to the Moon. According to observations of Soviet astrono- 
mers, the largest number of sunspots during July 1961 was recorded on the 
19th. The smallest number was observed on 30 July. The Wolf number, 
which characterizes the number of individual sunspots and spot groups*, 
was 144 for 19 July and 32 for 30 July. 

Of considerable interest is the large group of sunspots observed between 
9 and 20 July. On 14 July it passed through the central meridian of the Sun. 
On 9 July the group comprised 16 spots, their number increasing to 41 by 
15 July; by 20 July only 5 spots remained. The surface area occupied by 
this spot group increased rapidly. On 12 July it reached a high of 4.7 billion 
km^, i.e. , more than 9 times as great as the entire surface of our planet. 
The largest spot of the group then had an area of 3.9 billion km^. But this 
enormous sunspot was still far from breaking the record: on 7 April 1947, 
near a solar activity maximum, astronomers observed a sunspot with an 
area of over 180 billion km^. 

Prominences are more difficult to detect than sunspots, but they are 
one of the most interesting and spectacular kinds of solar phenomena. These 
unusual "fountains" of incandescent gas rise to a height of up to a 
million kilometers above the surface of the Sun, moving in some cases with 
a velocity of 600 km/ sec. One of these giant prominences was observed 
on 23 July 1961 by V. G. Banin and V. F. Chistyakov, at the Far- East 
Astronomical Station. 

Comparatively recently, little over 100 years ago, were discovered the 
chromospheric flares — truly remarkable and most powerful of the solar 
phenomena. These mostly originate in the middle layer of the solar 
atmosphere, the chromosphere, whence their name. Flares generally 
appear near spot groups and are related to them. 

The brightest chromospheric flEures can be seen even in daylight. 
Carrington and Hodgson, on 1 September 1859, were the first observers. 

• The Wolf number W = k'(lOg+l), where g is the number of spot groups, / is the number of individual spots, 
and ft is a coefficient depending on the instrument and the observer; introduction of this rather subjective 
coefficient enables different observations to be compared, 

272 



Ordinarily, however, flares are not much brighter than the surrounding 
regions of the solar surface, so that as a rule they are detectable only with 
spectroscopic apparatus. The chromospheric flares appear particularly 
bright in lines of the spectrum emitted by hydrogen atoms. In this light 
the flares are one order of magnitude brighter than the surrounding parts 
of the Sun. 

The summer of 1961 was rich in chromospheric flares. In July, over 
twenty flares were recorded at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of 
the Academy of Sciences of the USSR alone. Each flare generally persists 
for no more than half an hour. The flare of 18 July, however, was observed 
for 1 hour 22 minutes. Its area was over 7.5 billion km^, i.e. , 15 times 
as great as the entire surface area of the Earth. 

The chromospheric flares emit most of their energy in the ultraviolet 
and the X-ray regions of the spectrum. These emissions disturb the 
ionospheric layers of the Earth's atmosphere, which act as a kind of 
mirror for the reflection of short radiowaves. These disturbances result 
in the partial breakdown of short-wave radio communication. Since X-ray 
and ultraviolet radiations propagate with the velocity of light, the ionospheric 
disturbances produced by these emissions set in immediately after the flare. 

Electrically charged particles, corpuscules, are also emitted from the 
flare focus, their velocities reaching 1-2 thousand km/sec. After a little 
over 24 hours they hit the Earth. When the Earth meets the strean: of solar 
corpuscules, complex electromagnetic phenomena occur. Polar aurorae 
are observed. Prolonged breakdown of short-wave radio communication 
takes place, and magnetic storms arise, making it impossible to use a compass. 

As they pass through the solar corona, the corpuscular streams make 
the charged coronal particles (electrons) oscillate. Radiowaves are emitted 
owing to these oscillations. This may enhance the radioemission of the Sun a 
thousandfold, and during very powerful flares even a millionfold. In the 
middle of July 1961 the solar radioemission was intensified by a factor of 
50 on meter waves. 

Flares sometimes give rise to streams of cosmic rays too. Hitting the 
Earth's atmosphere, cosmic rays destroy molecules and atoms of gases 
and thus disappear themselves. Showers of fragments of broken atomic nuclei 
reach the surface of the Earth from the atmosphere. Particularly intense 
cosmic-ray showers were observed following the chromospheric flare of 
23 February 1956. After the chromospheric flare of 12 September 1959, 
Soviet researchers observed an increase by a factor of 12 in the count of 
heavy nuclei reaching a counter. 

Another phenomenon linked with chromospheric flares was discovered a 
few years ago. After the prodigious flare of 23 February 1956, French 
astronomers headed by Prof. A. Danjon, director of the Paris Observatory, 
recorded a certain slow-down of the Earth's rotation. While before the flare 
the Earth was in the middle of its seasonal acceleration, which started on 
27 September and shortened the period of rotation by 7.2 microseconds per 
day, after the flare the period of rotation started increasing by 2.5 micro- 
seconds per day. According to Danjon, the deceleration of the Earth's 
rotation occurred a few hours after the flare. 

The discovery was so unexpected that at first many astronomers 
questioned the actuality of the phenomenon observed. Only much later, 
when artificial satellites and space rockets led to the discovery of radiation 



273 



belts around the Earth was the deceleration of terrestrial rotation attributed 
to the interaction of charged particles of these belts with the corpuscules 
emitted by the Sun. 

Some observers, however, expressed their doubts of the validity of the 
results obtained by Danjon. The question of the deceleration of the rotation 
of our planet as a result of flare effects therefore still remains 
open. 

It is remarkable that in July 1961, after the appearance of the magnificent 
flares, the American artificial satellite Echo-I, according to the data of 
French astronomers, accelerated its revolution around the Earth. 

The nature of chromospheric flares has not yet been fully studied. 
These flares are enormous explosions, immeasurably more powerful 
than A- and H-bomb explosions. They are set up by interactions of electric 
and magnetic forces. In all probability these are unusual compression 
explosions produced by the solar magnetic field. 

The processes occurring on the face of the Sun have a significant influence 
on many terrestrial phenomena and even on the behavior of our planet as a 
whole. As we progress in our understanding of the rules governing solar 
activity, we shall improve our ability to predict its undesirable consequences, 
e.g. , magnetic storms and radio breakdown. The enormous achievements 
of science in the study of the cosmos make us confident that the secret of the 
origin of solar activity will be disclosed in the near future. 



274 



S.I. Isaev 

ON THE EXISTENCE OF A REGION OF ENHANCED 
AURORAL ACTIVITY TO THE SOUTH OF THE 
ZONE OF MAXIMUM AURORAL FREQUENCY 

During the International Geophysical Year visual observations of polar 
aurorae were carried out by a large network of meteorological stations in 
the Soviet Union. According to the international agreement, the data had 
to be reduced to tables of the southern limit of aurorae seen near the zenith. 
The southern limit of visibility of polar aurorae is one of the most objective 
characteristics of auroral activity. 

The statistical treatment of the initial material for the period from 
September 1957 to December 1958 presented to us by N. V. Pushkov 
(IZMIRAN) showed that the behavior of the southern limit of polar aurorae 
(aurora borealis) near the zenith has the following remarkable property: 

1. In the first half of the day (00-12 hrs universal time) the mean 
position of the southern limit of zenith auroral visibility has a distinct stable 
maximum at geomagnetic latitude cp= 60—62°. 

2. In the second half of the day (12-24 hrs universal time) the mean 
position of the southern limit of zenith auroral visibility, besides the 
maximum at tp = 60-62°, develops a second distinct maximum at ip = 57-58°. 

This pronounced regularity is illustrated in Figure 1, which gives the 
mean distribution of the number of occurrences of southernmost zenith 
aurorae as a function of the geomagnetic latitude in the first and the second 
half of the day for separate geomagnetic longitudinal belts. Figure 2 gives 
the results of an analysis of the behavior of these maxima for various 
geomagnetic activities (K-index)*. The figures lead to the following 
conclusions: 

1. Aurorae clearly prevail in the second half of the day; their number 
increases with increasing K-index. 

2. In the first half of the day (00-12 hrs U.T. ) the mean position of the 
southern limit of auroral visibility shifts southward by a mere 2° with 
increasing geomagnetic activity; with K= 1 the maximum is located at fp= 62°, 
and with K>5 at tp= 60°. 

3. In the second half of the day (12-24 hrs U. T. ) the position of the 
maximum is more stable; it is located on the average 1° to the south of 

the maximum observed in the first half of the day. As the K-index increases, 
the maximum almost does not change its latitude. 

4. Although retaining its mean position despite variation of the K-index, 
the second maximum (at 9= 57°) sharply changes in magnitude. A weak 
maximum appears at K= 2; at K= 3 it is already well pronounced; at K= 4 the 
maximum is more than twice as large as the first maximum (at q)= 60—62°). 

• K-index according to the data of Soviet stations was taken from "Kosmicheskie dannye" published by 
IZMIRAN. To ensure higher statistical reliability the data for longitudinal belts 145-190* and 190-235' 
have been combined. 

275 



No. of 
events 
100 




FIGURE 1. The number of occurrence of southernmost zenith aurorae 
as a function of the geomagnetic latitude: 

a— for the 145-190° geomagnetic longitudinal belt; b— for the 190-235° 
geomagnetic longitudinal belt; dashed curve— the first half of the day 
(00-12 hrs universal time); solid curve— the second half of the day 
(12-24 hrs universal time). 

The presence of a distinct maximum of southern zenith auroral occurrence 
at cp= 60—62°, the appearance of a second sharp maximum at (jp = 57° during 
geomagnetic disturbances, and the variation of the height of the second 
maximum with geomagnetic activity are all consistent with our previous 
conclusion concerning the possible existence of an additional zone of 
enhanced auroral activity in middle latitudes during strong geomagnetic 
disturbances /I/. Now we can definitely assert that during large geomagnetic 
disturbances, in years of solar-activity maximum, an additional stable 
auroral zone appears in middle latitudes, at least in the 145-235° geomagnetic 
longitudinal belt, to the south of the principal zone {ff= 68°), which at night 
splits into two maxima. 

The existence of a zone of enhanced auroral activity at cp= 52— 62° corre- 
sponds to the region at which radiation from the outer radiation belt should 
arrive along the geomagnetic force lines. The outer zone, as we know, is 
limited by force lines intersecting the surface of the Earth at geomagnetic 
latitudes 55 and 65°. Observations of the radiation belts made by Arnoldy, 
Hoffman, and Winkler /7/, with the aid of the artificial satellite Explorer- 
IV during August-September 1959, showed that during the geomagnetic 
storm of 16-17 August 1959 the intensity of 65 A radiation in the outer belt 
decreased and the spectrum of the remaining radiation grew harder. 



276 



90 - 



K = 3 




90 



60 



50 



40 



30 



10 



K = 4 




64 62 60 58 56 66 64 62 60 58 56 66 64 62 60 58 56 66 64 62 60 58 56 66 64 62 60 58 56 



FIGURE 2. The number of occurrence of southernmost zenith aurorae as a function of the geomagnetic latitude in the first (dashed line) and the second 
(solid curve) halves of the day for various values of the K-index. 



If radiation escapes from the outer belt along the geomagnetic force lines, it 
should reach the Earth's atmosphere at q)= 52—62°, creating X-rays there. 
It is assumed that this radiation gives rise to X-rays of a special kind of 
polar aurora observed to the south of the main auroral zone and accompanied 
by magnetic disturbances with K-j-Kg, Indeed, on 16-17 August a bright 
polar aurora of ray structure was observed at a latitude of 57°. 

Our conclusions statistically confirm the possibility of the existence of 
an enhanced auroral zone in middle latitudes during geomagnetic storms; 
the results of studies of these aurorae can be successfully used to elucidate 
the behavior of the outer radiation belt, which is related to the solar cor- 
puscular radiation /2, 3, 4/. 

Barbier and Glaume /8/ observed in winter in Tamanrasset (22°47'N) 
arcs which moved from the north to the south toward the end of the night. 
In these arcs the 6300 A radiation reached an intensity of 557 R and the 
5577 A radiation had an intensity of ~ 500 R. At the same time in Haute Pro- 
vence (43°56'N) the intensity of 6300 A radiation was ~ 200 R. Insummerthe 
intensity of 6300 settled to the value common for night-sky glow. The 
authors maintain that the arcs in Tamanrasset were due to the existence, 
in low latitudes, of auroral zones related to electrons of the inner radiation 
belt. The mechanism of polar aurorae in middle and low latitudes during 
geomagnetic storms can thus be of the same origin, being directly connected 
with radiation belts of the Earth. 

The high-latitude aurorae in the principal zone (cp= 68°), where they are 
observed almost incessantly, apparently occur as a direct consequence 
of solar corpuscules. Allowing for the geometrical form of the radiation 
belts, we see that the corpuscules may reach this part of the Earth's 
atmosphere bypassing the intermediate pool of electrons enclosed in the 
outer radiation belt, from which electrons are "shaken out" only during 
instability spells. Therefore in high latitudes, where the corpuscules are 
not trapped by the radiation belts, the interaction of the corpuscular streams 
with the geonaagnetic field may still be according to the "Stbrmer" mechanism. 

The principal high-latitude auroral zone at cp= 68° retains its position 
during both magnetically quiet days and any magnetic disturbances. During 
polar geomagnetic disturbances the number of polar aurorae in the principal 
zone sharply increases. During polar geomagnetic disturbances in the 
principal zone [the number of aurorae] virtually does not increase — only 
their duration and intensity increase. At q)= 64°, however, an additional 
active belt arises in these periods, adjoining the principal auroral zone. 
The additional belt is apparently responsible for the splitting of the principal 
auroral zone during disturbances, observed by some authors. The splitting 
is difficult to detect, since the additional active belt closely adjoins 
the principal zone and is observed only as an overall broadening of the 
principal auroral zone by 3-4° to the south /I/. 

Auroral activity in middle latitudes during strong geomagnetic dis- 
turbances is apparently not due to a placement of the principal auroral zone to 
more southern latitudes, but rather to the appearance of a new additional zone 
in the middle (and possibly of another active zone in low) latitudes. It is 
remarkable that the middle-latitude zone also shifts somewhat to the south 
and splits, the splitting being more pronounced than in the high-latitude zone. 

These zones (the high-latitude principal zone, the middle-latitude and, 
possibly, the low-latitude zones) all overlap. Because of the mutual overlap 
of the zones of enhanced auroral activity there seems to be an overall 



278 



"creep" of aurorae to the south during geomagnetic storms, down to the 
equatorial latitudes, and the "fine" structure of the true latitude distribution 
of the aurorae is obliterated. 

The discovery of a zone of enhanced auroral frequency and intensity in 
the circumpolar region ((p= 78— 80°) /I, 5, 6/ and the complex latitude distribu- 
tion of the auroral zones to the south of the principal Fritz zone (cp= 68°) point 
to the need for further thorough study of the geographical distribution of 
aurorae and elucidation of the mechanism of their southward migration 
during geomagnetic storms. Detailed observations of polar aurorae in 
middle and low latitudes are now of particular interest. 



REFERENCES 

1. ISAEV, S.I. Geograficheskoe raspredelenie polyarnykh siyanii i otno- 

shenie etogo voprosa k geomagnitnym i ionosfernym vozmushcheni- 
yam (Geographic Distribution of Polar Aurorae and the Relation of 
This Question to Geomagnetic and Ionospheric Disturbances). — 
Thesis. Lenin Library, Moskva. 1954. 

2. VAN ALLEN, J. A. Geomagnetic-trapped Corpuscular Radiation. — In: 

Trudy Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii po kosmicheskim luchyam. 
Radiatsionnye poyas Zemli, Vol.111, Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1960. 

3. VERNOV, S.N. and A. E. CHUDAKOV. Issledovanie izluchenii v kos- 

micheskom prostrantsve (Study of Radiations in Cosmic Space).— 
In: Trudy Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii po kosmicheskim lucham. 
Radiatsionnyi poyas Zemli. Vol. Ill, pp. 17-32. Izdatel'stvo AN 
SSSR. 1960. 

4. ZINGER, S. F. Priroda i proiskhozhdenie radiatsionnykh poyasov Zemli 

i ikh svyaz' s plotnost'yu verkhnikh sloev atmosfery i geofizicheskie 
effekty (The Nature and Origin of Radiation Belts of the Earth and 
Their Relation with Density of Upper Atmospheric Layers, and 
Geophysical Effects).— In: Trudy Mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii po 
komicheskim lucham. Radiatsionnyi poyas Zemli, Vol. Ill, pp. 59- 
68. Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1961. 

5. NIKOL'SKII, A. P. K voprosu o geograficheskom raspredelenii polyar- 

nykh siyanii v Arktike (On Geographic Distribution of Polar Aurorae 
in the Arctic).- In: Issledovanie polyarnykh siyanii. No. 4, pp. 14— 
10. Izdatel'stvo AN SSSR. 1960. 

6. ALFVEN, H.-Tellus, 7(1): 1955. 

7. ARNOLDY, R. L. , R.A.HOFFMAN, and J. R. WINKLER. Observations 

of the Van Allen Radiation Regions during August and September 
1959, Parti. — J. Geophys. Res., 65(5), 1361 — 1376. 1960. 

8. BARBIER, D. and J. GLAUME, Sur 1' existence possible de nouvelles 

zones aurorales.- C. R.Acad. Sci. , Paris, 250(11), 2043-2044. 
1960. 



279 



A.L. Chizhevskii 

ONE ASPECT OF THE SPECIFIC BIO ACTIVE OR 
Z-RADIATION* OF THE SUN 



A thorough study of the effects on organisms of certain powerful en- 
vironmental factors should now be conducted. For this, all necessary for- 
ces and resources of our scientific wealth should be converged because, 
as will be shown, these might become one of the most acute problems in 
the complex practice of therapeutics and prophylaxis. 

Until thirty or forty years ago, biologists used the term "outer environ- 
ment" mainly to designate the meteorological and geophysical factors that 
may in some way act on the organism and elicit certain reactions. I. P. 
Pavlov included in the complex of outer environmental factors a large 
number of stimuli surrounding man and acting on his senses and central 
nervous system. Modern science has greatly expanded the concept of outer 
environment to include interplanetary space, from which electromagnetic 
waves of various wavelengths and streams of electrically charged particles 
reach us. Thus, the term outer environment implies the 
entire surrounding world with its great diversity of 
stimuli. 

As a result of the remarkable progress made in the fields of physics 
and biological sciences we have come close to solving several cardinal 
problems concerning the effects of radiations on the human organism and, 
particularly, of certain specific active radiations of the central body of 
our planetary system. Although the Sun is about 149 million kilometers 
from the Earth, it is "a stone's throw away," since its diameter is 
approximately 1.39 million kilometers, and hence the distance between the 
Sun and Earth is only about 107 Sun diameters. 

The most easily observed features on the Sun"s surface are the sun- 
spots. They had been clearly described at the beginning of the 17th century. 
Since the mid- 19th century they have become an "index" of the intensity 
of solar activity, and the subject of thorough heliophysical studies. A 
voluminous body of physical data is now available in the literature dealing 
wi^h the nature of su; spots and of accompanying phenomena such as 
faculae, filaments, flares, bursts, prominences, etc. 

Sunspots represent areas of the photosphere associated with a powerful 
magnetic field. They are caused by convection in the solar nucleus trans- 
mitted by magnetohydrodynamic waves to its surface as a result of 

* ["Z-radiation" is Chizhevskii's designation for a certain type of solar radiation emitted from the deep 
layers of the Sun. ] 



280 



thermonuclear reactions. Sunspot groups extend over vast areas; in 
1947 a group was found to occupy an area of 10 billion km^. These solar 
formations could instantaneously swallow dozens of terrestrial globes. No 
less striking are the prominences (which sometimes rise to hundreds of 
thousands of kilometers above the photosphere at velocities of up to 
700 km/ sec and partially disappear in interplanetary space), as well as the 
exceptionally bright, dazzling transient flares which suddenly appear and 
which emit radiations of extreme intensity in the shortwave ultraviolet 
region. Heliophysical studies have established a striking regularity in the 
occurrence of these tremendous solar phenomena. The basic cycle of 
solar activity takes approximately 11 years, with certain fluctuations in 
both directions. This infers that the number and size of the spots visible 
on the Sun's surface are comparatively small for a period of two or three 
years, followed by a steady increase in the number and dimensions of the 
spots and their groups, until they finally reach a maximum size and 
frequency in the period of maximum solar activity. The synodic period of 
the rotation of the Sun is 27 days. Consequently a sunspot or any disturbed 
area is visible for a period of 13.5 days, whereupon it passes to the other 
side of the Sun for the same period. It takes about a week for a sunspot to 
enter the plane of the central solar meridian from the solar limb. 

When sunspots, bursts, prominences, chromospheric flares, etc. pass 
through the plane of the central solar meridian, they generate a series of 
extreme perturbations in the Earth's crust and atmosphere such as magnetic 
storms, polar auroras, fluctuations in the gradient of the electric potential 
in the atmosphere, interferences with wire and wireless communication, 
and many other anomalies in the Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, bio- 
sphere, and lithosphere. The functional correlation of many biological 
and solar phenomena can be regarded as firmly established. The extent 
of influence of this bond and the correlation coefficients of the given pheno- 
mena increase progressively with the accumulation and accuracy of helio- 
physical, geophysical, and biological observations. In addition to the basic 
11-year solar activity cycle, 27-day perturbation periods were observed, 
which are related to the Sun's rotation around its axis, i. e. , to the shifting 
of the active sites on the Sun with respect to the Earth. There are also 
other, less clearly defined cycles /80/. 

The active processes on the Sun derive from highly powerful pulse 
sources of electromagnetic or corpuscular radiation generated by the 
thermonuclear processes within the Sun. Electromagnetic radiations of 
the disturbed sites on the Sun are characterized by a wide band. In years 
of maximum solar disturbance there is a marked increase in the emission 
of X-ray as well as ultraviolet and infrared radiation. The intensity of 
ultraviolet radiation from the chromosphere of giant flares is hundreds of 
thousands and even millions of times greater than the intensity of ultra- 
violet radiation from the solar surface. Solar radiation in the infrared 
spectral region was discovered fairly recently. This discovery gave rise 
to the new science of radioastronomy. Solar radioastronomy comprises 
the study of radio waves emitted by the active areas of the Sun. These 
studies are performed with the aid of radiotelescopes, i. e. , huge antennas 
of different shapes which detect solar radio waves of wavelengths ranging 
from 20 m to a few millimeters. It is now firmly established that the 
intensity of solar radio emission varies in direct proportion to the size of 



281 



the sunspots, and to the power and intensity of the sudden flares, bursts, 
and explosions on the Sun's surface. At the stage of maximum solar 
activity the intensity of radio radiation from large spots is occasionally 
millions of times greater than the radiation level recorded during "quiet" 
periods. In addition to a "Sun bureau" many countries have also organized 
a "solar-radio bureau" which forecasts certain terrestrial phenomena 
from the solar radiowaves. 




Earth 



FIGURE 1. Emission of particles by a disturbed area on the Sun's surface. The 
Earth is bombarded by the particles as it moves along its orbit. 



In addition to light, roentgen, ultraviolet, and radio radiations, the Sun 
also emits into interplanetary space, from its disturbed areas, streams 
of electrically charged particles of positive or negative polarity with 
ultrahigh energies. A solar corpuscular stream extending over an area 
with a cross section of hundreds of thousands of square kilometers 
travels the distance between the Sun and the JEarth in about a day, and 
bombards the upper layers of our atmosphere. During maximum solar 
activity these streams suddenly gain an extremely high momentum. 

As an example, on 29 March 1960, at 0940 hr Moscow time, a strong 
chromospheric flare was observed in the region of a group of sunspots. 
At 1200 hr on 31 March a strong geomagnetic and ionospheric storm set in, 
accompanied with intense auroras in the middle latitudes. On 1 April 
shortwave radio communications were disrupted for several hours in the 
northern, middle, and southern latitudes. Communication between 
Europe and America, as well as between several European cities, was cut 
off. 

The lower boundaries of the biosphere are not reached by the entire 
spectrum of solar radiation. The upper ionized layers of the terrestrial 
atmosphere intercept part of the electromagnetic band of solar radiation. 



119 



282 



Waves of up to 20 m partially penetrate these layers and reach the Earth's 
surface in an attenuated state. The depth of penetration of the solar 
corpuscular radiation into the terrestrial atmosphere is not yet definitely 
known. On the basis of numerous theoretical and experimental studies it 
may be assumed that solar corpuscular streams, while ionizing the upper 
layers of the terrestrial atmosphere, lose their speed and are deflected 
by the terrestrial nnagnetic field and thus, the corpuscular solar radia- 
tion does not reach the biosphere. Nevertheless, it is assumed that 
certain solar corpuscles having the high energy of cosmic rays may 
reach the Earth's surface. However, it cannot be assumed that all electro- 
magnetic and corpuscular radiations of the Sun are known to modern 
science. 

On the basis of their observations, several prominent scientists of the 
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, including Svante Arrhenius, 
Fridtjof Nansen, and others, not only assumed the possibility of a direct 
effect of solar storms on certain phenomena in the troposphere, and parti- 
cularly in the organic world, but actually established a series of correla- 
tions. The relationship between the solar activity cycle and phenomena of 
the organic world was successfully studied in Russia before the revolution, 
and is now being investigated in the Soviet Union by numerous scientists, 
including F. M. Shvedov, N. A. Skalovskii, N. M. Kulagin, D. O. Svyatskii, 
P.Yu. Shmidt, A. P. Moiseev, G. A. Ivashentsov, V.B.Shostakovich, S. T. 
Vel'khover, A.A.Sadov, G. I. Pokrovskii, E. A. Slutskii, N. S. Shcher- 
binovskii, N.A.Shul'ts, N. V. Romenskii, and others. The scientific value 
of such investigations was described by Prof. M. S. Eigenson in his article 
"Recent Trend in Space Biology,"* and in his "Essays on the Physicogeo- 
graphical Manifestations of Solar Activities."** This field of science is 
gradually achieving its legitimate place among the natural sciences. In 
countries outside the USSR this science has been enriched by numerous 
investigations in "heliobiology" (Oenstrom, Hallend- Hansen, Lemstrom, 
Hahn, Fritz, Shaw, Faure, Hutington, Douglass, Morill, Memory, Ballou, 
win, Amman, Snnitt, Kritzinger, Morrill, Dull, Takata, Murazugi, 
Budai, Denier, L. Schluck, Reinhold, Edward Dewey, Helmut Berg, and 
others). 

In 1915 the author of this article /I/ energetically undertook, for the 
first time in the history of science, to make a break-through in this field, 
selecting the following two research trends which seemed to be the most 
promising: studies of changes in the functional state of the human nervous 
system under the effect of solar factors /I, 4, 6, 14, 15, 23, 25-28, 30, 
31, 40, etc./, and studies of the world statistics of epidemic diseases, 
where the large numbers could facilitate detection of the reflected effect of 
solar disturbances. Indeed, a certain parallelism was soon established 
between the incidence of most pandemics and epidemics in the course of 
the 16th to 19th centuries (cholera, grippe, plague, diphtheria, relapsing 
fever, and cerebrospinal meningitis) and the solar activity cycle /5, 6, 
10, 13, 16, 19, 41, 51, 57, 59, 60-64, 70, 72-78, 80/. The correlation 
coefficient between the solar and the epidemiological curves often reaches 

• Novyi put' kosmicheskoi biologii. — Vestnik Akademii Nauk Kazakhskoi SSR, No. 9, p. 28, Alma-Ata. 
1953. 
•• Ocherki fizlko-geograficheskikh proyavlenil solnechnol aktivnosti, Lvov. 1957. 



283 



values of 0.8—0.9 (Figures 2—7). Although incidence of epidemic diseases 
is closely linked with socioeconomic conditions and numerous other factors, 
such as sanitation facilities, housing, nutrition, war, famine, unemploy- 
ment, etc. , these conclusions have been confirmed by thousands of studies 
and are unquestionably accurate. 



Cholera mortality 





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+6 +7 



FIGURE 2. Upper curve: cholera in Russia and the USSR during the period 
1823-1923; lower curve; solar activity over the same period. Result of 
superimposing both curves on the axis of maximum solar activity. The zero 
abscissa represents the year of maximum solar activity; the negative and 
positive abscissas respectively represent the years preceding and following the 



maximum. 



As could be expected, our findings provoked controversial views among 
Soviet epidemiologists and microbiologists. In this connection, a proponent 
of this work, the prominent Soviet doctor G. A. Ivashentsov wrote in 1931: 
"While technicians build rockets for interplanetary travel, physicians turn 
away even from phenomena that can be studied here on this planet. " 
Continuing, and referring to the grippe, he wrote: "Studies of the grippe 
should release this problem from its present deadlock. In attempting to 



284 



clarify the effect of factors already known (such as Infection and social 
conditions) epidemiologists should collaborate in their work with meteoro- 
logists and astronomers. In addition to the prevailing inertia in scientific 
medical thought, the passive attitude toward research of the practical 
significance of complex cosmic phenomena is based on the false concept of 
our helplessness in controlling their effects on us. . . However, the dark 
ages of superstitions, the slavish hopelessness that regards epidemics as 
a 'punishment from Heaven,' have vanished forever. Several epidemic 
diseases, closely linked with social conditions, have been eradicated under 
the socialist government; this urgent problem was clearly understood and 
successfully resolved. Its solution provides new possibilities for elucida- 
ting and solving the following problems: utilization of the beneficial cosmic 
phenomena and neutralization of the injurious ones; and research of those 
which have not yet been studied or are regarded as incomprehensible or 
insurmountable. There is no doubt that proceeding along this path we shall 
solve several 'hopeless' problems in medicine, and particularly in 
epidemiology. "* 




E 300 000 



1901 



1905 



1915 



1920 



1925 



1930 Years 



FIGURE 3. Cholera mortality in British India and solar activity from 1901 to 1931. Curves: 1-Wolf 
number; 2-dynamics of cholera; 1' and 2*-schematic curves showing maxima and minima of the 
curves 1 and 2 respectively. 

• Vrachebnaya Gazeta, No. 8, Leningrad. 1931. 



285 



The afore-mentioned correlation between epidemics and solar activity 
has been gradually obscured by the progress in medical knowledge made 
toward the end of the last century, and reflected by the introduction of 
vaccinations and various preventive measures, especially social improve- 
ments. Many agents of epidemics and pandemics which formerly took 
hundreds of thousands of human lives have been almost eradicated, with only 
infrequent outbreaks in their ancient foci. Consequently, epidemiological 
studies are only of historical and theoretical value; they demon- 
strate the tremendous role of social reforms and of prevailing medical 
measures in the control of public health. Therefore, one must agree with 
the famous microbiologist. Academician S. N. Winogradsky, who mentioned 
in a letter to the author that, at present, cosmic agents can be ignored 
with respect to the onset and spread of epidemics, their role being 
negligible in comparison with that of biological agents. In a letter of 
14 November 1935, Winogradsky wrote: "Whenever the etiology is well 
known, the foci of infection can be suppressed and catastrophic epidemics 
prevented irrespective of solar activity." Summaries of the author's ex- 
tensive research in this field have been published in two main monographs: 
in Moscow, in 1930 /19/, and in Paris, in 1938 /80/. However, in connec- 
tion with several epidemic diseases (grippe, cerebrospinal meningitis, 
poliomyelitis, etc.) the effect of the solar factor still requires fundamental 
study. As grippe pandemics and certain other epidemics continue their 
periodic attacks on man, the opinion of Academician Winogradsky 
should be revised. 

Periodic outbreaks of cholera epidemics are still being reported from 
certain countries in southern Asia. Epidemics of poliomyelitis are known 
to occur in the USA, France, and other countries. Therefore, an accurate 
prediction of outbreaks of several epidemic diseases is still highly 
desirable. Helioepidemiological studies are, for certain countries, an 
urgent medical necessity. 

The question arises whether man or the bacterial cell conditions the 
coordinated development of solar phenomena and epidemics on Earth. 
Referring to our work. Prof. Dubos /89/ assumed that the cellular growth 
and metabolic activity of several bacteria are affected by certain specific 
radiations which, in turn, depend upon the solar activity cycle. 

In 1927 we began microbiological research after studying the spread of 
many epidemic diseases and of the synchronous variations in solar activity 
during past centuries, and publishing these data in the years 1924 and 
1927-1929 /6, 13-16, 24. 27-29/, edited by Prof. N. A. Semashko (who 
personally contributed considerably to this work). It was shown that 
ordinary bacterial flora and certain pathogenic microorganisms react 
distinctly to specific solar phenomena, and this coincidence could be traced 
with an accuracy of up to 6 days. A few years later, under the direct 
influence of our work, the Kazan physician and microbiologist, S. T. 
Vel'khover, conducted a thorough microbiological study, lasting several 
years (1934-1942), of the effect of solar flares on the growth and meta- 
chromasia of Corynebacteria; he confirmed by exhaustive investiga- 
tion (over 85,000 observations) the existence of a strict correlation between 
the specific solar radiation and the physicochemical processes in micro- 
organisms. He also demonstrated that these changes occur simultaneously 
in different places (in three independent laboratories) /86, 87/. 



286 




1920 



1930 Years 



FIGURE 4. Schematic curves of cholera mortality: 1- Japan; 2-Indochina: 
3-the Philippines: 4-British India; 5- Wolf number. 



Diphtheria mortality 




1860 



1870 



1880 



1890 



1900 



1910 



Years 



FIGURE 5. Upper curve-diphtheria in Denmark from 1863 to 1911. Lower curve-Wolf number. The 
diphtheria curve was shifted five years to the right. The vertical line on the upper curve at the right 
indicates introduction of serotherapy, which cut off the natural course of the epidemics. 



287 



1900 



1910 




1883 



1890 



1900 



1910 



1917 Years 



FIGURE 6. Comparative curves of relapsing fever in European Russia from 1883 to 1917 and 
the Wolf number for the same time period. (The curve for relapsing fever was shifted one 
year to the left— dashed curve.) The correlation coefficient is + 0.88 ±0.03. 

The vertical scale on the left represents variations of solar activity, and on the right relapsing 
fever. 




1930 Years 



FIGURE 7. Upper curve- epidemics of cerebrospinal meningitis in New York in 1881-1930. Lower 
curve- Wolf number. 



Studies of the microbiological data revealed that changes in the rate of 
metachromasia in C o r yneb a c t e r ia started several hours, or even days 
before the solar phenomena were recorded instrumentally by the helio- 
physicists. We suggested that when this occurred, Corynebacteria 
were reacting to phenomena developing in the deep layers of the Sun in- 
accessible to the astrophysical instruments. The volutin of Coryne- 
bacteria is seemingly endowed with a high specific sensitivity to this 
type of radiation, and a method might possibly be elaborated whereby 
qualitative and quantitative changes in the Sun could be estimated by the 
chromaticity, or by colorimetric determinations of the volutin granules 
in Corynebacteria; in other words, heliophysicists must collaborate 
with microbiologists. Unfortunately our close collaboration with 
Vel'khover was terminated by his death in 1942. Claims of later authors 
to priority in this field of science are completely unfounded. 



288 



We explained this phenomenon— designated the Chizhevskii-Vel'khover 
effect— as the metachromatic response of certain microorganisms grown 
on well-defined media to Z-radiation emitted by the deep layers of the Sun 
that cannot be recorded astrophysically. This effect was discovered 
through extensive research which lasted almost 15 years, and required the 
isolation of a highly sensitive microorganism, a special medium for its 
cultivation, and the examination of many thousands of preparations. Astro- 
physicists disagree on the depth at which generation of solar phenomena 
responsible for Z-radiation occurs. In 1940 the author succeeded in fore- 
casting the appearance of the solar radiations with the aid of live bacteria. 




Years 1870 



1880 



1890 



1900 



1910 



1920 



FIGURE 8. Mortality in Russia between 1867 and 1917, and the solar activity cycles. Dashed curve- 
deviations of mortality from a quadratic parabola. Solid curve-number of suBspots- 

The left and right vertical scales respectively represent deviations in mortality and in solar activity. 

Not only N. A. Semashko, G. A. Ivashentsov, and S. T. Vel'khover, but 
many other eminent scientists supported our viewpoint and showed interest 
in our investigations, rather than regarding them as "fantastic hypotheses." 
Scientists were already aware at the time that statistical principles were 
quite as sound as laboratory experiments. Among them were Academicians 
V. I. Vernadskii, D. K. Zabolotnyi, P.P. Lazarev, K. E. Tsiolkovskii, A. V. 
Leontovich, V. Ya. Danilevskii, Associate Member of the Academy of 
Sciences of the USSR Prof. G. D. Belonovskii, Prof. A. V. Reprev, A. A. 
Sadov, and others, who supported our research verbally or in print. 
Prof. Sadov repeatedly discussed our studies in the field of epidemiology, 
and mentioned them in his preface to the well-known book by R. Dujarrique 
de la Riviere "Ethiology, Epidemiology, and Prevention of Grippe" (1932). 
These studies were considered most valuable by numerous scientists out- 
side the USSR, among them Prof. L. Tanon (Paris), Dr. D. Budai (Buda- 
pest), Prof. J.Renault (Toulon), Prof. S. Sylverst (Paris), Dr. A.Gleits- 
mann (Berlin), Dr. S. E. P. Brookes (London), Prof. V. Delfino (Buenos 
Aires), Prof. A. Leprens (Paris), Prof. Laignel-Lavastine (Paris), Prof. 
V. de Smitt (New York), and many others. Thus, more than 30 years ago 
our research in the field of epidemiological statistics was already con- 
sidered by the foremost scientists to be not only interesting but also 
progressive. 

As a result of our statistical investigations we had decided to study the 
overall mortality, and were able to detect the same remarkable correla- 
tion in this field. This subject has a history of its own. In the first decade 
of this century, some observant physicians noted a phenomenon which 



289 




18 27 



18 27 



FIGURE 9. 1-Course of magnetic distur- 
bances (world total) for the 27 -day period 
of the Sun's rotation; mean of 68 rotations. 
2-Dynamics of mortality caused by dis- 
eases of the central and peripheral nervous 
systems in Copenhagen correlated with the 
27 -day period of rotation: 3720 cases; 
mean of 68 rotations for the same period. 
3-Dynamics of mortality caused by 
cardiovascular diseases and senility in 
Copenhagen, correlated with the 27 -day 
period of the Sun's rotation: 8099 cases; 
mean of 68 rotations, for the same period. 
4-Dynamics of mortality caused by respi- 
ratory diseases in Copenhagen correlated 
with the 27-day period of rotation: 4579 
cases; mean of 68 rotations for the same 
period. 5-Dynamics of mortality due to 
various causes (with the exception of murders) , 
in Copenhagen, correlated with the 27-day 
period of rotation: 35,244cases; mean of 
68 rotations for the same period. 

The ordinate represents variations in 
the magnetic field strength of the Earth, 
and the mortality. 



could not be effectively explained for a long 
time: when patients with acute diseases 
appeared at the beginning of a physician's 
office hours, patients with similar com- 
plaints could be expected for the rest of 
the day, and the next two or three days, 
followed by a certain interval almost free 
of such patients. Further, it was noted 
that patients suffering from nervous dis- 
diseases and affections of the cardio- 
vascular system sustained the most serious 
attacks at the same time, irrespective of 
their living conditions. An accurate 
account of these phenomena revealed that 
attacks of stenocardia, neuralgic pains, 
and headaches, for example, attacked a 
great variety of patients during the same 
two or three days, and then disappeared 
simultaneously for a certain time. 
Statistics showed "sudden deaths" to be 
strikingly synchronous. Physicians on call 
at first aid stations in large cities noticed 
that one sudden death at the beginning 
of their turn of duty was followed by 
several additional cases of the same kind 
within the next day or two. This incidence 
of diseases, aggravations, and mortality 
in series has long been a subject of dis- 
cussion in the scientific medical societies 
of various countries, and the literature 
on this problem is fairly voluminous /3, 
6, 23, 26-28, 31, etc./. 

Attempts at correlating the "pathologic- 
al series" with meteorological factors 
(temperature, humidity, atmospheric 
pressure, wind velocity and direction, 
thunderstorm discharges, etc.) have failed. 
Physicians working in medical meteorology 
have had to conclude, on the basis of ex- 
tensive statistical data, that distinct cor- 
relations are seldom revealed, and do not 
encompass the great number of coinciding 
disease and death cases recorded simul- 
taneously over extensive areas in different 
remote places. Since meteorological con- 
ditions differ over vast expanses, they 
cannot provide a general explanation for 
the synchronous pattern of the pathology 
recorded. It was therefore concluded that 
powerful extraterrestrial factors 
act in a certain manner upon the entire 
planetary surface and its biosphere. 



By chance, we came closer to an explanation of this enigma. It was 
noticed that occasionally the functioning of an automatic telephone network 
was suddenly intermittently, or at times even completely disrupted for 

several hours, although no breakdowns 
could be detected in the equipment; in such 
cases, the network returned to normal 
without any intervention whatever. The 
days of disrupted telephone communica- 
tions were found to coincide regularly 
with the series of pathological cases, i. e. , 
with the higher frequency of various 
paroxysms, aggravations, and deaths. The 
synchronous disturbances in the functioning 
of electrical equipment and of the human 
physiological mechanisms revealed an 
extremely distinct pattern. Magnetic and 
electric storms on Earth and in the atmo- 
sphere play havoc with the electrical net- 
works, and are induced by electromagnetic 
and corpuscular radiations from the Sun. 
By processing the wealth of statistical 
data we were able to demonstrate for the 
first time that the fluctuations of the 
overall mortality correlated quite well with 
the solar activity curve /19, 20/. In years 
of maximum solar activity the peak of the 
mortality curve is usually high; whereas 
in years of minimum solar activity the 
peak is significantly lower. This may 
be explained by the influence of the dis- 
turbed areas of the Sun passing through 
the central solar meridian in years of 
minimum activity, although their number 
and dimensions as well as their frequency, 
are very much smaller than in years of 
maximum activity. As an example, we 
present the comparative data of mortality 
in Russia with the curve of solar activity 
during the years 1867—1917 (Figure 8). The annual mortality curves in 
different countries were also found to coincide distinctly with the solar 
activity curves (Chizhevskii, Morrell, Budai, Faure, Mirbach, Vies, and 
others). In 1925 the author appealed to the Soviet public to help in the 
collection of data concerning the correlation between cases of sudden death, 
and geophysical and solar phenomena.* This work was organized by us 
with the assistance of the Main Geophysical Observatory and the People's 
Commissariat of Health of the RSFSR.** A two-year work period resulted 
in the accumulation of a vast amount of data (45,000 cases), which showed 
89% of the cases to be synchronous, verifying the desired correlation. In 




FIGURE 10, 1-Dynamics of magnetic 
disturbances witiiin 20-day periods; the 
10 days preceding and tiie 10 days 
following the most violent solar dis- 
turbances (n): mean of twenty-two 
20-day periods. 2-Dynamics of morta- 
lity caused by diseases of the central 
and peripheral nervous systems in Copen- 
hagen for the same time: 771 cases. 

The ordinate represents variations 
in the magnetic field intensity of the 
Earth, and the mortality rate. 



"Svyaz"', No. 22, pp. 11-12, Moskva. 1925. 
[Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic] 



291 



processing the data it was further established that the first human reaction 
to solar disturbances occurs in the nervous system /30/. 



19.0 


- 








18.0 


■ 






i. 

(1 


17.0 


. 






; 


16.0 


1 








15.0 








/ \ 


14.0 
13.0 


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V . ^ 


■^ 


J 


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\ 



rv 



1.0 



0.9 



0.8 



0.7 



-10 



+5 



FIGURE 11. l-Dynamics of mortality caused by diseases of the central and 
peripheral nervous systems, and of the cardiovascular system correlated with 
the 17-day periods following extraordinarily high mortality rates (n), in 
Copenhagen, Frankfurt-am -Main, and Ziirich; mean of 60 periods: 4899 
cases. 2-Correspondlng course of magnetic activity (according to calendar 
dates) before and after the high mortality. 

These extensive works indicated the general pattern in the phenomenon 
under consideration. The next step was the detailed analysis of daily 
statistical data. In one of our earlier investigations we noted the 27-day 
periodicity of certain statistical data coinciding with the synodic period of 
the Sun's rotations. On our recommendation, further statistical analysis 
was made of more than 200,000 deaths recorded over a period of many years, 
in the large cities of Western Europe, and caused by diseases of the brain, the 
nervous system, etc. All data were classified according to calendar dates 
with designation of the disease and cause of death, and were statistically 
analyzed by accurate methods and compared with the heliogeophysical index 
(B. and T.Diill /91, 92/). 

Instrumental recording of geomagnetic activity follows the main solar 
phenomena with extraordinary accuracy, resulting in a correlation 



292 



coefficient very close to unity. The course of magnetic perturbances 
(world total) was therefore selected as the heliogeophysical index. A modi- 
fication of the "superposed- epoch method" which we proposed more than 
40 years ago was adopted for the statistical analysis of the data. The 
principle of the method is as follows: the maximum value for a given 
day of a certain period is recorded in the vertical axial column. To the 
left of this, the values for several preceding days are entered, and to the 
right, the values for several subsequent days. Values for all the periods 
are obtained by summing up the vertical columns and averaging the 
numerical results. This method distinctly isolates the basic pattern 
eliminating noncharacteristic phenomena. Each entry in such a table cor- 
responds to a certain calendar data, and also serves for recording other 
phenomena according to the calendar dates. The two resultant curves are 
compared and their correlation coefficient is calculated. These curves 
demonstrate a remarkable correlation of the phenomena under considera- 
tion (Figures 9—13). 



16.0 



15.0 



14.0 



13.0 




- 15.0 



14.0 



13.0 



12.0 



FIGURE 12. 1-Dynamics of mortality caused by diseases of 
the central and peripheral nervous systems, and of the cardio- 
vascular system in Copenhagen, Frankfurt-am- Main, and 
Zurich; mean of thirty 12-day periods with most violent mag- 
netic storms; 12,393 cases. 2— The same; mean of 60 periods: 
24,739 cases. 

The ordinate represents variations of mortality. 



293 



60 



50 



40 



20 




15.0 



14.0 



13.0 



12.0 



27 



FIGURE 13. 1- World total of the course of magnetic disturbances correlated 
with the 27-day periods of the Sun's rotation; mean of 14 rotations. 2-Cor- 
responding mortality (according to calendar dates) caused by diseases of the 
central and the peripheral nervous systems, and of the cardiovascular system, 
in Copenhagen, Frankfurt-am-Main, and Ziirich; 4804 cases. 

The ordinate represents variations in the magnetic field intensity of the Earth, 
and the mortality. 

The time coincidence of the heliogeophysical and the pathological pheno- 
mena undoubtedly indicates an exceptionally close relationship 
between them, i. e. . a certain heliogeophysical factor synchronously pro- 
vokes a marked increase in mortality at various places on the planet. The 
correlation coefficient for some of these curves is very close to unity. 

From the time distribution of mortality we may conclude that the num- 
ber of deaths caused by certain diseases at a given moment depends mainly 
upon the frequency and intensity of the specific solar radiation.* It would 
be erroneous to assume that the ailments or deaths were caused by these 
radiations. The latter may only provide the impetus, which, in the 

• There are no available scientific data suggesting the possible effect on mortality of disturbances in the 
terrestrial magnetic field. 



294 



presence of suitable conditions in the organism, causes its death. Thus, 
the periods of high mortality are determined by the solar factor, whereas 
the number of deaths is determined by the susceptibility of the given or- 
ganism to this factor. Consequently, distinction should be made between: 
(1) the presence at the given moment of the external factor; and (2) the 
tendency of the organism to react pathologically to this factor /1 9, 20, 42, 
43, 47, 49, 50, 54/. Attention should be focused precisely on the action 
of these sudden bursts of Z-radiation, and perturbations of the 
electromagnetic field, at times arriving singly, and at others in rapid 
succession. These bursts may throw the physiological mechanism out of 
balance without giving them the time needed to recover, and the persistent 
unidirectional course of these bursts leads to the death of the 
ailing organism. 

The sudden Z-radiations of the Sun kill the weak, worn-out, senile 
organisms, but not healthy people. Patients with serious disturbances of 
the nervous system and of its core— the brain— die most rapidly. Patients 
suffering from cardiovascular diseases die somewhat later. These are 
followed by deaths due to grave diseases of other internal organs. Thus, 
the Z-radiations first strike the central nervous system, which is the most 
sensitive to external influences and reacts most intensely to them. The life 
of a young patient with a serious infectious disease is endangered only in 
the critical days of the disease, whereas in old age the range of dangerous 
nosologic units expands. If a patient is protected against these radiations 
during the critical days of his disease, he may continue 
to live for many more years. 

The struggle against premature death is the struggle for enriching 
mankind with major cultural and material values. The subject is usually 
closed with the remark "The heart has failed." The data presented in this 
paper shed new light on the problem of sudden, or premature death. This 
problem seems to be much more serious and complex than is currently 
thought. 

Let us now consider the physiological mechanism of sudden Z-radia- 
tion, and of the biophysicochemical disturbances produced by this cosmic 
factor in the entire living organism or in its individual organs. 

The specific reaction of volutin granules inCorynebacteria to solar 
"flares" has already been mentioned. This was the first step toward the 
study of this subject, some 30 years ago. It may be assumed that the 
impact of Z-radiation acts directly on the central nervous system. The 
Z-radiation may also affect the protein- colloid system of blood, lymph, 
and cytoplasm inducing colloidal- electrical changes that involve coagulation 
of the colloids, thereby leading to death under certain pathological condi- 
tions of the organism. It is known that a minimum amount of electro- 
magnetic energy may markedly lower the stability of the dispersed phase 
of certain colloidal fluids. Experiments have shown that radio waves from 
telegraphic transmitters caused relatively rapid precipitation of the solid 
phase of certain colloids, yet the field intensity is only of the order 
of 0.001 to 0.00001 of the intensity of the so-called electrical 
interference. When placed in sheet-iron chambers the same colloids were 
not affected by radio transmitters (Wilke and Miiller). It has been known 
for a long time that milk curdles considerably faster on days with 
marked atmospheric- electrical disturbances (thunderstorms) than on other 



295 



days. It was experimentally proved that the curdling is quite independent 
of bacterial processes. Evidently, under the effect of the factors men- 
tioned above, syneresis and disruption of the protein- colloid system occurs 
in the milk. Experimental coagulation of milk by treatment with short 
waves was reported, thus excluding from the process any thermal pheno- 
mena (Kerber, Goetinck). Similar observations were naade on various gels 
and emulsions in which the suspended phases precipitated during thunder- 
storms (Wedekind and others). 

Extensive experimental studies of the effect on animals of different 
electromagnetic waves failed to solve this problem directly, although many 
authors reported unfavorable changes in certain physiological functions 
after short-wave irradiation (Schlifacke, Dainton). In Russia work in this 
interesting field was started by V. Ya. Danilevskii (1900-1901), and by 
V. Ya. Danilevskii and A. M. Vorob'ev (1928). In this connection. Acade- 
mician V. Ya. Danilevskii wrote in his letter of 9 February 1928 to the 
author: "If we remember that we are separated from the Sun by a distance 
of only 107 Sun diameters, it is quite understandable that any disturbance 
of an electrical nature on the Sun must affect all creatures on Earth, since 
under certain conditions they act as resonators of these disturbances. I 
do not think that in general it is only the nervous system which is 'sensitive' 
in this respect. In principle, it cannot be denied that any living proto- 
plasm may react functionally to these disturbances. When I observed in 
my latest experiments how sharply a nerve reacted to electromagnetic 
waves which did not excite but merely modified its physiological properties, 
I was immediately reminded of your theory." 

It is possible that the radiations in which we are interested lie within 
the range of ultrashort radio waves, i. e. , between centimeters and hecto- 
microns. These ultrashort radio waves are bounded on one side by deci- 
meter radio waves and on the other by decamicron infrared rays. The 
assumption that the nervous system is endowed with "receivers" of milli- 
metric radio waves is theoretically sound (Academician A. V. Leontovich). 

The effect of electromagnetic waves of various wavelengths was studied, 
almost without exception, on healthy animals. In 1932— 1933, we performed 
experiments which were basically different. Rabbits were treated with a 
sublethal dose of poison. The animals did not perish but were seriously 
affected by the poison. Another group of animals were inoculated with a 
rapidly developing infection. When placed in the field of electromagnetic 
waves generated by the mass radiator designed by Prof. A. A. Glagoleva- 
Arkad'eva, most of these animals (80%), severely ill beforehand, perished 
within a short time. The control animals placed in a grounded metal cage 
failed to respond to treatment with electromagnetic waves and the disease 
or poisoning took its expected course. These experiments demonstrated 
that: (1) the electromagnetic radiations proved to be incomparably more 
injurious for the severely ill animals than for healthy animals; and (2) 
that metal screens may protect the organism against these electromagnetic 
radiations. 

These studies prompted me, at that time, to suggest the publication of 
an astronomical bulletin for hospitals and clinics that would warn them at 
least 5 or 6 days in advance of the passage of disturbed areas through the 
Sun's central meridian. This measure was implemented by the Interna- 
tional Institute for Radiation Studies (Institut Internationale d' Etudes des 
radiations solaires, terrestres, et cosmiques), and for several years 



296 



these astronimicalbuUetins were dispatched to all large medical institutions 
in France (Figiire 14). According to Prof. M. Faure (Paris) this measure 
saved tens of thousands of human lives in France alone over a period of 3 
to 4 years /83/. 



INSTITUT INfEHNAnoNAL 

I'Eludc d<!« R«iit«t»fKn 

SoWtcn, Tntvtitm rt CoimiqBn 

H. R« V-rfi ■ NICE 



i * 




. ■■■■-■■—■•■■' - - ' ■ . -. — - ^- ,., ,^^^> 

INSTITUT INTEi^NATIONAL D*£TUIW3 % 

RADIATIONS SOLAlRESj TERRESTRE5 El COSMIQUES i 

(Aisocialifm Fillak de la SocfJW Mi^kak da IJHorttl Mcaitrrrmtfin} 
S«rA«ri.i : Z4. Rde VwA i NICE - TA 097-13 



PttbXc d'Etudcs Solaires (FatHkUon Ja O' E. VlJal, d'Hi/ha} 
a rObservatoire 6e Nice (Pt<ipril<c dc rVniesntti A Park} 



farsiQgci li* 7ocA«* Sotaims sS^noiii r 



«!#««■ prriutlc rf'(Ktf<fcj?ts d'inff^siti farts, moyenne on ■ Ij 

, _^ ,] 

faihif. Pri'rrs dp rmnts faitt caana'itrt! am* cb-^fntaimfa. , jis 

FIGURE 14. Astronomical bulletin of the International Institute of Radiation 
Studies distributed over a period of several years to all major medical 
institutions in France. 



297 



On the basis of our work in the field of epidemiology and statistics, 
and proceeding from the principle that the coincident mortality is caused 
by the changes induced by solar Z-radiations in the protein-colloid equi- 
librium of the blood, lymph, and tissue fluids, M. Takata /97/ began, in 
1935, a search for a sensitive test for the precipitation of protein fractions 
from the serum. This research proved that certain solar radiations have 
a clear-cut, extremely potent effect on human blood, and that their activity 
could not be ascribed to any of the known components of the solar spectrum, 
from ultraviolet to infrared. The average normative value of this reaction 
was 31.5. The F reaction (Flockungszahl-reaction) revealed that the 
variations were directly linked to the position of the Sun and, most 
important, to the passage of the disturbed areas on the Sun through its 
central meridian. This reaction clearly displayed the 11 -year cycles and 
the 27-day synodic periods of solar rotation. The F reaction induced pre- 
cipitation of protein bodies from the human blood serum, whereby the 
stronger the specific action of the Sun, the more intense the flocculation. 
This phenomenon was designated "catastrophic flocculation" when the reac- 
tion index increased to 80. This F reaction of the blood can be revealed 
only when both the blood donor and the person sampling the blood are 
electrically insulated from the Earth. In 1936-1952 the findings of M. 
Takata and his co-workers T. Murazugi and A. Takata were fully corrobo- 
rated by many scientists in various countries (Girkage, Hofbauer, Ebergeni, 
Isbruch, Koller and Miiller, Seitz, Asler and Both, Condorelli, Cafiero, 
Beckmann, and others). 

In 1931 — 1950, while investigating the structural- morphological compo- 
sition of native blood by special methods we repeatedly observed the unusual 
responsiveness of the hematopoietic organs to the specific radiation from 
the disturbed areas on the Sun. These extensive studies have been 
partially published in the first part of my book "Structural Analysis of 
Flowing Blood" (Strukturnyi analiz dvizhushcheisya krovi).* 

More recently, the exceptionally strong effect of solar disturbances on 
hematopoiesis and on the dynamics of leukocytes have been demionstrated by 
the Soviet physician and hematologist, N.A.Shul'ts /100-102/. Advances 
in this field have been made by G. Piccardi (Florence), Professor of 
Physical Chemistry, and his numerous followers in many European coun- 
tries. In October 1958, at the international symposium held in Brussels 
on problems concerning the relationships between solar and terrestrial 
phenomena, brilliant achievennents have been reported in physical 
chemistry and biology based on hundreds of thousands of experiments 
designed to determine the rate of some simple chemical reactions and the 
precipitation of colloids. 

Piccardi' s research, supported by the organizing committee of the 
Irfternational Geophysical Year, deserves to be highly praised. These 
studies facilitated a direct approach to the clarification of one of the 
mechanisms of action on the organism of the chromospheric flares, and 
other disturbed areas on the Sun from which corpuscles of ultrahigh ener- 
gies and electromagnetic waves of different frequencies bombard the Earth. 

It should be mentioned that t h e remedies used in current 
therapeutics cannot abate the changes induced in the organism by 
Z-radiations. Only further detailed studies in this field will expose the 

• Published by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow. 1959. 



298 



finer mechanisms of action of Z-radiation on living matter. If Z-radiation 
is proved to act on the protein- colloidal phase of the patients' blood in- 
ducing irreversible precipitation of the protein from the plasma or from 
plasmatic formations, it might become necessary to seek means of 
preserving the dispersed phase in a stable state. In this case protection 
against Z-rays will be limited to measures aimed at maintaining the 
electrical charges of biocoUoids at the required level. At present, it is 
possible to solve this problem satisfactorily. 

Conversely, if it is assumed that the Z-radiation lies in the region of 
radio and ultrashort radio waves, the thickness of a metallic screen 
for the protection of patients against these radiations is easily calculated. 
On the basis of these premises Ipublisheda series of articles /66, 67/, in the 
medical press, in 1937, indicating the need to provide all hospitals with 
electrically grounded, shielded wards impenetrable by Z-rays. These 
wards should be shielded on all sides from the outer environment by welded 
metal sheets of a specified thickness, and entered into from vestibules 
similarly shielded and equipped, with double doors so that the door to the 
patient's room is opened only after the one to the vestibule is closed. 
These wards should be supplied with artificial daylight, adequate ventila- 
tion or, preferably, conditioned and ionized air. In all other respects 
they need not differ from ordinary wards. Erection of such shielded wards 
presents no difficulties for modern engineering. For ultrashort waves the 
screens should be correspondingly thicker. Finally, underground wards 
can be built which are covered with a layer of soil sufficiently thick to 
absorb the entire spectrum of Z-radiation. Seriously ill patients whose 
lives might be endangered on days of solar storms and hurricanes should 
be transferred to these wards, in accordance with the forecasts of the 
astronomic "Sun bureau," or the bulletins issued by heliomicrobiological 
laboratories. 

Thus, medicine is facing a new problem of extraordinary practical 
significance, requiring thorough study of the protection of severely ill 
patients on certain days against sudden Z -radiations, either by artificial 
stabilization of the plasma proteins, or by shielding. 

We expound on the necessity of extensive implementation of prophylactic 
measures in our hospitals, and at the same time obstinately refuse to take 
notice of achievements in the related fields of science. No progress will 
be achieved under these conditions. The time has come to channel our 
efforts toward the elaboration of prophylactic methods based on the 
achievements of all fields of modern science. 

The correlation of sudden and premature deaths with the specific radia- 
tions discussed in this paper calls for comprehensive statistical, 
theoretical, clinical, and experimental studies with the participation of 
heliophysicists, physicists, biophysicists, chemists, physiologists, and 
physicians. This subject merits the full attention of government organiza- 
tions which plan and coordinate scientific research. 

In 1963 we entered th period of decline of solar activity. The next 
increase in solar activity will occur in 1965-1966, and it is desirable that 
science will have provided an accurate evaluation of the concepts and facts 
presented in this article, and that it will have made an attempt at practical 
implementations of the suggestions advanced herewith. Research in this 



299 



important subject obviously calls for a well-equipped scientific research 
laboratory staffed with highly qualified experts in astrophysics, chemistry, 
physiology, and medicine. 



REFERENCES 

1. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Periodicheskoe vliyanie Solntsa na biosferu 

Zemli (Periodic Influence of the Sun on the Earth's Biosphere). — 
Doklad, chitannyi v Moskovskom arkheologicheskom institute, 
reprint, pp. 292—304. Moskva. Oct. 1915 

2. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Sinkhronisticheskie tablitsy (Synchronous 

Tables), MS, pp. 1-768. Moskva. 1918. 

3. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Penetrantnoe i solnechnoe izluchenie i zhizn' 

(Penetrating and Solar Radiation and Life). In Russian, French and 
German, lithographic reprint, pp. 1 — 34, Kaluga. 1919. 

4. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Astronomiya, fiziologiya i istoriya (Astronomy, 

Physiology and History).— Trudy nauchnoi konferentsii, reprint, 
pp. 1-78. Moskva. 1921. 

5. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Vliyanie per iodicheskoi deyatel'nosti Solntsa 

na vozniknovenie i razvitie epidemii (Influence on Epidemics of the 
Sun's Periodic Activity), Dolozheno v Zoologicheskom muzee 
Pervogo Moskvoskogo universiteta, lithographed, pp. 1 — 21. 
Kaluga. 1922. 

6. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Fizicheskie faktory istoricheskogo protsessa 

(Physical Factors of the Historical Process), Monograph, pp. 1-72. 
Kaluga. 1924. 

7. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Vliyanie periodicheskoi deyatel'nosti Solntsa na 

organicheskii mir (Influence on the Organic World of the Sun's 
Periodic Activity).— "Khochu Vse Znat'," No. 4, p. 155. Moskva. 
1926. 

8. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Sovremennaya astrologiya (Contemporary 

Astrology) — Ogonek, No. 17. 1926. 

9. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Epokha revolyutsii v prirode (Epoch of Revolu- 

tion in Nature).— Ogonek, No. 25. 1926. 

10. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Gripp i solnechnye pyatna (Grippe and Sunspots). 

—Ogonek, No. 14. 1927. 

11. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Solntse i rost derev'ev (Sun and the Growth of 

Trees).— Krest'yanskii Zhurnal, p. 30. Moskva. 1927. 

12. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Astrologiya nashikh dnei (Astrology in Our 

Times).— Klimat i Pogoda, Nos. 5-6, p. 129. Leningrad. 1927. 

13. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. O sootnoshenii mezhdu periodicheskoi deyatel'- 

nost'yu Solntsa i epidemiyami kholery i grippa (Interrelation of 
Periodic Solar Activity and Epidemics of Grippe and Cholera).— 
"Russko-nemetskii Meditsinskii Zhurnal," N. A. Semashko and 
Prof. F. Krauz, editors, Vol.3, No. 9, pp. 511-539. Berlin. 1927. 

14. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Faktor, sposobstvuyushchii vozniknoveniyu i 

rasprostraneniyu psikhozov (An Instrumental Factor in the 



300 



Emergence and Spreading of Psychoses). — Ibid. , Vol.4, No. 3, 
pp. 101-131. 1928. 

15. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Modifikatsiya nervnol vozbudinaosti pod vliyaniem 

perturbatsii vo vneshnei srede (Modification of Nervous Excitability 
Induced by Environmental Disturbances).— Ibid. , No. 8, pp.431 — 
452, and No. 9, pp. 479-518. 1928, 

16. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. O periodichnosti evropeiskogo vozvratnogo tifa 

(Periodicity of European Relapsing Fever).— Ibid. , No. 12, pp.685— 
694. 1928. 

17. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Nashe povedenie i priroda (Nature and Oiu- 

Behavior).— Znanie-Sila, No. 17, p. 186. 1928. 

18. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. O vliyanii izmeneniya kolichestva luchistoi 

energii Solntsa na povedenie kollektivov zhivotnykh (Influence of 
Variations in the Solar Radiant Energy upon the Behavior of Animal 
Groups).— Trudy Prakticheskoi laboratorii po zoopsikhologii 
Glavnauki NKProsa, No. 1, pp. 39-41. Moskva. 1928. 

19. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Epidemicheskie katastrofy i periodicheskaya 

deyatel'nost' Solntsa (Catastrophic Epidemics and the Periodic 
Activity of the Sun), Monograph, pp. 1-172. Moskva. 1930. 

20. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Pro periodychnost' zahal'noi smertnosty (Perio- 

dicity of General Mortality).— Profylaktychna Medytsyna, pp. 36- 
46. Khar'kov. [In Ukrainian.] 

21. CHIZHEVSKII. A. L. Teoriya geliotaraksii (Theory of Heliotaraxy), 

reprint, pp. 1-10. Moskva. 1930. 

22. CHIZHEVSKII, A. L. Atmosfernoe elektrichestvo i epidemii 

(Atmospheric Electricity and Epidemics).— Trudy Tsentral'noi 
Nauchno-Issledovatel'skoi Laboratorii Tonifikatsii, Vol.3, pp.293 — 
310. Voronezh. 1934. 

23. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Effet des facteurs physiques de la nature sur les 

61^ments nerveux et sur I'activite nerveuse des animaux et de 
I'homme. Rapport fait au Laboratoire de Zoopsychologie, pp. 1-70. 
Moscou. 1925. Voir: Traite de climatologie biologique et medicale. 
Vol. 1, p. 672. Paris. 1925. 

24. TCHIJEVSKY, A.L. Uber die Wechselbeziehungen zwischen der 

periodischen Tatigkeit der Sonne und den Cholera und Grippe 
Epidemien. — Deutsch-Russische Medizinische Zeitschrift. Schrift- 
leitung: Geh. Rat. Prof. Dr. med. Kraus (Berlin) und Prof. Dr. med. 
N. A.Semaschko (Moskau), Vol.3, No. 9, p. 539. Berlin. 1927. 

25. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Physical Factors of the Historical Process. — 

Paper Read by Smitt at the Annual Meeting of the American Meteoro- 
logical Society, Philadelphia, 30 December 1926. N.Y. 1927. 

26. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Humanity and Sunspot Activity. — Paper Presented 

by Prof. V.P. de Smitt, New YorkAcademy of Science, 7 March 1928; 
Bulletin ofthe New York Academy of Science, Vol.21, No. 23, N.Y. 
1928; see: de Smitt, V.P. —Journal of Cycle Research, Vol. 5, No. 4, 
pp. 89— 103, N.Y., October 1956. Dewey, E.R. — Journal of Cycle 
Research, Vol.9, No. 1, pp.1— 22. N.Y. January 1960. 

27. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Kosmische Einflusse, die Entstehung und Ver- 

breitung von Massenpsychosen begunstigen. — Deutsch-Russische 
Medizinische Zeitschrift. Schriftleitung: Geh. Rat. Prof. Dr. 
med. F. Kraus (Berlin) imd Prof. Dr. med. N. Semaschko (Moskau), 
Vol.4, No. 3, pp. 89-117. Berlin. 1928. 



301 



■ ■■■■■iiiiiii 1 1 I II II 



28. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Uber die Veranderung der Nervenerregbarkeit 

unter dem Einfluss der Perturbationen in der Susseren chemisch- 
physikalischen Umwelt. Versuch zum Studium der KoUektiv- 
Psychoneurologie. — Deutsch-Russische Medizinische Zeitschrift. 
Schriftleitung: Geh. Rat. Prof. Dr. med. F. Kraus (Berlin) und 
Prof. Dr. med, N. Semaschko (Moskau), Vol. 4, No. 8, pp. 405-430; 
No. 9, pp. 479-500. Berlin. 1928. 

29. TCHIJEVSKY. A. L. Uber die Periodizitat des europaischen Typhus 

recurrens. —Deutsch-Russische Medizinische Zeitschrift. 
Schriftleitung: Geh. Rat. Prof. Dr. med. F. Kraus (Berlin) und 
Prof. Dr. med. N. Semaschko (Moskau), Vol.4, No. 12, pp. 671- 
684. Berlin. 1928. 

30. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Influence des oscillations diurnes at mensuelles 

de I'activite solaire sur les modifications de I'excitation nerveuse.— 
Comptes-Rendus des Stances de I'Academie des Sciences de Paris, 
Vol.187, No. 2, p. 154, Paris. 1928; La Vie Universelle, Bulletin 
trimestriel de 1' Association Internationale Biocosmique, No. 10, 
p. 186. Toulon. 1929, 

31. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Th^orie du moment ^l^mentaire. — Rapport a 

la Soci^t^ de Biodynamique, Stance 7 octobre 1929; Comptes Ren- 
dus de la Soci^t^ de Biodynamique, Vol. 10, No. 11, p. 227, and 
Vol.10, No. 12, pp. 251-258, Toulon. 1929; Societe de Pathologie 
comparee et d'Hygiene generale. —Revue de Pathologie comparee et 
d' Hygiene g^n^rale, p. 974, Paris. 1930; Journal des practiciens. 
Paris. 1930. 

32. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. La signification energetique. — Le Progres 

Medical, No. 48, p. 2053. Paris, November 1929. 

33. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. La radiation cosmique, comme facteur biologique. 

R^sultats des recherches exp^rimentales de 1' influence de la radia- 
tion cosmique solaire et astrale sur les cellules et les tissus.— 
Bulletin de I'Association Internationale Biocosmique, No. 13, 
pp. 245-250. Toulon. 1929. 

34. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. La correlation. — Revue Scientifique, No. 9, 

p. 277, Paris. 1929; La Vie Universelle, No. 11, p. 211. Toulon. 
1929. 

35. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. L'application possible de quelques radiations 

cosmiques dans les buts th^rapeutiques. — Astrosophie, Vol.4, 
No. 3. Carthage, November 1929. 

36. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Influence de I'activite solaire. Discussion.— 

La Cote d'Azur Mfidicale, Vol.11, No, 12, pp. 252-257. 
Toulon, December 1929. 

37. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Cosmic Energy as a Factor in Human History.— 

The Seer, Vol.1, No. 1, p. 37. Carthage, January 1930. 

38. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. A propos de 1' influence de I'activite solaire 

p^riodique.— La C5te d'Azur M^dicale, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 57-62. 
Toulon. 1930, 

39. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Energie cosmique. La part des facteurs cos- 

miques dans la fondation de la vie de I'humanite.— L' Astrosophie 
Vol, 4, No, 2, pp. 84— 99. Carthage. 1930. 

40. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Les forces excitatrices du cosmos et notre 

conduite.— Bulletin de I'Association Internationale Biocosmique, 
No, 14, p. 285. Toulon. 1930, 



302 



41. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. The Correlation Between the Variations of the 

Sunspot Activity and the Rise and Spreading of Epidemics.— 
Congresso international de Hidrologia, Cliinatologia et Geologia 
medicas. Programa das Sesseos Scientificas, 2 Sesseo. p. 5. 
Lisboa. 1930. 

42. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Natalite des homnaes et la tension de I'activite 

solaire.— La Cote d'A^ur Medicale, Vol.11, No. 9, p. 230. Toulon. 
1930. 

43. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Les p^riodes solaires et la mortality. La Cote 

d'Azur M^dicale, Vol.11, No. 9, p. 232. Toulon. 1930. 

44. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Les mutations et les accroissements brusques 

de I'activite solaire (1' Electricity atmosph^rique). — La C6te d'Azur 
Medicale, Vol.11, No. 12, p. 302. Toulon. 1930. 

45. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Necessite d'organiser un institut international 

pour Etudier la conduite. Manuscript 1922-1923.— Rapport k la 
Society de Biodynamique 1926. La C6te d'Azur Medicale, Vol. 12, 
No. 10, p. 255. Toulon. 1930. 

46. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. L' Emigration de tous les pays en Am^rique. — 

La Vie Universelle, No. 16, p. 6. December 1930. 

47. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Taches solaires et la mortality.- Rapport a la 

SocietE d'Astronomiie de Toulouse. October 1930. 

48. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Loi de la compensation quantitative dans les 

fonctions de la biosphere en relation avec les variations EnergEtiques 
de 1' activity solaire.— Communication a la SociEtE de Bio- 
dynamique. Paris. 1930; PubliE dans la Revue Scientifique (Revue 
rose illustrEe), Vol.73, pp. 532-534. Paris, 24 August 1935. 

49. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. L'activite solaire et la mortality. — Rapport a 

r Academic des Sciences du Var. Seance du mercredi 2 avril 1930.— 
Bulletin de I'Academie du Var., Vol.98, p. 5. Toulon. 1931. 

50. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Influence des variations de I'activitE solaire sur 

la natality et sur la mortalite. — Rapport a I'Academie des Sciences 
du Var., Stance du mercredi, 7 mai 1930. Bulletin de I'Academie 
du Var., Vol. 98, p. 6. Toulon. 1931. 

51. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. and S. I. IVANTCHENKO. La correlation entre 

les acces du paludisme (malaria) et le degrE de tension de 
I'electricite atmospherique. — Revue de Pathologie comparee et 
d' Hygiene generale, Vol.33, No. 446, pp. 1383-1391. Paris. 
November 1933. 

52. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Effets de I'activite periodique solaire sur les 

phenomenes biologiques.— Traite de climatologie biologique et 
medicale (publiE sous la direction du Prof. Dr. M.Piery). 
Manuscript de 1928. Masson et Co. Editeurs, Vol.1, pp. 576-587. 
Paris. 1934. 

53. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Action de 1' activity pEriodique solaire sur les 

Epidemies.— TraitE de climatologie biologique et mEdicale, No. 11, 
pp. 1034-1041. Paris. 1934. 

54. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Action de 1' activity pEriodique solaire sur la 

mortality gEnErale. — Traite de climatologie biologique et mEdicale, 
Vol.11, pp. 1042-1046. Paris. 1934. 



303 



55. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. L'homme et les radiations cosmiques.— Rapport 

a I'Academie des Sciences, presente par le President M. Rat. 
Seance du 4 juillet 1934. Revue des Radiations, No. 8, p. 215. 
Toulon. 1934. 

56. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. L'activite periodique du soleil et I'ionisation de 

I'air.— Gazette astronomique. Bulletin mensuel de la Societe 
d'Astronomie d'Anvers, Vol.21, No. 247, p. 87. Anvers. July 1934. 

57. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Relations chronologiques des maladies 

^pidemiques avec les variations de l'activite solaire. Manuscript. 
1927.— Cosmobiologie, Revue Internationale, Vol.11, pp. 85-90. 
Nice. 1935. 

58. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Influence solaire. 1923. — Demain, Vol.10, No. 8, 

p. 330. Bruxelles, December 1935. 

59. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. The Cosmic Causes of Diseases. — Rapport au 

Ill-e Congres International de Pathologie Comparee. Comptes 
Rendus et Communication du Ill-e Congres International de Patho- 
logie Comparee du 15 au 18 avril 1936. Vol.2 pp.46, 
588-597, 661. Athenes, 1936. 

60. TCHIJEVSKY, A.L. Sur la connection entre l'activite solaire, I'elec- 

tricite atmospherique et les epidemies de la grippe. — Gazette des 
Hopitaux, Vol.109, No. 74, p. 1285. Paris, 16 September 1936. 

61. TCHIJEVSKY, A.L. Uber die kosmischen Ursachen von Krankheiten. 

— Zenit, Vol.7, pp. 243-251. Diisseldorf. September 1936. 

62. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Periodicite de la grippe et du soleil.— Demain, 

Vol.11, No. 10. Bruxelles. 1936. 

63. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Precis historique des relations entre les Epide- 

mies et les phenomenes m^t^orologiques, geophysiques, et cos- 
miques.— Le Courrier d'Epidaure. Revue Medico- Litteraire, 
Vol.3, No. 9, p. 3. Paris, November 1936. 

64. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Les travaux des savants du XlX-e sifecle sur les 

rapports entre les Spid^mies et les phenomenes m^t^orologiques, 
geophysiques et cosmiques.— Le Courrier d'Epidaure. Revue 
Medico-Litteraire, Vol.3, No. 10, p. 3. Paris, December 1936. 

65. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Le milieu cosmo-tellurique et les organismes 

vivants.— Hippocrate. Directeur: Professeur Laignel-Lavastine, 
membre de I'Academie de Medicine de Paris, Vol. 4, No. 10, 
pp. 577-586. Paris, December 1936. 

66. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. La salle d'hopital cuirassee pour la protection 

des malades centre les radiations solaires et cosmiques nuisibles. 
—Gazette des H6pitaux, La Lancette Frangaise, Vol.110, No. 14, 
p. 221. Paris, 17 February 1937. 

67. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. N^cessite pour chaque h6pital d'etre pourvu d'une 

salle revetue de cuirasse, prot^geant les malades contre certaines 
influences eiectromagnetiques et corpusculaires nuisibles du 
milieu cosmique. — La C6te d'Azur M^dicale, Revue des Radiations, 
Vol.18, No. 3, p. 58. Toulon, March 1937. 

68. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. De I'origine et de la nature de l'activite pgriodique 

du Soleil, laquelle conditionne les perturbations electriques et 
magnetiques dans I'atmosphere et I'ecorce terrestre.— Hippocrate, 
Vol.5, No. 1, pp. 23-38. Paris, January 1937. 



304 



69. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Les perturbations electriques, magnStiques et 

electro-magnetiques dans 1' atmosphere et I'ecorce terrestre sous 
I'influence des radiations specifiques du soleil. — Hippocrate, Vol.5, 
No, 2, pp. 87-101. Paris, February 1937; Vol.5, No. 3, pp. 143- 
161. March 1937. 

70. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Correlation entre les oscillations de I'activite 

electrique du soleil et les epidemies du cholera asiatique. — 
Hippocrate, Vol.5, No. 4, pp. 206-221. Paris. April 1937. 

71. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Correlation entre les oscillations de 1' activity 

electrique du soleil et les epidemies de la diphterie.— Hippocrate, 
Vol.5, No. 5, pp. 257-268. Paris, May 1937. 

72. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Correlation entre les oscillations de I'activite 

electrique du soleil et de I'^lectricite atmosphfirique et les ^pid6- 
mies de la meningite cerebrospinale et la poliomyelite.— Hippocrate, 
Vol.5, No. 5, pp. 269-276. Paris, May 1937. 

73. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Correlation entre les oscillations de I'activite 

electrique du soleil et les epidemies de la peste. — Hippocrate, Vol. 
Vol.5, No. 6, pp. 321-333. Paris, June 1937. 

74. TCHUEVSKY, A.L. Correlation entre les oscillations de I'activite 

electrique du soleil et les epidemies de la fievre recurrente. — 
Hippocrate, Vol.5, No. 6, pp. 334-342. Paris, June 1937. 

75. TCHUEVSKY. A. L. Correlation entre les oscillations de I'activite 

electrique du soleil et les epidemies de la grippe. —Hippocrate, 
Vol.5, No. 7, pp. 402-414. Paris, September 1937; No. 8, pp. 449- 
465, October 1937. 

76. TCHUEVSKY, A.L. Correlation entre les oscillations du potentiel de 

1' electricity atmosph^rique et le paludisme.— Hippocrate, Vol. 5, 
No. 9, pp. 513-523. Paris, November 1937. 

77. TCHUEVSKY, A.L. Correlation entre les oscillations de I'activite 

electrique du soleil et diverses epidemies.— Hippocrate, Vol. 5, 
No. 10, pp. 577-592. Paris, December 1937. 

78. TCHUEVSKY, A.L. L'activite corpusculaire ^lectromagnetique et 

periodique du soleil et I'electricite atmospherique comme r^gula- 
teurs de la distribution dans la suite des temps des maladies 
epidemiques et de la mortalite generale. — Acta Medica Scandina- 
vica, Vol.91, Fasc. 6, pp. 491-522. Stockholm. 1937. 

79. TCHUEVSKY, A.L. Theorie de la formation de matiere organique 

dans un champ electrique (impulsif ou alternatif). — Presente a 
I'Institut de Plasmogenia, Directeur: Prof. Dr. A. L. Herrera, 
tirage a part. Mexico. October 1937. 

80. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Les epidemies et les perturbations electromag- 

n^tiques du milieu exterieur. Monographic, pp. 1 — 240. — Collection 
Hippocrate, Edt. (Publi^ sous la direction du professeur dr. med. 
Laignel-Lavastine). Paris. 1938, 

81. TCHUEVSKY, A.L. Facteurs electriques du milieu exterieur et les 

microorganismes. — Bulletin de I'Association des diplomes de 
Microbiologic de la Faculty de Pharmacie de Nancy, No. 16, pp. 30- 
62. Nancy, May 1938. Monographie, pp. 1-36. Edition de la 
Societe d'Impressions typographiques. Nancy. 1938. 



305 



82. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Les oscillations periodiques des facteurs 

electriques du milieu ambiant et la virulence des microorganismes 
pathogenes.— Rapport presente au 2-me Congres International sur 
les rythmes biologiques, 25 and 26 August 1939. Programme, p. 4. 
Utrecht. 1939. 

83. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. About Cosmobiology. — Report of the 12 Septem- 

ber 1939, International Congress of Biophysics and Biocosmics. 
Programme of Congress, p. 7, N.Y., 1939; Revue des Radiations, 
Vol.21. No. 3, p. 35. Toulon, March. 1940. 

84. TCHUEVSKY, A. L. Cosmobiologie et rythme du milieu ext^rieur.— 

Rapport fait au 2-me Congres International sur les rythmes bio- 
logiques. 25 and 26 August 1939. Utrecht. Verhandlungen der 
zweiten Konferenz der Internationalen Gesellschaft fUr biologische 
Rythmusforschungen; am 25 und 26 August 1939. Utrecht (Holland), 
pp. 211—227. Supplementum der Acta Medica Scandinavica, 
No. CVIII, Stockholm. 1940. 

85. ARRHENIUS, S. A. Vliyanie kosmicheskikh uslovii na fiziologicheskie 

otpravleniya cheloveka (Influence of Cosmic Conditions on Human 
Physiology).— Nauchnoe Obozrenie, No. 2, pp. 261-298, Sankt- 
Peterburg. 1900. 

86. VEL'KHOVER, S. T. - Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii i 

Immunobiologii, Vol.15, No. 6. Moskva. 1936. 

87. VEL'KHOVER, S. T. — Trudy Kazanskogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo 

Instituta Teoreticheskoi i Klinicheskoi Meditsiny, No. 3. Kazan'. 
1936. 

88. VOGRALIK, G. F. Uchenie ob epidemicheskikh boleznyakh (Study of 

Epidemic Diseases), Tomsk. 1935. 

89. DUBOIS, R. Bacterial Cell. [Russian translation. 1948.] 

90. DULL, B. and T. DULL. — Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 

Vol.3, No, 95, Berlin. 1935. 

91. DULL, B. and T. DULL. — Medizinische-meteorologische Statistik. 

Berlin. 1937. 

92. DULL, B, and T. DULL.— Bioklimatische Beiblatter, Vol.6, Nos. 2- 

3. Braunschweig. 1939. 

93. COLLO, A. Une science nouvelle: la biometeorologie. — Science et 

Avenir, No. 148. Paris, June 1959. 

94. PICCARDI, G. Symposium international sur les relations entre pheno- 

mfenes solaires et terrestres en chimiephysique et en biologie, 
pp. 1-210. Bruxelles. 1960. 

95. SADOV, A. A. Epidemicheskii gripp (Epidemic Grippe), Leningrad. 

1927. 

96. SADOV, A. A. K probleme etiologii i epidemiologii grippa (Contribu- 

tion to the Etiology and Epidemiology of Grippe), Introduction to the 
Book "Etiology, Epidemiology, and Prevention of Grippe" by 
O Dujarrique de la Rivier. Leningrad. 1932. 

97. TAKATA, M., T. MURAZUGI. and A. TAKATA.— Acta Serologica et 

Immunologica, Vol. 2, No. 2. 

98. SCHOSTAKOVITCH, V. B. - Bioklimatische Beiblatter, Vol.3. 

Berlin. 1936. 



306 



99. SHUL'TS, N.A. Sinfaznost' chastoty funktsional'nykh kolebanii koli- 
chestva leikotsitov s kolebaniyami solnechnoi aktivnosti (Frequency 
of Leukocyte-Count Fluctuations in Phase with Fluctuations of Solar 
Activity).— Problemy gematologii i perelivaniya krovi. p. 41. 
Moskva. 1959. 

100. SHUL'TS, N.A. Vliyanie kolebanii solnechnoi aktivnosti na 

krovetvorenie (Influence on Hematopoiesis of Fluctuations in Solar 
Activity).— Priroda, No. 6, p. 92. Moskva. 1959. 

101. SHUL'TS, N.A. Dinamika izmenenii kolichestva leikotsitov v zavisi- 

rnosti ot izmenenii solnechnoi radiatsii (Dynamics of Changes in 
Leukocjrte Counts Correlated with Changes in Solar Radiation).— 
Laboratornoe Delo, No. 2, p. 36. Moskva. 1960. 

102. CHULTZ, N.A. I globuli bianchi e le macchie solari. — Geofisica e 

meteorologia, Vol.8, Nos. 5-6. Genova. 1960. 

103. SHCHERBINOVSKn, N. S. Pustynnaya sarancha shistotserka (Desert 

Locust Schistocerca), Monograph, pp. 104-106. Moskva. 1952. 

104. SMITT, de V. P. Physical Factors. — Journal of Cycle Research, 

Vol.5, No. 4. N.Y. , October 1956. 

105. DEWEY, E. R. Tchijevsky's Index.— Journal of Cycle Research, 

Vol.9, No. 1. N.Y. , January 1960. 

106. HORNER, S. L. Tchijevsky's Index. — Journal of Cycle Research, 

Vol.9, No. 1. N.Y. , January 1960. 

107. GYURDZHIAN,A. A. Radiobiologicheskie problemy kosmicheskikh 

poletov (Radiobiological Problems of Space Flight).— In: Sbornik 
"Problemy kosmicheskoi biologii," Vol. 1, p. 73, Moskva. 1962. 

108. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. L'influenza delle grandi perturbazioni solari 

suU'origine e diffusione delle epidemie e sull'aggravamento delle 
malattie nervose e cardiovascolari. — Minerva Medica, Vol. 54, 
No. 38, p. 42. Ferrara. 12 May 1963. 

109. TCHIJEVSKY, A. L. Uber die Methode des Studiums des Zusammen- 

hangs zwischen der periodischen TStigkeit der Sonne und den Epide- 
mien des Typhus recurrens.- Vni International Conference of the 
Society for Biological Rhytlim in Hamburg. September 1963. 

110. CHIZHEVSKII, A.L. and Yu. G. SHISHINA. Vsemirnaya simpatiya 

(World Sympathy).— Nauka i Zhizn', No. 5, p. 82. Moskva. 1963. 

111. CHIZHEVSKII, A.L. Nekotorye mikroorganizmy kak indikatory 

solnechnoi aktivnosti i predvestniki solnechnykh vspyshek (Certain 
Microorganisms as Indicators of Solar Activity and Forecasters 
of Solar Flares), Moskva. 1963. 



307 



A.L. Chizhevskii 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL REACTIONS AS INDICATORS OF 
COSMIC PHENOMENA 



It is well established that certain external factors, usually ignored, may 
influence the life activities of organisms, and even chemical or colloidal 
reactions. 

However, physical chemistry and biology could never before provide 
such conclusive proof as now on the existence of certain cosmic phenomena, 
earlier "disregarded;" this development is the result of special laboratory 
experiments and of the vast statistical data collected. 

Since 1951, and through the following decade, G. Piccardi, Professor of 
Physical Chemistry at the University of Florence has studied the effect on 
certain simple chemical reactions of the variations in solar activity 
associated with the appearance of sunspots, prominences, flares, etc. on 
the Sun' s surface. 

Piccardi' s experiments aroused the interest of a significant number of 
scientists in different countries who agreed to conduct simultaneous in- 
vestigations according to the same method. The results obtained were 
striking. 

An international symposiuna on the influence of solar radiations on 
physicochemical reactions and biological phenomena was held at the Belgian 
Observatory in 8—10 October 1958. The exhaustive data presented at this 
symposium conclusively demonstrated the global and synchronizing effect 
of solar disturbances on physicochemical reactions, and on certain biolo- 
gical processes, confirming the basic premises of space biology. 

We shall present a brief account of the most interesting investigations 
conducted by Prof. Piccardi and his school. 

Temperature, pressure, humidity, illumination, and several other 
common variables can be controlled. In contrast, the appearance of sun- 
spots, solar flares, or terrestrial magnetic storms is as unavoidable as 
the penetration of electromagnetic waves of certain wavelengths through the 
walls of our houses and through our own bodies. Similarly, we cannot 
prevent force fields from forming around us. Solar activity, sunspots, in- 
cidence and extent of solar eruptions and flares, electromagnetic fields, 
magnetic storms, and certain other phenomena, are all cosmic variables. 

Since we are able to regulate only some of our experimental conditions 
we must revise our experimental methods. Valuable experiments are not 
limited to those yielding uniform results when carried out under ordinary 
and identical conditions. At present, there are means of explaining quite 
satisfactorily, the correlation of cosmic with terrestrial phenomena. In 
this respect, the statistical naethods available render an invaluable 
service to science. 



308 



The impossibility of reproducing all experimental conditions compels us 
to reconsider this problem repeatedly. Since in many cases changes in 
cosmic conditions may significantly influence terrestrial processes, the 
times at which these changes occur should be carefully noted. The condi- 
tions prevailing at a given moment, or over a certain period of time may 
be partially defined by studying the astrophysical and geophysical pheno- 
mena. The day and the hour reflect the physical and cosmic situation 
which changes continuously. 

The fundamental properties of the universe are reflected by periodic 
and nonperiodic variations. All existence on Earth is also subject to these 
variations. Depending upon the degree of the cosmic influence the terres- 
trial results of these changes may or may not be detected. Objects may 
differ in their sensitivity to cosmic factors. 

Among the many chemical substances sensitive to cosmic influences 
are water and various colloid systems, which are the physical essence of 
life phenomena. The sensitivity of any chemical system to the influences 
of cosmic factors depends upon its structure, i. e. , on the geometric and 
energy factors of its molecular structure and its intricate organization. 
The more we learn about the structure of water and colloids, the more 
this concept is strengthened. 

In comparison with other substances the behavior of water Is completely 
anomalous. A satisfactory theoretical explanation of this anomaly has not 
been presented thus far. The hypothesis advanced by Bernal and Fowler 
in 1933 that water has a pseudocrystalline structure, or a system of such 
structures, explained rather well some of the anomalies of water, although 
it was severely attacked by those who regarded water as merely a random 
aggregation of particles. This theory, however, was further developed and 
improved, and later enlarged by Pople (1951). In 1953, Harris and Adler 
used Pople' s modification in calculating the dielectric constant of water at 
different temperatures. The calculated values were in complete agreement 
with the experimental results. None of the earlier theories had ever met 
with such success, and at present it is widely accepted that water has a 
definite structure. This is very important in the interpretation of cosmic 
influences. 

There are grounds for assuming that certain physical factors may 
distort the structure of water without changing its chemical composition or 
its normal physical state. A change in the properties of water that does not 
involve any deviation from its normal state (temperature, pressure, etc.), 
nor the slightest change in its chemical composition is known as activation. 
The properties of water that depend upon its structure are readily distri- 
buted by the action of cosmic factors. Indeed, it was established that 
structural changes of water, and consequently of its finer properties, 
require very little energy. 

In order to obtain statistical confirmation of cosmic influences Prof. 
Piccardi developed an experimental technique which may be repeatedly and 
universally replicated. The following conditions are required: 

1. The possibility of stopping or weakening the action of cosmic factors 
with the aid of a metal screen covering the apparatus in which any accurately 
recorded reaction takes place, 

2. The possibility of modifying the structure of water such as its acti- 
vation. Water with modified structure will behave differently under the 
influence of cosmic factors than water with the usual structure. 



309 



The phenomenon under investigation can be thoroughly examined if 
numerous paired experiments are performed (under the metal screen and 
in activated water). The rate of precipitation of any chemical substance in 
the water can be recorded. 

The chemical experiments are carried out while maintaining the follow- 
ing paired conditions: 



Condition No. 1 

Experiment P. Ordinary water 
subjected to the usual cosmic 
factors. 

Experiment F. Ordinary water 
subjected to the usual cosmic 
factors. 

Experiment D. Ordinary water 
subjected to the usual cosmic 
factors 



Condition No. 2 

Ordinary water, subjected to 
modified cosmic factors. 

Activated water subjected to the 
usual cosmic factors. 

Activated water subjected to 
modified cosmic factors. 



In Piccardi's experiments a small, known amount of certain bismuth 
compounds was precipitated. The experiment was recorded continuously, 
since post- experimental calculations fail to indicate the kinetics of the 
system. 



70 



50 



30 



10 




1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 Year 



FIGURE 1. Dynamics of experiment D (solid curve) and F (dashed curve) in the course of nine years 
(according to Piccardi). 



Since 1951 this kind of experiment has been performed in Florence, 
several times a day at the same time; the total number has already ex- 
ceeded 250,000. 



310 



The results obtained are being studied by Dr. Becker of the Fraunhofer 
Institute in Florence, by Prof. Burkard of Graz University, by Prof. Berg 
of Cologne University (died in 1959), Dr. Mozetti of the Geographic Obser- 
vatory at Trieste, engineer C. Capel-Boute of Brussels University, Doctor 
Meyer of Tubingen University and by Prof. Piccardi and his assistants. 

It was found that experiment F was sensitive to solar flares and magnetic 
storms; however, experiment D depended upon the intensity of solar 
activity as determined by the Wolf number,* and therefore the recorded 
differences are of no fundamental significance (Figure 1). Experiment P 
also seemed to be connected with the solar activity, but this has not been 
confirmed as yet. It has been experimentally established that electro- 
magnetic waves of certain wavelengths affect chemical experiments. A 
direct correlation exists between experiment D and the Wolf number 
(Figure 2). 



50 



30 




100 



1951 



53 



54 55 



56 



57 58 59 Years 



FIGURE 2. Dynamics of experiment D (upper curve) and of solar 
activity — Wolf numbers (lower curve). The correlation coeffi- 
cient is 0.85 (according to Piccardi). 

However, certain divergent results were recorded in the course of a 
year in experiment D. The lowest minimuna usually occurred in spring in 
the middle of March, when no changes were recorded in the Wolf number. 
Therefore, experiment D indicates its "independence" of solar activity. 



The Wolf number is a quantity approximately proportional to the total area occupied by the sunspots at a 
given time. It is determined from the formula V=lOg+f , where g indicates the number of sunspot 
groups, and / the number of single sunspots. — Ed, 



311 



A 



I 



The year-to-year variation of experiment D is cycloidal rather than 
sinusoidal. Taking into account the rotation of the Earth around the Sun, 
and the movement of the Sun toward the Hercules constellation, a varying 

helicoid was obtained, representing the 
movenaent of the Earth in the Galaxy 
(Figures 3, 4, 5). This movement is highly 
variable with respect to both direction and 
speed. 

In March, the Earth moves in its orbit 
around the Sun at a maximum velocity of 
45 km/sec in the equatorial plane, approxi- 
mately toward the center of the Galaxy. 
In September, the Earth moves at its 
minimum velocity of 24 km/sec, in a 
direction almost perpendicular to that in 
March. 

It is questionable whether these 
changes occur without affecting sensitive 
reactions on the Earth. The hypothesis 
advanced by Prof. Piccardi in 1954 em- 
phasizes precisely these possible physical 
consequences of the Earth's movement in 
space, and suggests the asymmetry 
between the northern and southern hemi- 
spheres which was fully demonstrated by 
numerous experiments. Some experi- 
ments to this effect were performed in 
conjunction with the program of the Inter- 
national Geophysical Year in both hemi- 
spheres, at Brussels, Tubingen, Jungfrau- 
joch, Vienna, Geneva, Trieste, Florence, 
Bari (Castellana Grotta), Libreville, 
Leopoldville, Fort-Dauphin (Madagascar), 
and on Kerguelen Island (Figure 6). 
Successful experiments were carried out 
at Sapporo and at Kumamoto (Japan), on 
Roi Baudouin Land (Antarctic), and on 
New Amsterdam Island. The recordings 
made at different points on our planet 
confirm the asymmetry mentioned above. 
The values of experiment F-ln the 
southern hemisphere are significantly 
lower than in the northern hemisphere, 
diminishing progressively toward the 
south. 

Thus, Piccardi' s hypothesis has prac- 
tical value since it makes possible the 
forecasting of new and important details 
of cosmic factors. 

Prof. Piccardi summarized his work as 
follows: 




FIGURE 3. Movement of the Earth toward 
the center of the Galaxy: E-ecliptic plane 
in profile; S-apex of the Sun; N-direc- 
tion of the Earth's North Pole; T-helicoidal 
movement of the Earth (according to 
Piccardi). 



312 




FIGURE 4. Model of helicoidal movement of the Earth in the Galaxy illustrat- 
ing Piccardi's "solar hypothesis." 




FIGURE 5. Model of helicoidal movement of the Earth in the Galaxy illus- 
trating Piccardi's "solar hypothesis" (viewed from a different angle). 



1. The correlation of cosmic phenomena with those on Earth are of 
interest not only in astrophysics and geophysics, but also in chemistry and 
physics. 

2. The correlation of these phenomena can be investigated by studies of 
certain chemical reactions. In the future, this will make it possible to 
perform experiments of an unlimited diversity under a variety of conditions, 
since chemistry and physics have at their disposal innumerable systems 
sensitive to cosmic factors. 

3. The suitability of chemical experiments has already been proved. 
They have helped to establish beyond doubt the effects of solar activity, 
solar flares, magnetic storms, etc. Moreover, they shed light on hitherto 
unknown phenomena, such as cycloidal changes with a minimum in March. 

4. The pronounced effects of cosmic factors cannot be limited to 
inorganic colloids; they must equally affect the colloids of living organisms. 
Therefore, biologists and physicians should keep abreast of studies in 
cosmic activities. 



313 




Brussels 50.0 
Florence 50.3 



Libreville 47.8 
Leopoldville 46.8 

Fort-Dauphin 30.5 
Kerguelen 21.2 



FIGURE 6. Distribution on the globe of the principal laboratories engaged in studies of the effect 
of solar flares on reaction F. On the left are the results of experiment F at different latitudes. 
The mean monthly values are correlated with the position of the laboratory with respect to the 
Sun and the intensity of its specific radiation. Attention is drawn to the asymmetry of the speed 
of reaction F in the two hemispheres. The dotted curve indicates the average value at the maxi- 
mum asymmetry in September 1958; the solid curve indicates the average value for the two-year 
period, 1958-1959 (according to Piccardi). 



REFERENCES 

1. PICCARDI, G. Symposium international sur les relations entre ph^- 

nomfenes solaires et terrestres en chimie-physique et en biologie, 
pp. 1-210.— Presses Acad^miques Europ^ennes. Bruxelles. 1960. 

2. PICCARDI, G. The Problem of the Relationship betwen Spatial and 

Terrestrial Phenomena and Chemical Tests.— Atti della Fonda- 
zione Giorgio Ronchi. Anno XVI, No. 2, pp. 109—121. Firenze. 
March-April. 1961. 

3. PICCARDI, G. The Chemical Basis of Medical Climatology. — Charles 

C. Thomas- Publisher. Springfield. Illinois. USA. 1962. 



1419 



314 



4. CAPEL-BOUTE, C. Tests chimiques et tests cliniques dans I'fitude 

des facteurs geophysiques de I'ambiance.— EX Convegno della Salute. 
Stab. Poligrafico Artioli. Modena. 1962. 

5. CAPEL-BOUTE, C. Incidents cosmiques en chimie -physique et en 

biologie. — Bulletin de la F^d^ration des SociSt^s Scientifiques. 
N. VII. pp. 1-10. Bruxelles. 1962. 



315 



N.A. Shul ' ts 

EFFECT OF VARIATIONS IN SOLAR ACTIVITY ON 
THE NUMBER OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS 

The first attempts at correlating variations in solar activity with certain 
biological phenomena were made in the nineteenth century (Herschel, 
Jevons, Shvedov). 

However, the first comprehensive formulation of the relationship between 
solar outbursts and the living organism was published by the young Russian 
scientist, A. L.Chizhevskii, in 1915. He clearly demonstrated the close 
correlation of the 11-year solar cycle with numerous biological phenomena. 
Thorough research on this subject enabled him to publish a detailed work in 
1918 partially in Russian and partially in other languages. This was 
followed by his medicostatistical and experimental investigations in the field 
of cosmic microbiology and cosmic epidemiology. These investigations 
were published in medical journals in 1927 — 1929, edited by Prof. Semashko. 
Chizhevskii's monograph on the subject was published in Moscow in 1930. 

In 1926, Chizhevskii studied the effects of cosmic radiation on bacterial 
virulence and on tissue growth, and published his results in French and in 
English. This was the first work on the subject in the world literature. 
In 1928, Chizhevskii delivered a lecture at the Academy of Sciences in 
Paris on the effect of specific solar radiation (Z-radiation)* on the activity 
of the human nervous system, and on serious human diseases related to 
changes in this system (mainly neuropsychic and cardiac diseases). In 
1929—1930 Chizhevskii's works in cosmic biology, microbiology, epide- 
miology, and medicine were published in many languages. In 1938 the 
Academy of Medical Sciences in Paris published Chizhevskii's work 
(edited by Laignel-Lavastine, member of the Academy).** Thus, priority 
of the USSR in this field was established. 

Under the influence of these investigations several valuable researches 
were carried out in those years by the Soviet physicians Sadov, Ivashentsov, 
Ivanchenko, and Vel'khover, the geophysicist Shostakovich, and others. 
Tsiolkovskii was greatly inapressed by Chizhevskii's work, and fully 
supported his research in a special article published in 1924. Studies in 
this important field only began outside the USSR in the 1940's (Budai, T. 
and B. Dull, Regnault, de Rudder, Bach and Schluck, Grayman, Takata 
and Murazugi, and others). Subsequently, this subject attracted the atten- 
tion of Poumelleux and Vlard, Giordano, Becker and Fering; in the USSR 
the subject was studied by Shcherbinovskii, Shul'ts, and others. 



• [Chizhevskii's designation for a type of solar radiation.] 

* [See /80/ on p. 305 .] 



316 



Of exceptional interest is the research carried out by Piccardi who 
succeeded in correlating fluctuations in the precipitation and coagulation of 
colloidal solutions with the variations in solar activity. Piccardi' s 
classical diagram (1958) [see p. 310] clearly shows a relationship 
between precipitation and the sunspot number in periods of decreasing 
and increasing solar activity. These variations in the course of 
chemical processes are known as Piccardi's chemical tests. At the 
present time, investigations of this problem are being conducted under the 
guidance of International Chemical Tests Committee organized in 1957. 

The effect of solar factors on blood coagulation was thoroughly investi- 
gated by Caroli (1950), who revealed the singular role of solar flares in 
this connection, and established that fibrinolysis is enhanced twenty-four 
hours before a solar flare and reaches a maximum two days after it. 
According toA.I. Ol' (Ohl) (1954) the particles are emitted by chromo- 
spheric flares at a velocity exceeding 1000 km/sec, and require approxi- 
mately two days to reach the Earth's surface. 

Burkard (1955) recorded a correlation with the magnetic variations in an 
unshielded room, but the correlation could not be detected in a copper- 
shielded room. Becker (1955) reported that in ordinary unshielded 
laboratories the reactions in colloid systems (with activated water) were 
in phase with solar (chromospheric) flares of the second and third degree. 

Takata and Murazugi (1941) reported significant increase in flocculation 
of blood serum two days after the passage of large groups of sunspots 
through the central meridian of the Sun. 

Filk (1950) recorded fluctuations in the turbidity curves of the blood- 
serum protein fractions that were correlated with the variations in solar 
activity. 

The studies carried out by Shul'ts (1951) on the effect of solar activity 
on the blood system revealed that fluctuations in differential leukocyte 
counts were in phase with solar activity variations, and enabled the author 
to test the latter by the differential counts. 

These tests were as follows: "A" — functional leukopenia, "B" — relative 
lymphocytosis, and "C"— total test of functional leukopenia and relative 
lymphocytosis. The last test was adopted in order to confirm Kassirskii's 
premise that functional leukopenia and relative lymphocytosis are pheno- 
mena of the same order. This test proved to be the most sensitive indi- 
cator of the evident influence of solar activity on the number of leukocytes 
in the peripheral blood. 

Chemical tests are easier to analyze statistically since they are less 
affected by the factors influencing the leukocyte counts (age, state of health, 
nutrition, work, previous diseases, drugs, etc.), but the leukocytic tests 
proved to be as conclusive and valuable as Chizhevskii' s index and 
Piccardi's chemical tests. The data at our disposal were collected in 
different regions of both hemispheres, from the equator to the poles. The 
total number of observations reaches several hundreds of thousands (more 
than 150,000 tests having been performed at the town of Sochi alone). 
Examinations were conducted by hematologists of the Sochi Branch of the 
AU-Union Scientific Society of Laboratory Physicians, and by our asso- 
ciates who often worked thousands of kilometers from Sochi. 

Since the leukocytic tests of solar activity indicate the frequency of 
functional leukopenia and relative lymphocytosis in percentages, the actual 



317 



data make it possible to calculate the significant differences between indi- 
vidual groups and between the available indexes using the correlation coef- 
ficient. 



90 



85 



80 



75 



70 




IW 



160 



120 



80 



40 



1954 



1955 



1956 



1957 



1958 



1959Years 



FIGURE 1. Variability of functional leukopenia and relative lymphocytosis corre- 
lated with variations in solar activity (90,000 observations). 

Most observations were peformed on people in sanatoria, boarding 
houses, and rest homes located at different latitudinal and longitudinal sites 
in the USSR. Having established the pattern of fluctuations in the incidence 
of functional leukopenia and relative lymphocytosis in the Soviet subtropics 
and the Far North, the Baltic coast and the Pacific, and the Ukraine and 
Siberia, we decided to extend the range of our observations, and at present 
we have at our disposal data collected from laboratories of four continents. 
The data received are of utmost scientific value owing to their scope as 
well as to their wide geographical distribution. These data formed the 
basis of our investigations, one section of which deals with the leukocytic 
tests of solar activity. 

Blood samples were always taken under the same conditions: in the 
morning, on an empty stomach, and in a sitting position so as to exclude 
the effect of food intake, physical stress, change of posture, etc. 



318 



Although we strove to exclude all usual factors causing functional 
leukopenia or relative lymphocytosis, some of the investigated subjects 
might have had leukopenia and lymphcytosis as a result of some disease, 
drug, or other causes; however, they were too few to affect the results 
of our tests, since we excluded data obtained from hospitals and clinics, 
although people who are sick react to variations of solar radiation in the 
same way as- healthy people. 



23.0 • 




1955 



1956 



1957 



w 



150 



50 



1958 



1959 Year 



FIGURE 2. Functional leukopenia (L) in tuberculosis patients synchtonized with the cot- 
responding sunspot number (W) for the period 1955-1959. 

As an example, we reproduce the results obtained by our associate, 
N. L. Glushitskaya, which clearly show leukopenia to be synchronized with 
the corresponding sunspot number in tuberculosis patients during the 
current 11 -year solar cycle CFigure 2). 

The progressive decrease in the number of leukocytes accompanied with 
a relative lymphocytosis in the blood of healthy people has been reported 
recently. As a result, numerous articles have appeared in medical 
periodicals, proposing a revision of the existing norms both for practical 
purposes and for special work in scientific research institutes. 

Such a downward trend from the norm was observed for the first time 
at the end of World War I, when the incidence of relative lymphocytosis 
and of functional leukopenia increased, although the latter was not as 
pronounced as it has been in recent years. This phenomenon was designated 
"war lymphocytosis" (Kriegslymphocytose) by Klineberger. In those years, 
1917-1918, there was a maximum of solar activity, although the 



319 



peak of the maximum was considerably lower than in the years 1957—1958, 
when the 11 -year maximum coincided with the secular one. 

In the 1920's the increased incidence of lymphocytosis was explained by 
nutritional changes. In those years, Eigenson's second basic solar index 
a had two peaks, indicating the mean intensity of solar phenomena and 
reflecting the intensity of geoactive corpuscular radiation; one peak 
occurred duiring World War I, and the other in the period of postwar famine. 
The authors of the 1920's, unaware of Eigenson's index a which was dis- 
covered in 1940, regarded the increase in lymphocytosis as a corollary of 
war and famine. At present there is neither war nor famine, yet the 
incidence and severity of relative lymphocytosis have not only exceeded 
that recorded in the 1920's but have continually increased in phase with the 
increase in the W index (sunspot number). 



40 



35 



30 



25 • 




EW 



8000 



■ 7000 



6000 



5000 



4000 



II 



ni 



IV 



v 



VI vn 



VIII 



FIGURE 3. Variations in the incidence of relative lumphocytosis (L) and of the 
solar index 2w in 1957 (based on 14,100 tests performed at nine sanatoria at 
Sochi) . 



320 



When correlating the fluctuations of leukocytic tests with those in solar 
activity we should bear in mind that fluctuations of solar indexes may be 
expressed by very large numbers, although there are known "ceiling" 
figures. The sunspot maximum recorded within the last 200 years occurred 
in 1957 (W= 189.9), and the minimum in 1913 (W= 1). Clearly, there 
cannot be variations of such wide amplitude in the blood system. Just as 
the temperature of the human body fluctuates within certain limits so does 
the incidence of functional leukopenia and lymphocytosis have a maximum 
and minimum. The maximum "C" of the leukocytic test was recorded in 
the same year as the sunspot maximum— 1957 — when it reached 95.5% 
(M. M. Levushkina, Sochi). 

The leukocytic tests of solar activity distinctly revealed the variation 
with time of the incidence of functional leukopenia and relative lympho- 
cytosis. This variation appeared to be in phase with the variations of solar 
activity (Figure 3). 

According to our data the cyclic fluctuations of the leukocyte count is 
independent of meteorological factors. No noticeable changes could be 
detected in the frequency curve of leukopenia and lymphocjrtosis with the 
change of weather from cold and rainy to hot and dry. The seasonal 
dynamics fully reflected the Corti effect.* From, the data collected at Sochi 
in 1956, leukopenia was found to be 13.8% during the winter and summer 
periods, and 16.8% during the spring and autumn periods. In 1957, at the 
same place, the incidence of leukopenia was 6.1% in winter, and 24% in 
spring, while leukocyte counts lower than 4000/mm' occurred in 0.2% of 
the cases in winter, and in 4.5% in spring. 

With the passage of the maximum solar activity, the leukocyte counts 
show a gradual return to normal. However, since this was the maximum 
of the secular cycle, low leukocyte counts might be recorded in healthy 
people for a few more years. 

In the middle latitudes leukocyte counts lower than 3000/mm^ scarcely 
occurred in 1960, whereas in the Arctic regions there are still many 
healthy people with such counts. This biological test confirms the helio- 
geophysical principle that the effects of cosmic radiation are increasingly 
more pronounced toward the poles. 

Determination and analysis of the effects of solar activity on the blood 
profile require a fundamental knowledge of the latest heliogeophysical 
achievements. Several observations led us to conclude that the blood is 
not affected directly by the sunspots but by certain solar phenomena 
(designated by Chizhevskii as Z-radiation), which are associated with the 
appearance and development of sunspots. 

An example of coincident curves is provided by the leukocytic test "B," 
according to the results of 14,100 tests performed in 1957 in nine sanatoria 
of the Sochi area. The correlation in the annual variation of the leukocytic 
test "A" is clearly illustrated by the findings of our associates Z. A. Sen- 
cheshcheva and L. Ya. Krikovtsova, and is summarized in the curves of the 
leukocyte counts and solar activity, during the 1955—1959 period (Figure 5). 

As mentioned above, a similar pattern was obtained by Glushitskaya at 
a tuberculosis clinic in Sochi during the 1955-1959 period. Hence, we may 
conclude that the blood of tuberculosis patients reacts to variations in solar • 

* In spring and fall the Earth is projected on the relatively more active latitudes of the Sun; hence, 
conditions are more favorable for it to be irradiated by the geoactive solar radiations than in summer 
and winter. 



321 



activity just as the blood of healthy subjects, irrespective of the patholo- 
gical process affecting the number of leukocytes (see Figure 2). 




IW 



8000 



7000 



6000 



5000 



4000 



3000 



1956 



1957 



FIGURE 4. Incidence of leukopenia (L) synchronized with the solar index 2w 
at the peak of the secular cycle (1956-1957). 



Considerable interest is also aroused by our observation that the curve 
of leukocytic tests began to rise earlier than the sunspot curve at the 
beginning of the current 11 -year cycle. We are inclined to assume that this 
was caused by the enhanced activity of the excited areas* on the Sun, since 
the minimum of the current II -year cycle occurred near the peak of the 

* These are the M regions, or active longitudes representing the solar foci of magnetic disturbances. 



322 



secular cycle. Verification of this assumption will be possible in a few 
years, at the time of the next 11 -year minimum. In the opinion of several 
heliogeophysicists this phenomenon merits attention (Figure 6). 



17 



16 



14 



13 



12 



01 



05 



W 




1954 



1955 



19B6 



1957 



1958 



igSSTS 



ISO 



100 



60 



FIGURE 5. Percentage of functional leukopenia (L) synchronous with the sun- 
spot number in the 1954-1959 period (according to Senchishcheva and 
Krikovtsova; 28,492 tests at Khosta): Lj-"^ of leukopenia with counts lower 
than 5000/mm'; Lj-with counts lower than 3000/mm'. 



We cannot prevent the occurrence of magnetic storms nor sunspots, 
nor the passing of electromagnetic waves through the walls of our labora- 
tories and ourselves. However, our studies are instrumental in recording 
the effects of these factors on the human organism, and especially on the 
blood; in correctly interpreting the deviations observed in several 
physiological processes; and in certain instances, in preventing their in- 
jurious influence by prophylactic measures. 



323 



22 



20 



18 



16 



12 



10 




IW 

180 

• 160 

140 



100 



80 



20 



1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 Year 

FIGURE 6, Rise of leukopenia preceding that of the sunspot number in the period of 
minimum W (according to data obtained at Sochi). 

As mentioned earlier, the effect on the human organism of the chromo- 
spheric flares is of particular interest. These flares are sudden outbursts 
of colossal energy on the Sun, that reach and affect the Earth quite visibly. 
When viewed with a spectrohelioscope, an intense flare is perhaps the 
most striking spectacle in the entire sky, when part of the solar disk, 
sometimes exceeding 25 billion km^, suddenly flares up with a blinding 
brilliance. The flares occur mostly in the central regions of sunspot 
groups, seldom away from them. Some sunspots may give rise to 30-40 
flares during one crossing of the disk, while others, though of equal area, 
may generate only one flare if any. According to their properties three 
classes of flares are distinguished, from 1 (lowest intensities) to 3 (highest 
intensities). The human organism is affected by flares of the second and 
third class. 

The flares not only radiate light, but also eject large quantities of solar 
matter, and when such a flare occurs near the edge of the solar disk it 
resembles an artesian fountain throwing jets of matter to heights exceeding 
500,000 km at tremendous velocities. 

The flares emit two types of radiation: electromagnetic waves, and 
corpuscular streams. The waves advance with the velocity of light and 



324 



affect the Earth simultaneously with the flare (within 8. 5 minutes of 
their onset), whereas the solar corpuscles lag behind according to their 
different velocities resulting in the delayed effect. According to 
A.I.Ol', the particles ejected at velocities exceeding 1000 km/sec require 
more than two days to reach the Earth's surface. 

The simultaneous effects include magnetic crochets (recorded on magne- 
tograms), fading in short radio waves (familiar to all radio listeners), 
sudden intensification of atmospherics (radio disturbances), etc. The flare 
itself is a radio transmitter and its radio waves reach the Earth at the same 
time as the visible and ultraviolet radiations. The delayed effects include 
magnetic storms and polar auroras. 

The four largest flares that occurred during the 20-year period since 
the beginning of continuous recording of cosmic rays produced sudden 
rises in the intensity of cosmic rays, that were especially pronounced in 
February and August 1956, and clearly reflected in the blood profile. 

Our observations were conducted on the regular blood elements. The 
most sensitive to the effects of chromospheric flares seemed to be the 
leukocytes, especially the neutrophils whose number suddenly dropped, 
causing leukopenia and relative lymphocytosis. 

With the passage of very large sunspot groups in February 1956, an 
intense flare was observed, accompanied with intense streams of cosmic 
rays. It was emphasized by several scientists that the scale of the 
February flare surpassed ordinary astronomical events. It drew the 
attention of many specialists, particularly those engaged in the study of 
cosmic rays. 

Let us now examine the reaction of the blood to this tremendous solar 
flare. From the large amount of available data we selected those obtained 
by two laboratories situated in very remote regions (Khosta, in the Soviet 
subtropics, and Talaya, in the Soviet Northeast). 

In January 1956, according to the data supplied by Senchishcheva (from 
a sanatorium at Khosta), the incidence of functional leukopenia (leukocyte 
counts lower than 5000/mm') was 14.5%. In February of the same year, 
after the flare, it doubled to 28.8%, then decreased to 13.3% in March, 
in July to 11.7%, and in October to 11.1%. 

According to the data supplied by Ostroukhova (sanatorium at Talaya), 
the incidence of leukopenia was 8.4% in January, increasing to 19.1%, 
more than double, in February. In March it was 23.2%, 12.7% in 
July, and 12.6% in October. 

The striking correlation of these data merits special attention. Statis- 
tical analysis of the data (calculation of mean errors, and determination 
of significance) confirmed our conclusions. The difference of the relative 
values exceeded the mean error of the difference by a factor of 5.24 at 
Khosta (January- February), and of 3.6 at Talaya (January-February). 
Approximately the same relationships were also maintained during the 
following months. The rather slight difference between the percentage 
variations in Khosta and those in Talaya were explained by the geographical 
latitude. The nearer to the poles, the more pronounced the effects of cor- 
puscular radiation. 

In the following table the gradual areal decrease of the above-mentioned 
sunspots was recorded over a period of three months by M. M. Gnevyshev 
and R. S. Gnevysheva (Mountain Astronomical Station of the Central 



325 



Astronomical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR at 
Kislovodsk). We have included the data of the corresponding changes in 
the leukocytic test of solar activity (functional leukopenia and relative 
lymphocytosis as reported by M. M. Levushkina from "10 let Oktyabrya" 
sanatorium at Sochi). 



Date 


Area of sunspots in the active 

region while passing through 

the central meridian 


Leukocytic 
test 


21 Jan 

17 Feb 


1774ni.s.h. 
3554m.s.h. 


91.7 
98.8 


16 Mar 
13 Apr 


1655 m.s.h. 
901 m.s.h. 


97.0 
92.2 



The second intense chromospheric flare occxirred in August 1956. The 
Crimean Astrophysical Observatory reported that this was one of the most 
intense flares in 1956 with respect to its impact on the Earth's ionosphere 
and magnetic field. 

From the laboratory reports at Sochi the leukocytic test of solar activity 
for the year 1956 reached the highest peak in August. 

In the following table the synchronous monthly variations of the solar 
index and the leukocytic test of solar activity, as recorded by M. M. Le- 
vushkina, are summarized. 



Month 
in 1956 


Solar index 


Leukocytic test 


Month 
in 1956 


Solar index 


Leukocytic test 


Jan 
Feb 


2217 
4328 


91.7 
98.8 


July 
Aug 


5003 
7458 


99.1 
103.3 


Mar 
Apr 
May 
June 


4274 
4211 
4651 
3956 


97.0 
92.2 
94.0 
85.3 


Sept 

Oct 

Nov 


6884 
4995 
5412 


85.8 
58.1 
76.1 



As evident from the data summarized in this table and in Figure 7, the 
leukocytic test of solar activity rose significantly in February and August, 
after the intense chromospheric flares. 

As with any new problem, the effect of solar activity on the human body 
should be cautiously approached, and examined strictly in its own right so as 
not to compromise this topical and promising concept. 

The large number of works published on this subject by scientists in 
various fields of research amply demonstrate the significance attached to 
it; their conclusions compel us to acknowledge the undoubted influence of 
solar activity on a whole range of physiological and pathological processes. 
These results call for continuation and expansion of this research by 
collecting data and producing additional evidence of the manifestations of 
these phenomena, since the newness of the subject has so far allowed only 



326 



the recording of several outstanding facts, the formulation of working 
hypotheses, etc. 



100- 



90 




vii vni 



FIGURE 7. Correlation of solar index and leukocytic test from data of 
M. M. Levushkina (Sochi), in 1956; x-axls -months; y-axis-solar index S 
(area of sunspots); L- Leukocytic test (percentage Incidence of functional 
leukopenia and relative lymphocytosis); X— powerful chromospheric flares. 



It is regrettable that the medieval geocentric notion of the universe that 
reigned before the time of Copernicus still permeates many scientific 
principles. We often regard the life processes on Earth as being isolated, 
limited by the terrestrial boundaries, and linked exclusively to their 



327 



immediate environment. Thus, we Ignore cosmic relationships and the 
tremendous influence on the biosphere of the cosmic factors, among which 
the most influential and powerful, with respect to the essence of life, is 
the Sun, and particularly solar activity. 

This activity is expressed by different indexes. The W index (Wolf 
number) is mostly used by scientists, and indicates the relative number of 
sunspots; in the medical field, however, our experience has shown that 
the S index (designating the area of sunspots) is more convenient and ac- 
currate since the organism is more affected by a small number of sunspots 
extending over a large area than by a large number of sunspots covering a 
small area. 

Another advantage of the S index is evident from the separate recordings 
of the sunspot areas in each solar hemisphere. This is very important if 
we recall that every six months another hemisphere of the Sun is turned 
toward the Earth. Thus, from 4 June to 8 December the Earth traverses 
part of its orbit while facing the northern solar hemisphere, and is 
possibly subjected to the effects of its radiation; from 8 December to 
4 June the Earth rotates along its orbit while facing the southern solar 
hemisphere, and the effect of the latter may prevail for this part of the 
year. In contrast, the W index is calculated for the entire solar disk. The 
area of sunspot groups in an 13 -year cycle gives rise to a single-peak 
cycle, in one solar hemisphere, while in the opposite hemisphere a double- 
peaked cycle develops. Thus, the S index reflects the varied and complex 
character of areal development of the sunspot groups in the solar hemi- 
spheres, whereas these characteristics of the cycle are not taken into 
account by the W index (A. Ya. Bezrukova). 

We must also mention the photospheric index of the area of solar 
flocculi, which, similar to the sunspots, vary cyclically; their minimum 
variation coincides with the minimum of sunspot formation. 

Another promising path of research in our field is the comparison of 
certain physiological and pathological processes with variations of the 
index of intensity of the coronal line X = 6374A, which indicates the naaxi- 
mum intensity during the cycle minimum. 

The intensified activity of magnetic regions on the Sun during the mini- 
mum periods of solar cycles has a pronounced influence on the blood 
system. Since our data on the ultraviolet and corpuscular indexes are in- 
adequate thus far, any comparison with them should be made with great 
caution. 

Bazrukova's hypothesis that different solar indexes are representative 
during the various phases of the 11-year cycle has been confirmed by our 
findings. 

Unfortunately we cannot apply G. Piccardi's method under our clinical 
conditions since we deal with the human organism rather than colloid 
solutions. At this stage in our study of the problem we are limited to the 
statistical method alone, which is not less accurate than the experimental 
method when all conditions required for a valid solution of the problem 
are met as in experimental work. 

Primary attention should be paid to the selection of the object of obser- 
vation, which is sometimes rather difficult. We have excluded children 
and old people from our survey because their blood profiles reflect age 
characteristics which are subject to significant fluctuations. 



328 



A correct analysis of the experimental data should take into account all 
factors that might affect the process under investigation. Thus, we were 
frequently compelled to discontinue our observations because of changes in 
the blood profile induced by the onset of epidemics, such as influenza, which 
causes leukopenia and relative lymphocytosis, etc. 

In addition to the accuracy of calculations, the statistical techniques 
must be correctly applied in order to prevent erroneous interpretation of 
the experimental data. 

Random sampling was generally adopted in order to minimize prejudice 
and subjective factors. 

Unfortunately, these elementary requirements are not always met and 
frequently masses of data must remain unprocessed solely because the 
necessary statistical conditions have not been fulfilled. 

Hence, caution and thoroughness are evidently required in order to 
determine the influence of solar activity on the human organism, for only 
sound and lucid statistical analyses may prevent errors in the correlating 
of certain human physiological and pathological processes with variations 
of solar activity. 



REFERENCES 
Publications in Russian 

BEZRUKOVA, A. Ya. — Trudy Laboratorii Ozerovedeniya AN SSSR, 

Vol.3. 1954. 
BEZRUKOVA, A. Ya. - Solnechnye Dannye AN SSSR, No. 7. 1960. 
CHIZHEVSKII, A.L. Epidemicheskie katastrofy (Catastrophic Epidemics), 

pp. 1-172. Moskva. 1930. 
EIGENSON, M. S. Ocherki fiziko-geograficheskikh proyavlenii solnechnoi 

aktivnosti (Physicogeographic Manifestations of Solar Activity). Lvov. 

1957. 
GNEVYSHEV, M.N. and R. S. GNEVYSHEVA. - Solnechnye Dannye AN 

SSSR, No. 2. 1956. 
OHL (OL'), A.I. -Ibid., 79, No. 1. 1954. 

SENCHISHCHEVA, Z.A. and L. Ya. KRIKOVTSOVA. - Ibid. , No. 3. 1960. 
SHUL'TS, N. A.- Priroda, 92, No. 6. AN SSSR. 1959. 
SHUL'TS, N. A. — Problemy gematologii i perelivaniya krovi, 41, No. 7. 

1959. 
SHUL'TS, N. A.— Laboratornoe Delo, 36, No. 2. 1960. 
SHUL'TS, N. A.— Solnechnye Dannye AN SSSR, No. 7. 1960. 
SHUL'TS, N.A.-Ibid. , No. 9. 1960. 
SHUL'TS, N.A. Stenogramma doklada na Vsesoyuznom mezhduvedomst- 

vennom soveshchanii Akademii nauk SSSR, posvyashchennom 

probleme "Solntse— troposfera" (Stenogram of a Lecture Delivered 

at the AU-Union Interdepartmental Symposium of the Academy of 

Sciences of the USSR, Devoted to the Problem Sun-Troposphere), 

Leningrad. 1960. 



329 



SHCHERBESrOVSKII, N. S. Osnovnye zakonomernosti massovykh razmno- 

zhenii pustynnoi saranchi i migratsii ee stai (Main Patterns of Mass 
Proliferations of the Desert Locust Schistocerca and the Migrations 
of Its Swarms). Moskva. 1958. 

SLONIM, Yu. M.— Solnechnye Dannye AN SSSR, No. 3. 1959. 

Solnechnye dannye AN SSSR, 54. No. 5. 1952. 



Publications in Other Languages 

BACH, E. and L. SCHLUCK.— Zentralblatt f. Gynakologie, 66, pp. 196- 

221. 1942. 
BECKER, U.— Archiv Met. , Geophys. , Biokliomat. , B. 6, pp. 511-516. 

1955. 
BERG, H. Probleme der Kosmischen Physik.— Leipzig, B. XXX. 1957. 
BERG, H.— Med. -Met. Hefte, 5, pp. 1-17. 1951. 
BERG, H. — Symposium internat. Bruxelles, p. 160. 1960. 
BERG, H.— Bioklimat. Beibl. , 10, pp. 130-133. 1943. 
BURKARD, P.— Archiv Met. , Geophys., Bioklimat., B. 6, pp. 506-510. 

1955. 
CAROLI, G.— Med. -Met. Hefte, 4, pp. 12-26. 1950. 
DULL, T. and B. VIRCHOVS. — Archiv, 292. 1934. 
ELLISON, M.A. The Sun and Its Influence. London. 1955. 
FILK, H. Uber eine nephelometrische Methode zur Bestimmung der 

Serumeiweisskbrper. 1950. 
GIORDANO, A.— Geofisica e Meteorologia, Vol.8, Nos. 3-4. 1960. 
PICCARDI, G.— Wiener Mediz. Wochenschrift, No. 47. 1956. 
PICCARDI, G.— Wiener Mediz. Wochenschrift. No. 6. 1958. 
PICCARDI. G.— Rendiconti dell'Academia Nazionale dei Lincei. Ser. VII, 

Vol. XXV. f. 6. 1958. 
PICCARDI. G. L'influence des ph^nomenes terrestres. solaires et cos- 

miques sur les reactions physico-chimiques et biologiques. 

Bruxelles. 1956. 
PICCARDI. G. Les testes chimiques. — Sympos. international. Bruxelles. 1960. 
RUDDER, B. de. Grundriss einer Meteorobiologie des Menschen. Berlin. 

1952, 
SCHULZ, N. A.— Geofisica e Meteorologia, Vol. 8, Nos. 5-6. 1960. 
SCHULZ, N.A. —Toulouse Medicale, No. 10. 1960. 
SCHULZ, N. A.— Leukozj^en— Teste der SonnenaktivitSt. — Folia hael- 

matologica, 79/4. 1962. 
Sunspot and Geomagnetic- Storm Data Derived from Greenwich Observa- 
tions 1874-1954. London. 1955. 
Symposium internat. sur les relations entre ph^nomenes solaires et 

terrestres en chimie, physique et en biologie. Bruxelles. 1960. 
TAKATA, M. and T. MURAZUGI. — Bioklimat. Beibl.. 8. 1941: 
TCHIJEVSKY. A.L. Epidemics et les perturbations electromagnetiques 

du milieu extfirieur.— Hippocrate. Paris. 1938. 
Zeitschr. Astrophys., 35. No. 1. pp. 1-9. 



330 



nil 



N.S. Skcherbinovskii 

THE RHYTHMS OF PROLIFIC BREEDING OF ORGANISMS 
DETERMINED BY CYCLIC SOLAR ACTIVITY 



The development and entire life of any organism— from microscopic 
bacteria to the higher animals— depends not only upon the immediate en- 
vironment, which at the present level of science and technology can be 
fairly easily modified in the desired direction, but also upon the solar radia- 
tion which supplies our planet with light and heat and as a result of which 
life has emerged and developed, and is sustained to this day on Earth. 

The classical research of K. A. Timiryazev has revealed the pattern of 
photosynthesis whereby the chlorophyll In plants entraps and converts the 
energy of light or of solar radiation into chemical energy in the organic 
substances. However, beyond the linnits of visible light lies the region of 
invisible radiation, especially that of the short ultraviolet (UV) rays. This 
radiation is endowed with high biological and chemical activity which 
influences not only the course of certain chemical reactions (including the 
state of colloid solutions), but also the formation of proteins. These 
natural processes are still not clearly understood, and should be thoroughly 
investigated since they directly affect the development of progressive 
agriculture. 

Ultraviolet radiation varies markedly during the 11 -year cycle of solar 
activity, causing significant changes in the energy balance of the ionosphere, 
stratosphere, and finally the Earth's surface. The Sun has a tremendous 
effect on all processes wherever they take place, from the highest layers 
of the ionosphere to the troposphere. The uneven time and spatial distribu- 
tion of solar energy in the gaseous envelope and over the surface results 
in severe frosts in the Antarctica ( — 87°C), while our thermometer recorded 
+ 82.2°C on the sands and gray soils of tropical deserts in Asia. 

Solar radiation determines displacement of enormous air masses on our 
planet, and also variations in barometric pressure. It governs the direc- 
tion and volume of ocean currents, and the evaporation and transport of 
millions of cubic kilometers of water, thus determining the weather on all 
continents. It may variously give rise to violent storms that carry away 
the fertile topsoil, prolonged droughts that nearly destroy entire harvests, 
and torrential rains (considerably heavier than the normal atmospheric 
precipitation) that inundate extensive areas. Obviously, such extreme 
fluctuations of weather conditions must affect the development of vegetation, 
including crops, and the breeding of all organisms including agricultural 
pests. 



331 



In the interest of the national economy biologists and agronomists must 
focus their attention on the following: 

1. The effect of solar radiation on the specific rhythm of proliferation 
of as many organisms as possible, especially of insect pests, and 
particularly of those insects that multiply periodically in great masses 
over extensive areas causing heavy damage to crops; and also the possi- 
bility of foreseeing the menace of such a population explosion of the insect 
pests by correlating it with the rhythm of solar activity. 

2. The changes in the cellular microstructures of living organisms 
induced by internal and external factors, in order to recognize more clearly 
the pattern of development and multiplication of organisms, both harmful 

to and useful for agriculture. 

It would be erroneous to assume that these two problems (especially the 
first) could only be studied by a narrow group of specialists in astronomy, 
climatology, and meteorology. Every biologist, agronomist, and any 
other agricultural specialist can and should observe and study the pheno- 
mena taking place in the surrounding environment in an endeavor not only 
to collect the necessary data, but also to analyze them and to draw the 
appropriate conclusions. Simple observations of the weather and of the 
mass reproduction of useful and harmful species conducted without the aid 
of instruments might prove to be of both scientific and practical value, 
provided they are recorded regularly over a period of many years. 

Evidently, the solution of biological and agricultural problems will be 
achieved only by embarking on new untrodden paths of research. 
Occasionally, even remote branches of science will bring us nearer to 
understanding the laws of nature and to controlling them for the benefit of 
man. 



KNOWLEDGE AND RECORDING OF THE SOLAR-ACTIVITY 
PATTERN FOR IMPROVED FORECASTING OF MASS 
REPRODUCTION AMONG HARMFUL SPECIES 

The planned socialist economy demands that agriculture be administered 
strictly according to scientific principles. Agricultural pests cause 
tremendous damage assessed at 45 billion old rubles* per year. The 
necessity for a well- organized government system for the protection of 
plants is obvious. However, maximum control of pests and diseases of 
cultivated plants cannot be achieved, even with the best organization, 
unless it is based on a comprehensive and thorough knowledge of the 
patterns governing the development and proliferation of harmful organisms, 
and of the effect on these processes of environmental factors including 
solar radiation and the activities of man himself. 

Together with the best methods of pest control one of the decisive factors 
in plant protection should be the forecast and warning of the appearance of 
the most dangerous mass pests such as locusts, grain moth, Eurygaster 
integriceps, and others, as well as certain species of rodents. The 
earlier the forecasts are made, and the more accurately defined the areas 

• [Ten "old rubles" are equivalent to one "new" (currently used) ruble.] 



332 



of potential mass outbreak of each plant pest, as well as the intensity of 
the expected epiphyte, the more effective will be the measures adopted for 
the crop protection. 

The cyclic variability of the Sun has long been known /I/. Without dis- 
cussing the complex causes of the Sun's physical instability (resulting from 
the release of nuclear energy), we should note that the cycle of 11.4 years 
(usually referred to simply as the 11-year cycle) has been well established, 
after having been followed accurately over more than three centuries. 
In addition there is another known cycle of solar activity of 22 — 23 years. 
According to their magnetic properties, the 11 -year solar variations could 
justly be considered half-cycles of the 22 — 23-year cycle. There is also the 
36-year cycle (average duration) which was established by E. Bruckner. 
Many scientists have confirmed the continued manifestations of the 36-year 
cycle in the course of the past millenia. 

The fullest scientific data are available for the 11-year and the double 
[22-23-year] cycles of solar activity. The most easily detected signs of 
increasing solar activity are the sunspots, which are actually giant 
vortices, or cyclones, consisting of fluxes of electrically charged particles 
moving at tremendous velocities. 

In the years of minimum solar activity the solar disk is devoid of sun- 
spots for several months, and there is also an attenuation in other signs of 
its activity. Increasing activity is accompanied with an increase in the 
number of spots which appear in groups, attaining enormous dimensions. 
Such sunspots have been thoroughly investigated and described in detail. 

In 1947, the year of maximum activity of the previous 11 -year cycle, 
there appeared a group of sunspots on 7 April which extended over an area 
of 180 billion km^I The spots grew rapidly starting early in February, 
reached a maximum in April, and disappeared in 11 May. 

Such sunspots are clearly visible on the Sun when viewed through a 
smoked glass. Naturalists have recorded sunspots since the construction 
of the first telescope in 1610. However, more accurate records (monthly) 
have been available from 1749. Since sunspots reflect solar activity. 
Wolf numbers (W) were adopted as the index of this activity. 

According to academician L. S. Berg /3/, "Solar activity has followed 
approximately the same 11 -year cycle since most ancient times, i. e. , 
throughout the past half billion years. Climatic cycles of several decades, 
such as those recorded inthe last centuries, also occurred 500 million 
years ago." Berg maintained that layers deposited in southwestern Africa, 
approximately 500 million years ago, and similar deposits in the USA and 
Western Europe revealed the cycles of 11.4—11.5 years corresponding to 
the contemporary periodicity of sunspots. 

Abundant data have also been collected by biologists engaged in studies 
of the life activities and development of algae, coral reefs and the develop- 
ment and migration of fish. According to Prof. P. Yu. Shmidt, the 11-year 
cycles were especially pronounced in cod, herring, and other fishes. 

We shall briefly examine the rhythm of growth of corals as an indicator 
of the effect of solar cycles on aquatic life. Thorough investigations of the 
structure of calcareous formations of contemporary coral reefs as well 
as of those formed in other geological periods (Silurian, Devonian, 
Carboniferous), clearly revealed the regular alternation of comparatively 
large thin-walled elements with small, thick-walled ones. This thickness 
variation of the "coral tissue" is the result of seasonal and long-term 



333 



fluctuations of the temperature in the World Ocean. The rhythm of growth 
of the coral structures in the oceans correlates well with the general 
rhythm of solar activity, clearly demonstrated by the findings of V. B. 
Shostakovich I A, 5/ , and in the alternating layers of silt deposits in the 
oceans, seas, and continental lakes of both hemispheres. At this point we 
must mention the pioneer in this field. Prof. F. N. Shvedov, who developed 
the concept of the influence of periodic solar activity upon life on Earth. 
By the end of the last century, Shvedov demonstrated an 11 -year periodicity 
in the annual tree rings. He related this periodicity directly to fluctuations 
in atmospheric precipitation, thereby designating the trees as "drought 
chronicles" /6/. 

It is seen that in the "water and Earth chronicles," the silt deposits at 
the bottom of oceans, the coral reefs, and many other sources prove that 
dead and living matter on our planet had reflected, in the course of 
hundreds of millions of years, the eternal rhythms of solar activity. 

Entomologists are well aware of the rhythm of mass reproduction of 
locusts, especially of Schistocerca gregaria, for which our data show fifteen 
population explosions in the course of the past I60years, i.e., as many as 
the number of 11-year cycles of solar activity for the same period of time. 

A. V. Mitchener, professor of entomology at Winnipeg University 
(Canada) has written that mass outbreaks of four locust species have been 
reported from the prairie provinces at intervals of approximately 10 years, 
resulting in many millions of acres of damaged crops, and losses of many 
millions of dollars. Each cycle of mass reproduction lasts about five 
years, after which there is a period of "calmness" for another five years. 
This rhythm has been recorded since the year 1799 /8/. 

Other findings were reported^from America. Fierce, regular on- 
slaughts of cotton leafworms were recorded in the cotton belt of the USA, 
every 21 or 22 years, since the 1770's. The pest ravaged the crops (in 
many states almost completely) for 2 or 3 years, and disappeared again for 
18 or 19 years. The mass outbreaks were synchronous with the 22-year 
cycles of solar activity. Having established this fact, the American 
entomologists expected the oncomming outbreak of the parasite at the 
beginning of the 1950's. They prepared themselves to suppress this pro- 
liferation at its very beginning and succeeded in overcoming it by chemical 
means in the southern cotton-growing states. 

This fact proves quite conclusively the possibility and expediency of 
using heliophysical data for predicting many years in advance the mass 
outbreaks of certain species of insect pests. 

We may note that we predicted, 10 years in advance, outbreaks of this 
species, in Iran, Iraq, Arabia, India, and Pakistan on the basis of long- 
term studies of the biology and ecology of Schistocerca, started at the time 
of the massive locust invasion of Central Asia in 1929. The predictions 
were also based on all the available Soviet and foreign literature, and on 
the rhythmic fluctuations of precipitations in the zone of the subtropic 
deserts in Asia and Africa (peasants' keenness of observation and folklore 
recorded these rhythms long ago, since the times of the Pharaohs in 
ancient Egypt). Over a period of 30 years our forecasts have been con- 
firmed with an accuracy of months. 



334 




High-pressure zone 
Mediterranean anticyclone 
|^\\ Low-pressure zone 

» Direction of monsoon winds 

Directions of migrations of the 
"* swarms of Schistocerca of the mon 
soon generation 
750 750 1500km 



70 



FIGURE 1. Summer migrations of Schistocerca to zones of Mediterranean winter precipitation at the end of 
the summer monsoon. The baric contour comprises the second half of October and the months of November, 
December, and January, 

Let us now turn our attention to the vast territories of the northern 
regions of Kazakhstan and to West Siberia, where an unusually fierce mass 
outbreak of grain moth occurred in 1957. Neither the entomologists nor 
any of those concerned with agriculture expected this calamity. Although 
the onset of intensive proliferation of the grain moth was recorded in the 
previous year, the pest was almost forgotten owing to its suppressed state 
during the preceding 20 years. This parasite was never regarded by the 
agricultural workers as a dangerous pest, but suddenly, it spread with an 
unprecedented population explosion. We then started to study and 
summarize the available literature on previous outbreaks of the grain 
moth, searching, in particular, the archives of provincial "zemstvo"* 
offices and of other organizations including those in the area of the Urals. 
Thu_s, we learned of mass reproduction of the grain moth in these areas 
in the years 1885-1888, 1910-1912. 1935-1937, and 1956-1960, the latter 
of which involved millions of hectares of crops in the regions of northern 
Kazakhstan and partially in West Siberia. Between these devastating out- 
breaks of grain moths, moderate invasions were recorded every 
• ["Zemstvos" were organs of limited rural self-government in pre-Revolutionary Russia.] 



335 



10-12 years involving more limited areas, and were also noticed in other 
regions of the USSR. 



80 90 



100 



HO 




10 80 90 

FIGURE 2, Winter migrations of Schistocerca swarms into the zone of monsoon rains. The baric contour 
comprises the months June, July, August, September, and the first half of October. 

Many prominent entomologists attributed the mass outbreak of the grain 
moth in 1957-1959 to the start of extensive breaking up of virgin lands, and 
to the combines used for harvesting the crops, i. e. , to anthropogenic 
factors rather than to changes in weather conditions in the given areas. 
We certainly acknowledge the potent effect of human activities on the 
dynamics of insect populations, but we categorically disagree with the 
statement that solar radiation has no effect whatever on the proliferation of 
insects. According to Ya. I. Chugunin, "Meteorological factors do not and 
cannot affect fluctuations of the gypsy- moth population." 

Such antiscientific "theories" that nullify Michurin's basic biological 
principles concerning the effect of environment on the development of every 
organism, rather than promoting the development of our science, obstruct 
the way to our understanding the patterns existing in nature, and cause 
real damage to agriculture. 

Objections should be voiced unequivocally against such a primitive, 
antiscientific comment on the role in nature of that unique source of energy, 

336 



II 



the Sun, which exerts an incontestable, though very complex and often 
indirect influence over life on our planet. It induces changes in the 
atmospheric circulation, and hence in the weather conditions that govern 
insect breeding and the pathogenic microorganisms which attack them. 

Immediate steps should be taken toward research performed jointly by 
biologists and heliophysicists. The relevant literature should be 
thoroughly read and the new criteria applied in order to evaluate the 
methods of forecasting mass outbreaks of crop pests. 

It is regrettable that the majority of plant-protection experts ignore the 
wise statement made by one of the founders of Russian mieteorology, P. I. 
Brounov /9/: ". . . The barometric conditions together with the Sun con- 
stitute the basis of all processes on Earth, the basis of all life on Earth. . . 
The barometric conditions govern the winds, and the Sun governs humidity, 
temperature, cloudiness, precipitation, etc. , i. e. , the entire intricate 
complex of phenomena that constitute climate, upon which depend the soil, 
the vegetation, and the animal world." These statements not only give us 
the right but also compel us to emphasize the necessity of "raising our 
eyes toward the Sun," so to speak, to direct our thoughts toward a full 
understanding of those cosmic patterns and inexhaustible sources of energy 
(solar, wave, and corpuscular) which influence the physical and biological 
processes on Earth, including the biochemical changes in the cells of 
living organisms. 

Extremely valuable data were obtained during the recent International 
Geophysical Year and the following International Geophysical Cooperation. 
These years were specially selected because they included a period of solar 
maximum activity. 

The Soviet space satellites ("sputniks") and altitude rockets equipped 
with modern instruments were used for investigating the highly complex 
processes occurring inthefornoerly Inaccessible upper layers of the atmo- 
sphere. They revealed that extremely high-energy phenomena are